What is a hybrid ecosystem?
• Hybrid refers to the structural property of the
world that is achieved by deliberate blending
of geographical spaces with collabora1ve
environments (such as blogs, microblogs,
wikis, social repositories and ‐networks).
• The borders of geographical spaces and
par1cipatory soSware environments can be
blurred or eliminated embedding ar1facts
What is a hybrid ecosystem?
• Ecosystem term together with its explanatory
sub‐concepts place and niche describes how such
hybrid geographical places and par1cipatory
soSware environments together with their users
also represent a complex func1onal system.
– Place is a personally meaningful spot in the
surrounding environmental space, containing holis1c
conglomera1on of events, objects, emo1ons and
ac1ons of an individual in the place .
– A niche in our context is a community‐speciﬁc and
community‐determined subspace in hybrid ecosystem,
an op1mally meaningful region for the community.
What is a hybrid ecosystem?
• Hybrid ecosystem is an ecologist view to the
dynamic system consis1ng of an augmented
space in which ac1vi1es of people with
various ar1facts in geographical loca1ons
using par1cipatory social soSware create a
feedback loop to this space that inﬂuences the
evolu1on of communi1es and determines
their interac1on in this space.
Hybrid space and narra1ve self
• The everyday ac1vi1es of many networked
individuals ﬂow and connect real world with
• The extension beyond our real spaces towards
virtual ones makes us distributed beings
spa1ally and ac1vity‐based.
• Is a hybrid narra,ve one of our new way of
Favorite digital extensions in hybrid
Can we map our
ac1vity ﬂow and
our narra1ves in
We hybridize places
• In the course of ac1on we hybridize places, enabling
for ourselves interac1on with the space using tangible,
visible, audible, olfactory cues.
• We no1ce, use and signify meaningful dimensions of
the space and make them into our places.
• We extend ourselves into the hybrid space, being part
of our places through ac1vi1es, emo1ons and
• Hybrid ecosystem func1ons as a result of our hybrid
percep1on as a peculiar explora1ve strategy.
Understanding aspects of human cogni,on
We have diﬀerent perspec1ves
to places but some1mes
perspec1ves overlap Narra1ves can be
embedded to the
We can experience
and share and
narra1ves in virtual
Engineering innova,ve How?
learning environments for collabora,on
Ontospace as a representa1on of
• Hybrid ecosystem can be visualised as an ontospace
• Ontospace dimensions – such as tags deﬁne the abstract space…
what we do then can be called ontobranding
• So ontospace is deﬁned boAom up way, it contains soS ontology
• Ideally ontospace can have geocoordinates, meaning coordinates,
also coordinates in virtual world
• Taking a perspec7ve… deﬁning my place in ontospace during ac1on,
for example during narra1ve ac1on
• Niche is a community space in ontospace
• We always try to adopt our behaviors so that we ﬁt into the niche
• Each individual of the community leaves signals and longer traces as
a trajectory to ontospace, thus deﬁning the community niche.
• Hybrid ecosystem is always in the evolving state
Characteris1cs of design experiments
• Design experiments are:
– Mediated by innova1ve technology,
– Embedded in everyday social contexts,
– Models that help to test new learning paradigms,
– Useful to create fundamental scien,ﬁc
understanding of learning and knowledge‐building.
• Challenges of design experiments:
– Complexity of real‐world situa,ons and their
resistance to experimental control,
– Large amounts of data arising from a need to
combine ethnographic and quan1ta1ve analysis,
– Comparing across designs.
link rss link link
Course registra1on, Course tasks and reﬂec1on Course monitoring
link link, rss link
Design‐based research tes1ng theories
What is our theory of How is storytelling in
construc1ng narra1ves in hybrid reality performed
hybrid ecologies? eﬀec1vely?
Storytelling in new media
• We may try to reintroduce old formats of
ﬁc1on in new social soSware environments.
