1850 1862 1864 1867The Bessemer The Homestead Act When the Cheyenne Oliver Kelley startedProcess is cheap was a law enacted returned to the Patrons ofand efficient process that provided 160 Colorado’s Sand Husbandry, anfor making steel acres in the West to Creek Reserve for organization forwhich was any citizen who was the winter, Colonel farmers that becamedeveloped by British head of household John Chivington and popularly known asmanufacturer Henry and would cultivate his troops the Grange andBessemer and the land for five descended on encouraged familiesAmerican William years. This law led to Cheyenne and that to promote theKelly. The technique settlers claiming Arapaho camped at economic well-beinginvolved injecting air private property Sand Creek. The of the communityinto molten iron to previously reserved attack at dawn on and agriculture.remove carbon and for Native Americans. November 29, 1864other impurities. killed over 150 inhabitants.
1869 1870 1870 1870The Transcontinental In the 1870’s, trusts Long drives are the At age 21, JacobRailroad was became important. moving of cattle over Riis left Denmark forcompeted in 1869, Participants in a trails to a shipping the United States.liking the Atlantic and trust turned their center. There was He found work as aPacific coasts of the stock over to a normally one cowboy police reporter whichUnited States. This group of trustees- to about every 250 exposed him to Newrailroad allowed people who ran the head of cattle, a cook York City’s slums.nationwide separate companies who drove the chuck He was shocked attransportation that as one large wagon and set up the conditions in theunited the country. corporation. In camp, and a wrangler overcrowded, return, the who cared for the airless, filthy companies were extra animals. Trail tenements and entitled to dividends bossed supervised expressed these on profits earned by the drive and hardships through the trust. negotiated with writing. settlers.
Greensward 1871 1873 1875 1875Fredrick Law Andrew Carnegie Kickbacks, Tammany Hall wasOlmstead was a moved from Scotland overpayments of New York City’slandscape architect to America and worked government money powerful Democraticwho helped draw up a his way up to become that were political machineplan for “Greensward” private secretary of the “kickbacked” to headed by Bosswhich was selected to local boss of the government officials, Tweed. The Tweedbecome Central Park Pennsylvania Railroad. were very common Ring was a corruptin New York City. He He bought stock and around this time. organization thatalso planned made his own fortune. Boss Tweed ran aslandscaping for In 1873, he founded part of TammanyWashington, DC, and the Carnegie Steel Hall.St. Louis. He also Factory. He improveddrew the initial manufacturingdesigns for one of operation andBoston’s park controlled almost all ofsystems. the steel industry.
1876 1876 1876 1876George Armstrong Alexander Graham The National Thomas Alva EdisonCuster reported in Bell, along with Farmers’ Alliance established the1874 that the Black Thomas Watson, groups included world’s first researchHills had lots of gold. invented the people who laboratory in MenloIn June 1876, he telephone. sympathized with Park, New Jersey.and his troops farmers. Lecturers of He later perfectedreached the Little this group traveled the incandescentBighorn River where educating and light bulb andthey met Native persuading people invented an entireAmericans. The about lower interest system for producingIndians crushed rates on loans and and distributingCuster’s troops government control electricity.killing all of them over railroads andwithin an hour. banks. Membership in the group grew to more than 4 million.
1876 1877 1877 1880The Battle of Little Chief Joseph The Nez Perce was a Social Darwinism isBighorn occurred succeed his father group of Native an economic andwhen Colonel Custer (Tuekakas) as the American people who social philosophyand his troops met leader of the lived in the Pacific based on CharlesNative Americans at Wallowa band of Northwest region of the Darwin’s theory ofthe Little Bighorn Nez Perce when the United States. In 1877, evolution by naturalRiver. The Native United States they were ordered to a selection. ThisAmericans, led by government forcibly reservation by the U.S. theory was used byCrazy Horse, Gall, removed them from government and philosopher Herbertand Sitting Bull, their land in Wallowa refused to go. They fled Spencer to explaincrushed Custer’s Valley to a to Canada and fought the evolution oftroops. Within an reservation in Idaho the U.S. Army along the human society.hour, Custer and all in 1877. way. After five days ofof the men of the fighting, few Nez PerceSeventh Cavalry remained after they hadwere dead. been defeated.
