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War of 1812


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War of 1812

  1. 1. The War of 1812
  2. 2. The Movie
  3. 3. What information do you want to know about this situation?
  4. 4. Learning Goals • Analyze the causes of the War of 1812 • Discuss the impact of the War of 1812 on North America. • Explain to what extent impressment was a reason for war.
  5. 5. Events Leading to War • The Chesapeake Incident • Embargo Act (1807) Potential Exam Question Evaluate the effects of the Embargo Act on the U.S. economy. • Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809) • ature=related
  6. 6. The Chesapeake Incident • In 1806, British reports claim that Royal Navy deserters are aboard the USS Chesapeake • The British requested that they be returned, but James Madison investigated and found that they were U.S. citizens • An order called for the boarding of the USS Chesapeake upon sight to retrieve the deserters
  7. 7. The Chesapeake Incident • In 1807, the British vessel HMS Leopard spotted the frigate on its way to the Mediterranean • A messenger rowed to the Chesapeake to demand to board and take the deserters • When permission to board was denied, the Chesapeake was fired upon
  8. 8. Effects of the Incident • Four people died, 20 wounded, four captured, one hung, two were later repatriated, the fourth died • President Jefferson took this as an act of war, an attack on the sovereignty of the United States • Henry Clay and the “War Hawks” from southern and western states in congress pressure Madison for war.
  9. 9. Embargo Act • Reading  excerpt for the act • Prohibited U.S. ships from leaving the United States for foreign ports • Response to impressment of U.S. sailors How do you think this worked out for the United States? – Proved to be harmful to the economy
  10. 10. Treaty of fort Wayne • Delaware, Eel River, Miami tribe, and Potawatomi negotiated with U.S. • Shawnee lived on parts of the 3 million acres • Tecumseh opposes the treaty (reading)
  11. 11. Causes of the War 1. French and British navies seized cargo, especially from North American vessels 2. Impressment (USS Chesapeake) 3. Land at the head waters of the of the Ohio and the Missouri rivers; Canadian lands around the Great Lakes – Which part of Canada would this be? NOTE: Causes, Events Leading to, Reasons all refer to the same points/claims
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  13. 13. A House Divided • “War Hawks” of the West and South wanted lands (which meant voters) – John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY) • Southerners wanted Florida (Spain) • Election of 1812  politicians sided with war • Federalists did not want Canada (more agrarian voters – republicans) • New Englanders did not want to fight the British because of the damage done to the shipping industry To what extent is impressment a reason for war?
  14. 14. Course of the War • Prime Minister Lord Liverpool rescinded the search and seizure of U.S. vessels • Congress declared war before they received the message • First U.S. invasion of Canada was unsuccessful • Second invasion was an unsuccessful occupation (Treaty returned Upper Canada) • Napoleon is captured and Britain is all in
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  17. 17. The End • Treaty of Ghent (Belgium) is more an armistice • Nevertheless a status quo ante bellum • The troops don’t get the message
  18. 18. Significance of the Battle of New Orleans 1. Ended British operations against the United States 2. Established frontier myths 3. Began Jackson’s march to the presidency
  19. 19. After the War • Canada remained in control of the British • British quickly repair relations with the United States • Treaty of Rush-Bagot (1819) – Agreement to remove fleets from Great Lakes – Beginning of Anglo-America working together How did the War of 1812 impact North America?