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The Civil War


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The Civil War

  1. 1. The Civil War
  2. 2. Pre-Civil War Unrest <ul><li>Abolitionist Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists believed… </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate freeing of slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is morally wrong, cruel and inhumane </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery violated the principles of democracy </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Abolitionist Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionist Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison: Northern newspaperman </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrick Douglass: former slave; orator </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Anti-Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Region </li></ul><ul><li>Favored tariffs to protect business and factory workers from foreign competition </li></ul><ul><li>Strong central government </li></ul>Issues that divided the Nation NORTH
  5. 5. <ul><li>Pro-slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Society (Small villages and large plantations) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed to tariffs that would increase price of manufactured goods England might not buy cotton from the South if tariffs were added </li></ul><ul><li>States rights </li></ul>Issues that divided the Nation SOUTH
  6. 6. Compromises to resolve differences Attempt to keep Congress equal- no side would have a majority- no side could “take over” Missouri Compromise Missouri (slave state), Maine (free state) Divided the Louisiana Purchase Compromise of 1850 California (free state), southwest territories could decide whether slave or free Kansas-Nebraska Act “ popular sovereignty” (people decided slavery issue) led to “Bleeding Kansas”
  7. 7. Southern Secession Following Lincoln’s election, southern states seceded from the Union Nation was one and could not be divided NORTH States had freely created the Union, and could leave freely SOUTH
  8. 8. Southern Secession Following Lincolns election southern states seceded from the Union formed the Confederacy CONFEDERATE STATES Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia SOUTH
  9. 9. BORDER STATES Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri Slave states that remained in the Union- even though they had slaves
  10. 10. <ul><li>President of the United States during the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed to slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Issued the Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Was determined to preserve the Union- by force if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the U.S. was one nation; NOT a collection of independent states </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Gettysburg Address- The Civil War was to preserve government “of the people, by the people, and for the people” </li></ul>Leaders of War ABRAHAM LINCOLN
  11. 11. <ul><li>General of the Union Army- defeated Lee at Appomattox </li></ul>Leaders of War ULYSSES S. GRANT <ul><li>President of the Confederate States of America </li></ul>JEFFERSON DAVIS
  12. 12. <ul><li>Leader of the Army of Northern Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Was offered command of the Union Army- chose not to fight against Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed secession- did not believe the Union should be held together by force </li></ul><ul><li>Urged a reuniting of Americans after the war </li></ul>Leaders of War ROBERT E. LEE
  13. 13. <ul><li>Skilled Confederate General from Virginia </li></ul>Leaders of War THOMAS &quot;STONEWALL&quot; JACKSON
  14. 14. <ul><li>Fort Sumter, South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Began the war- First shots were fired </li></ul><ul><li>First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) </li></ul><ul><li>First major battle </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Made freeing the slaves a new focus for the war </li></ul>Major battles and events of the Civil War
  15. 15. <ul><li>Battle of Vicksburg </li></ul><ul><li>Divided the SOUTH- North controlled the Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><li>Turning point of the war- North repelled Lee’s invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Appomattox Courthouse, VA- </li></ul><ul><li>Lee surrenders to Grant to end Civil War (1865) </li></ul>Major battles and events of the Civil War
  16. 16. Location and topography had an influence on critical developments of the Civil War <ul><li>Union blockade of southern port cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannah, Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charleston, South Carolina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Orleans, Louisiana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of the Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Vicksburg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battle locations- influenced by the attempt to capture capital cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richmond, Virginia (Confederate Capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington, D.C. (Union Capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of high ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Gettysburg </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Life on the battlefield and on the homefront was hard </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Families and friends were against one another </li></ul><ul><li>Southern troops became increasingly young, poorly equipped and clothed </li></ul><ul><li>South devastated at the end of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of Atlanta & Richmond </li></ul><ul><li>Disease was a major killer </li></ul><ul><li>Combat was brutal (man-to-man) </li></ul>Effects of the Civil War
  18. 18. <ul><li>Life on the battlefield and on the homefront was hard </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of the South made Confederate money worthless </li></ul><ul><li>Clara Barton- Civil War nurse- created the Red Cross </li></ul>Effects of the Civil War
  19. 19. <ul><li>GENERAL EFFECTS ON AFRICAN AMERICANS </li></ul><ul><li>Fought on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Paid less than white soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>South used them as naval crew members and soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Union tried to enlist African-American sailors early in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminated against- served in segregated units under the command of white officers </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Smalls- sailor and later a Union naval captain- honored for bravery and heroism- became Congressman after the War </li></ul>Effects of the Civil War
  20. 20. <ul><li>Effects of Reconstruction after the Civil War were harsh and created problems in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Southern military leaders could not hold office </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners resented “carpetbaggers” who took advantage of the South </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans held public office </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans gained equal rights with the </li></ul><ul><li>CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Authorized use of federal troops to enforce the law </li></ul><ul><li>Northern soldiers supervised the South </li></ul>Reconstruction