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Invasion of Fort York April 27th, 1813


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A overview of the US invasion of Fort York( Toronto)

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Invasion of Fort York April 27th, 1813

  1. 1. April 27th2013Leaders, Fools and Opportunists Invasionof Muddy YorkPresentationGlenn McKnight and Robert Bell,FBSC
  2. 2. British8,600 DeathsEarly capture of Fort Dearborn,Michilimackinac, Fort Detroit,Fort Niagara and much of easternMaine1523 ships capturedMany prisoners25 Million pounds to the nationaldebtCanadaUnknown death Toll of Militiaand citizensUntold personal property lossfrom burning and looting ofpropertyHuman pain and sufferingCost of the WarUS11,600 DeathsCaptured Amherstburg and Sandwich (nowWindsor$90 million dollars or 2.2% of GDP or1.553 TrillionThe US Senate figured it would costanother $56 million to continue the war andthe US Treasury only had $15 million1,523 US Ships seized during the warSerious financial loss to commerce in theNew England statesNear bankruptcy
  3. 3. The ProjectHeritage Canada selected the Foundation for BuildingSustainable Communities, FBSC to commemorate the200thanniversary of the War of 1812Website. Mobile Phone apps. Mobile AugmentedReality Videos, Historical Geocaching, Audiorecordings and presentations
  4. 4. The Big Picture
  5. 5. “Strike wherever we can reachthe enemy, at sea and on land.But if we fail, let us fail likemen, lash ourselves to ourgallant gars, and expire togetherin one common struggle,fighting for free trade andseamans rights.”Henry Clay,House Speaker,US SenateDuring the War of 1812
  6. 6. AmericaPresident James Madison declared war on June 16, 1812Divided country on the war effort with New England states inoppositionMajor reason for declaration– Angry over the impressment of US Sailors into the BritishNavy– Military PreparednessAn army of less than 12,000A navy of 16 shipsPoor military leadershipOverconfident• According to Pres. Thomas Jefferson, The war was a`mere march to MontrealAmerican Perspective
  7. 7. BritainDue to the assassination of the British Prime Minister the Britishdidnt declare war until late December 1812Preoccupied with a long war in Europe against Napoleon 1803-1815.Britain was the most powerful empire in the world, withAn army of 48,000A navy of 600 warshipsBut .......only 1500 British soldiers in Upper CanadaBritish Perspective of War
  8. 8. The Aggressors8 million AmericansThree types of soldiers,The Idealist,Opportunists and theBlood ThirstyThe Targets500,000 Total settlers80,000 Upper Canada settlers– 35,000 Loyalist– 25,000 Later Loyalist– 20,000 Direct British3/4 former Americans14,000 Militia10,000 NativesThe Protagonists
  9. 9. June 16 – Declaration of WarJuly 17 – Capture of Fort MackinacAugust 15 – Fort Dearborn (Chicago)August 16 – Fort DetroitSeptember 3-6 – Western Raids1813October 13 – Queenston HeightsJanuary 22 – FrenchtownApril 27 – York (Toronto)1Battles Leading Up
  10. 10. Founded by Sir John Graves Simcoe in1789 as the capital of Upper Canada625 populationUndetermined number of hogs, sheepand other misc. cattleThe civil administrator was thesuccessor to Sir. Issac Brock wasMajor General Sir Roger Hale SheaffeLife in Muddy York
  11. 11. Built in 1793Size of garrison– 200 regular troops– Artillery•3 - 12 pounders•3 - 18 pounders (obsolete)Fort York
  12. 12. On April 26, the American invasion forcesof 14 ships were spotted from ScarboroughBluffs sailing from the eastMilitia was summoned by the signalcannonSheaffe confident that battle would startearly next day and took little actionAttack started at 8 amInvasion of York