1880 1880 1880 1880Segregation, the The Gilded Age was a Sweat shop was a John D. Rockefeller establishedseparation of people time of enormous negatively connoted the Standard Oil Company andbased on the basis growth in the United term for any working used a trust to gain total controlof race, was a States, railroads being environment of the oil industry in America. Hecontroversial issue the major industry. The considered to be reaped huge profits by paying hisduring this time. North and West thrived unacceptably employees low wages andSouthern states while the South difficult or driving competitors out ofpassed laws to remained economically dangerous. business by selling his oil at aseparate white and devastated from the lower price than in cost toblack people in Civil War. African produce it. Once he controlledpublic and private Americans were the market, he hiked prices farfacilities. stripped of many above original levels. He gave rights. Rights for away a lot of money and blacks, tariff policies, established the Rockefeller and monetary policies Foundation, provided funds to were dominant issues. found the University of Chicago, and created a medical institute.
1881 1881 1881 1883Sitting Bull was the Gafts, the illegal use Booker T. Washington The Pendleton Civilleader of the Hunkpapa of political influence was an African Service Act was aSioux who was a for personal gain, American educator law enacted thatwarrior, spiritual leader, were a large part of who believed that established aand medicine man. He political corruption racism would end bipartisan civilbelieved whites should during this time. when blacks acquired service commissionleave Sioux territory. useful labor skills and to makeHis most famous fight proved their economic appointments towas at the Little Bighorn value to society. He government jobs byRiver. Bull surrendered was born enslaved and means of the meritto the government in graduated from system based on1881 and was killed by Virginia’s Hampton candidates’Native American police Industrial Institute in performance on an9 years later. Alabama. He aimed to examination. equip blacks with useful skills for jobs.
1884 1884 1885 1886Scab was a Mugwumps were Dumbbell tenements A settlement housederogatory term Republican political were built in New was a communityused to describe activists who bolted York City to center providingpeople who would from the Republican accommodate assistance tocross picket lines. Party by supporting immigrants. The residents, particularlyThey were strike Democratic candidate name is derived immigrants in a slumbreakers. Grover Cleveland in from the shape of neighborhood. These the 1884 Presidential the building’s houses were run by election. They footprint of a middle-class, college- switched because dumbbell. educated women. The they rejected the houses provided financial corruption educational, cultural, associated with and social services, It Republican candidate offered classes, health James G. Blain. care, and support for women.
1887 1850 1888 1862 1888 1864 1867 1888The Dawes Act was a Poll taxes were Southern States added George Eastmanlaw that was intended to created as annual the Grandfather Clause developed a series“Americanize” Native taxes that had to be to their constitutions. It of more convenientAmericans by distributing paid before qualifying stated that even if a man alternatives to thereservation land to to vote. Black and failed the literacy test or heavy glass platesindividual Indian owners- white sharecroppers could not afford a poll previously used in160 acres to each head were often too poor to tax, he was still entitled photography.of household and 80 pay these poll taxes. to vote if he, his father, Photographers couldacres to each unmarried or his grandfather had use more flexibleadult. The government been eligible to vote film and send it to awould sell the remainder before January 1, 1867. studio forof the reservations to Before that date, freed processing. Hesettlers, and the resulting slaves did not have the introduced theincome would be used right to vote. This law Kodak camera inby Native Americans to prevented blacks from 1888.buy farm implements. voting.
1889 1890 1890 1890Jane Addams was Jim Crow Laws were George Angel Island was aan influential laws enacted by Westinghouse was place in Sanmember of the Southern States and an entrepreneur and Francisco Bay,Social Gospel local governments to engineer who California, wheremovement who separate white and invented the railway immigrants from thefounded the Hull black people in public air brake and was a West Coast arrivedHouse in 1889 along and private facilities. pioneer of the and gainedwith Ellen Gates electrical industry. admission to theStarr. This was a He founded the United States.settlement home Westinghouse These immigrantslocated near Electric Corporation. were primarily fromChicago, Illinois. Asia.
