-he sank the ships to make it impossible for any soldiers who were loyal to Velazquez to defect from his expedition and return to Cuba
-read page 230-then read p. 229 –the section titled “Using an Intermediary”
-have students look at/evaluate the weaponry on page 223 then discuss which group had the advantage and why
-discuss the questions posed at the end of this reading
-this image from an Aztec codice is on their upcoming test-discuss what characteristics are most emphasized on the Spanish (armour and weapons)-ask students in terms of what is being depicted in this image, what they would give it as a title
Ch 10 a deadly meeting
A Deadly Meeting
- He believed that the recent changes in Spain made Spain a better place in which to live - he embodied the Spanish worldview of the time - “Gold, God, Glory”- He was very ambitious - when he heard of the gold that Columbus brought back from the Caribbean islands (known as the “New World”), he decided to go to the Caribbean (where Spain was building colonies) to find his own fortune
- He arrived in Hispaniola (present day Haiti) in 1504 - The governor then gave him a large farm - “But I cam to get gold, not till the land like a peasant!” - What does this comment reveal about his worldview?- He then joined an expedition to conquer a nearby island Cuba - The Spanish conquered Cuba using their usual formula….
The Conquistadors‟ Formula (p. 218)1. An expedition would set out from a recent colony.2. After landing in a new region, the Spansih would try to meet peacefully with the first groups of Indigenous people they encountered. (Their aim was to discover which group in the area was the most powerful.)3. The Spanish would invite the leader of that powerful group to a meeting to exchange gifts. The Spanish would then seize the leader and threaten to kill him unless his followers obeyed their orders.
The Conquistadors‟ Formula (cont‟d)4. If they did have to fight, the Spanish wouldtry to do so on open ground. (Their horses,armour, and weapons gave them a hugeadvantage.)5. The leader of the expedition would remain asgovernor of the new colony and his second-in-command would organize the next expedition.The Indigenous peoples would be forced intoslavery.
-these expeditions brought back reports that causedgreat excitement…-it seemed that this new land was home to acivilization that was stronger, more advanced, andwealthier than any group of people the Spanish hadyet encountered….the Aztecs Expeditions Were Sent to the Yucatan Peninsula
-feeling as though he was finally going to have thechance to claim his fortune, worked to financeand assemble his own expedition to the Yucatan-in a few short months he had 11 ships, 508 fightingmen, 100 sailors, 200 Indigenous slaves and 16horses
• first thing upon arriving, he established a town on the coast and declared an independent government • this meant that he was now responsible to the King and not to Velazquez (proves that Velazquez was right to worry about not recognizing his authority)• He then sent one ship to Spain with all of the treasure that he had collected to so far and then sank the other 10 ships • Why would he do that?
• After establishing his colony on the coast, Cortés decided that it was time to go to the heart of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan• Along the way he and his army ecountered a number of other Indigenous peoples – each time he encountered an Indigenous group, he changed is strategy….p. 230 • One of these groups was the Tabascan people – they were given gifts (food, clothing, gold and slaves) • One of these slaves was Malinche • She would prove to be the key to Cortés conquering the Aztec Empire
Doña Cortés Cortéscontinued his march to Tenochtitlan
• Both the Aztecs and the Spanish had powerful tools of war, but they weren’t evenly matched• Study page 223 and determine which side you think had the technological advantage
• Weapons & Technology (for instance the musket, crossbow, and steel)• Disease (the Aztecs were not resistant to smallpox)• Horses (these beasts fascinated and terrified the Aztecs and the Spanish used cavalry to attack)• Strong leadership with excellent strategy
• The earlier mentioned Conquistadors’ Formula with several important ‘sub-strategies’: • Use an intermediary to communicate with the Indigenous groups • Rally smaller Indigenous groups to join the fight against the Aztecs • Conquer any group that does not want to join the fight
• Moctezuma was aware that the Spanish were approaching• He waited and thought about what to do upon their arrival• When the Spanish arrived, Moctezuma decided to allow them to enter Tenochtitlan….• Read ‘Exploring Sources’ p. 231
• Now the Spanish see the Aztec‟s wealth• This creates an even stronger desire to lead this mighty society - and they eventually do…• Read pages 232-233
First Contact:the “Old World” and the “New World”
Summary of the Battle for Tenochtitlan• Spanish place Moctezuma under house arrest in his palace • They then looted the royal palaces and forced Moctezuma to declare himself a subject of Spanish rule• The Spanish then have to go „deal‟ with the arrival of new Spanish troops on the coast • While Cortés is gone to the coast, the men he leaves in charge of Tenochtitlan massacre some Aztec people
• Cortés returns to uproar in Tenochtitlan – he forces Moctezuma to speak to his people to calm them down, but it doesn‟t work – they threw stones at him • Moctezuma dies shortly after this• The Aztecs attack the Spanish and their allies, killed many of them and drove the rest out of Tenochtitlan• After 6 months, Cortés to attack Tenochtitlan with a stronger force, but finds that a smallpox epidemic killed a HUGE amount of the Aztec population• The Spanish cut the aqueducts to the city, then defeated the Aztecs after an 80 day siege• Cortés then laid the foundations for another Spanish colony in its place
• The Aztecs hear of strangers arriving on the coast- Cortés and the Spanish build a colony on the coast- Cortés and the Spanish march inland to Tenochtitlan, meeting other Indigenous groups along the way- Emperor Moctezuma allows the Spanish to enter Tenochtitlan
• The Spanish place Moctezuma under house arrest and force him to declare himself a subject under Spanish rule• Moctezuma dies• The city of Tenochtitlan is destroyed by the Spanish • The Spanish build a colony in its place