  13. 13. On April 27th, 1813 AdmiralChauncey and General Dearbornsailed into York with a fleet of 14ships and 2,500 men300 British regulars, 300 militia and100 nativesMain prize to seize the Sir IssacBrock warship under constructionInvasion of York
  14. 14. Death ofGen. Zebulon Pike
  15. 15. The troops under Major General Sir RogerHale Sheaffe spiked the cannons andmustered their troops and fled out of YorkOnly the regulars knew of the orderA massive explosion from the gunpowermagazine killed or wounded 250AmericansExplosion was heard as far at Fort Georgeand OshawaFatal Explosion
  16. 16. Three Times a CharmThe Americansattacked two moretimes and on thethird and final visitthey were repelled
  17. 17. Leadershipin Crisis
  18. 18. Major General Sheaffeand his 150 troops ofBritish regulars plusmilitia made haste out ofYork, burning the DonBridgeThe citizens abandoned!Fools
  19. 19. Retreating soldiersstayed at the LyndeHouse which was oneof the DispatchStationsThey were robbed bythe soldiers of 83pounds.Lynde Family inWhitby
  20. 20. LeadersThe wreck of the Speedy in 1804created a power vacuum. Now therapid retreat of the British and Militiaand the looting of the Americantroops required strong leadership.One man stands out:Rev Dr John Strachan
  21. 21. LocalOshawaResponse
  22. 22. The cannon fire was heard as faras OshawaA group of local militia rushed todefend YorkLocal farmers reported seeing theBritish and militia fleeing fromYorkLocal Response
  23. 23. Moode Farewell and Wife
  24. 24. Local InvolvementLocal Oshawa militia upon arrival at MuddyYork were immediately captured by theAmericansThe York Militia records show that militia menparticipatedThey were imprisoned for a few days thenparoled.The Americans left on May 2nd,
  25. 25. OpportunistsOccupation lasted five daysBefore leaving they burned thelegislative buildings and looted homesand businessesUpon Americans retreat they andopened the store house and distributedgoods
  26. 26. ImpactTotal killed or wounded in the six-hourbattle were 157 British and 320Americans.5 Natives killed , inc. Two chiefs5 Natives wounded5 Militia killed5 Militia wounded22 Number of claims for losses
  27. 27. Retaliation forBurningofYork
  28. 28. Impact of the WarAmericansHuge financial costUnsuccessful in campaignFormation of a professionalarmyLicence to expand westOpen season on NativelandsBuilding of the Erie CanalBolster US manufacturingand cotton productionCanadiansBirth of legendsForging of an identityMilitary experience proved tobe critical in the formation ofcommunitiesBuilding and completion of theRideau Canal to bypass the StLawrence in 1832 from USblockadeTougher stance on USimmigration and intolerance toRepublican sentimentsSeeds set for the Rebellion of1837
  29. 29. Websitewww.1812waroshawa.comHistorical GeocachingAugmented Reality10 Part Video Series
  30. 30. Video SeriesPropaganda and an American SoldierRobbery of Local Homestead by MilitiaCompensation to local farmersUS POW CampConant`s GoldAttack on Oshawa HarbourTecumsehThe AmputationGeneral Issac BrockMary Henry, The other Heroine
  31. 31. Augmented RealityAll five of theGeocache locationshave a short ARvideo viewable froma smart phone
  32. 32. Mobile ApplicationApps for Android andIphone applicationsfor your SmartphoneAvailable at ITUNESand GOOGLEPLAYFREE
  33. 33. IPAD Mobile ApplicationA free IPAD Appfocused onHistoricalGeocachingAvailable at ITUNESFREE
  34. 34. ThanksHeritage CanadaFoundation for Building Sustainable CommunitiesOshawa Community MuseumImperial Arts ProductionsOshawa Little TheatrePickering VillageClarington MuseumDigital Deceptions
  35. 35. UpcomingDoors Open Oshawa on September 21stcomesee our demonstration gardens of the War of1812 and the Three Sisters Native plantings atthe Canadian Victory GardenAt Winchester (West of Simcoe Streets)
  36. 36. Learn MoreTo learn more about FBSC Projects visitHttp://