1890 1890 1890 1890Culture shock is The Ghost Dance America became Political machinespersonal was a movement that known as a melting were organizeddisorientation that a spread rapidly among pot because of the groups thatperson may feel the 25,000 Sioux an mixture of people controlled politicalwhen experiencing the Dakota from different parties in a city andan unfamiliar way of reservation. It was cultures and races offered services tolife due to based on a prophet who blended voters andimmigration. who promised that if together by businesses in Sioux performed a abandoning their exchange for ritual called the Ghost native languages political and financial Dance, Native and cultures. support. American lands and way of life would be restored.
1890 1890 1891 1892On December 28, The Sherman Collective bargaining The Omaha Platform was a party program1890, the Seventh Antitrust Act was a was a process of that adopted theCavalry rounded up law enacted that was negotiations convention of the350 starving and intended to prevent between employersfreezing Sioux and the creation of and a group of Populist Party held in Omaha, Nebraska ontook them to a camp at monopolies by employees aimed at July 4, 1892. TheWounded Knee Creek making it illegal to reachingin South Dakota. The establish trusts that agreements that Preamble was by Ignatius L. Donnelly.next day, soldiers interfered with free regulate working The planksdemanded that the trade. conditions. represented theIndians give up theirweapons. A shot was Farmers’ Alliance concerns, free-fired and the soldiers currency monetarism,opened fire killing 300 and endorsing themostly unarmed Native goals of the UrbanAmericans. Knights of Labor.
1894 1894 1895 1895Eugene Vs. Debs When businesses fell Ellis Island was a Urbanization, theattempted to form an in 1894, George popular immigration growth of cities, wasindustrial union- the Pullman cut jobs and station located in expanding especiallyAmerican Railway wages in a plant and New York Harbor. in the regions of theUnion (ARU). Union increased working Immigrants were Northeast andmembers were hours in order to given medical Midwest.mostly unskilled and lower costs and keep examinations,semiskilled laborers, profits, but not rents governmentbut engineers and or prices in his town. inspections, andfiremen joined too. His workers launched various tests. EllisIn 1894, the new the Pullman Strike Island was the chiefunion won a strike which was eventually immigration stationfor higher wages. broken up by federal with an estimated 17Membership troops. million immigrants.eventually grew to150,000.
1895 1896 1897 1901William Randolph In Plessy vs. Ferguson, the Ragtime was a MonopoliesHurst purchased the Supreme Court ruled that blend of African developed whichNew York Morning the separation of races in spirituals and was a completeJournal and also public places was legal and European musical control over it’sowned the San did not violate the forms, which industry’sFrancisco Examiner. Fourteenth Amendment. It originated in the production, wages,He tried to out-do his began when Homer Plessy saloons of the and prices achievedcompetitors by filling was seated in the “whites South. This style by a firm that buysthe Journal with only” car and refused to later led to jazz, rock out all itsexaggerated tales of move. He was arrested, ‘n’ roll, and the competitors.personal scandals, tried, and convicted in the blues.cruelty, hypnotism, District Court of Newand imaginary Orleans for breakingconquest of Mars. Louisiana’s segregation law. He appealed, and sent the trial to Supreme Court.
1902 1903 1900s 1900sDebt Peonage was a Brothers Orville and Literary tests were Vaudeville was asystem in which Wilbur Wright, bicycle voting restrictions theatrical genre thatworkers were bound manufacturers from imposed in the includedin servitude until their Dayton, Ohio, worked Southern States to performances ofdebts were paid to on planes. They first limit blacks’ votes. song, dance,their employer. built a glider, then a The tests for blacks juggling, slapstick four-cylinder internal were very hard and comedy, and a combustion engine. sometimes written in female chorus. Their first successful different languages, Promoters sought flight was on making it almost large audiences with December 17, 1903 impossible to pass. various backgrounds at Kitty Hawk, North Officials could pass to display various Carolina. The flight or fail applicants as cultures. covered 120 feet and they wished which lasted 12 seconds. allowed for discrimination against blacks.