Causes of the Civil War


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Causes of the Civil War

  1. 1. Causes of the Civil War Stewing up trouble and turning up the heat
  2. 2. Our Ingredients Slavery Fugitive Slave Act Dred Scott Election of Abraham Lincoln Bleeding Kansas Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 John Brown’s Raid Harpers Ferry Kansas Nebraska Act States Rights Uncle Tom’s Cabin Cultural Differences
  3. 3. Uncle Tom’s Cabin <ul><li>Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>vivid characters, dramatic incidences, showed slavery as a cruel and brutal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired strong feelings in the North and the South </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners felt a stronger urge to abolish slavery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners felt even more threatened . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s cabin, the Broth or base for our stew, helps to flavor the issue of Slavery in both the North and the South. = &quot;So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war.“ Abraham Lincoln
  5. 5. Missouri Compromise 1820 Compromise of 1850 Missouri Compromise preserved the balance between free and slave states , and ended the debate in Congress over slavery in new states and territories – for a while Maine = FREE state Proposed by Henry Clay Missouri = SLAVE state
  6. 6. Missouri Compromise (1820) and Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>Why an issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Continued the conflict over slavery and the attempt to maintain a balance between slave and free states. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of Power… </li></ul><ul><li>North and South continued to look for ways to change this balance and gain control. </li></ul>Potatoes take a while to prepare, they must be cleaned and peeled and act as a filler in the stew. These two compromises were issues that filled the county with conflict, but never addressed the problem.
  7. 7. Kansas-Nebraska Act
  8. 8. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 <ul><li>Opened the door for slavery in the Kansas and Nebraska territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased the tension and mistrust between the North and the South. </li></ul>Kansas and Nebraska are both known for growing corn. Stephen A. Douglas proposed that states choose for themselves whether to be free or slave states; popular sovereignty
  9. 9. Bleeding Kansas <ul><li>Pro- slavery and anti- slavery groups rushed to the territories, armed themselves, and fought for control . </li></ul>Tomatoes and Blood are both red.
  10. 10. Dred Scott Dred Scott Chief Justice Taney FREEDOM
  11. 11. The Dred Scott Decision <ul><li>Slaves = property. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves are not citizens not protected under the U.S. constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise = unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>popular sovereignty = unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>outraged abolitionist in the North, pleased Southerners, dividing the country more than ever. </li></ul>Dred Scott thought he was a free man, sweet peas , the onions make you cry when you find out he was considered property and not free.
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Rights and powers independent of the federal government that are reserved for the states by the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that states rights supersede federal rights and law. </li></ul></ul>States Rights State’s Rights was a hot topic, constantly heating up the differences between the North and South.
  13. 13. Cultural Differences <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>Center of Manufacturing , </li></ul><ul><li>Favored high protective tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>strongly opposed to slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient roads and transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Cities </li></ul>The North and the South had very different societies and cultures. Each was very loyal to their distinct region (Sectionalism)
  14. 14. Cultural Differences South <ul><li>Economy based on agriculture . </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations grew cash crops, cotton. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed tariff on manufactured goods </li></ul><ul><li>Favored Slavery . </li></ul>The North and the South were as different as salt and pepper.
  15. 15. Fugitive Slave Act 1850 <ul><li>Required citizens to help capture slaves who had run away. </li></ul><ul><li>People who helped runaways could be fined or imprisoned. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Northern juries often refused to convict people accused of breaking this. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fugitive Slave Act Carrots grow underground and slaves were often caught and returned even though they often hid underground. Also C aught and C arrots both start with C. Conditions under the Fugitive Slave Act helped create the Underground Railroad.
  17. 17. Raid on Harpers Ferry <ul><li>October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown led a raid on an arsenal at Harpers Ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim was to spark a slave uprising. </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown’s death = rallying cry for abolitionists. </li></ul><ul><li>Fears of a great northern conspiracy confirmed. </li></ul>This event was the meat of the idea that the North had a Conspiracy against the South.
  18. 18. Lincoln/Douglas Debates <ul><li>Senate Race in Illinois in 1858. Senator Stephen Douglas vs. the little known Abraham Lincoln. Douglas was against slavery personally, but believed that popular sovereignty would resolve the issue without interfering with national unity. Lincoln also personally opposed slavery, but thought there was no easy way to eliminate it where it already existed. He thought the solution was to prevent its spread into the territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates leading up to the election. The seven debates took place between August and October 1858. Slavery was the main topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas won the Election but Lincoln gained a national reputation. Southerners were feeling increasingly threatened by antislavery movement in the Republican Party. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Election of 1860 <ul><li>Lincoln opposed slavery, but thought there was no easy way to eliminate it. </li></ul><ul><li>He thought the solution was to prevent its spread into the territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln won the election. </li></ul>Abraham Lincoln was tall and skinny like a string bean.
  20. 20. South Secedes Stirring the pot… <ul><li>November 20, 1860, South Carolina secedes, others states follow February 1861. </li></ul><ul><li>February 4, 1861 Confederate States of America created, Jefferson Davis elected president. </li></ul><ul><li>South grievance against US = not enforcing Fugitive Slave Act, denied Southern states equal rights in the territories violating their contract with the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s inaugural speech secession = unlawful and would not be permitted; pleaded for reconciliation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Firing on Fort Sumter <ul><li>Confederate army opens fire on the fort April 12, 1861. </li></ul><ul><li>Union forces surrender April 14, with no loss of life on either side. </li></ul><ul><li>The Civil War begins… </li></ul>These were the events that kicked off the Civil War, in other words, turned up the heat.