– A typical approach is to segment the story into
small chapters, making it available to the broad
audience who is allowed to rate or comment the
• Yet, it is important to ﬁnd out, which
completely new storytelling standards might
emerge in hybrid ecosystem.
Imaginary obtains geographical
Imaginary town created from people’s stories
My father would
go to look sea in
Cliﬀs and take a
beer in local
Diﬀerent modes of wri1ng may express diﬀerent
rela1onships to space and mobility.
Experiencing “Shadow of the wind” in Barcelona: a
hybridized story in geographical loca1ons
to develop systems & methods
Which theories are applicable?
Which tools and
methods might work?
Visibility within hybrid ecosystems
Ecosystems are not closed to visitors and contributors
• Describes self‐organizing behavior in popula1ons by
which local interac,ons between decentralized simple
agents can create complex global swarming behavior.
• Every agent is only responsible for its individual
• Swarm intelligence refers to systems which accomplish
complex global tasks through the simple local
interac1ons of autonomous agents.
• Swarm intelligence relies upon the emergent
proper1es of its components to manifest itself.
Emergence is the process by which complex paAerns
form out of the interac1on of simpler rules.
AAractors are leS on the trail
• Foraging is a behavior of
loca1ng food and
transpor1ng it back to the
• The ants are individuals
responding to their own Deposit aDractant pheromone on
sensory informa1on and the trail from food.
pheromone signals. Follow the pheromone up its
concentra,on gradient to the
• Pheromones are chemical source.
basis for ant communica1on Increase pheromone concentra,on
to aAract more.
deposited/detected by ants. This posi,ve feedback loop
produces a swarm of ants to quickly
transport the food source.
Individuals become trail markers
• For a low density of individuals it is beneﬁcial to
use linear chains to form a path for search.
• With high density of individuals, a more branched
structure is a beAer choice for search.
Campo & Dorigo, 2008
AAractor is connected with building blocks
In the ﬁrst, a termite picks up a soil
pellet, mas1cates it into a paste and
injects a termite‐ aArac1ng
pheromone into it.
When the pellet is deposited, the
pheromone s1mulates nearby
termites to pellet‐gathering
behavior and makes them more
likely to deposit their pellets nearby.
Second, small obstacles in the
terrain s1mulate pellet deposits and
can seed pillars.
Finally, a trail pheromone allows
more workers to be drawn to a
construc1on site. Building the termite nest is a swarming behavior
Types of communica1on in swarms
• altering the environment
• reading informa,on from the environment
For example, when an individual ﬁnds some
loca1on of interest it deposits a chemical
signal, which draws other agents to it.
By using this method the environment itself
becomes a shared memory.
Detect the signal
Finding food Following the from the
signal trail environment
leaving signal trail Analogy
Fading in 1me
• In social swarms individuals rely on the swarm
• Swarm level ac1vi1es create condi1ons for
INDIVIDUAL AS A
Quan1ta1ve deﬁni1on of swarm
• Performance gains through swarming occurs
when a cri,cal mass of agents come together and
enter a posi,ve feedback loop.
• Explicit use of the environment in agent
interac1ons means that environmental dynamics
are directly integrated into the system’s control,
and in fact can enhance system performance.
Narra1ve cues in swarms
• Swarms are communi1es in which decision‐
making takes place based on cues/traces leS
by individual swarm members in the
environment or picked up from their real
• These cues may be small narra1ve or visual
pierces or longer stories.
Detect the signal
Dis1nguishing Previous disturbance
No1cing a story
Detec1ng aAractor Analogy Selected no1cing
Following the from the
signal trail environment
Collec1ng and Collabora1ng,
leaving signal trail cloning the
Increasing aAractor Modifying the signal
Expanding, transla1ng, interpre1ng
Awareness in ﬂickr and twiAer
Standards: Monitoring mashed
narra1ves is most popular
Hybrid graﬃ1 ﬂows between the real
place and the virtual narra1ve
Your emo1on ﬁlters the story
Smile and the world
will smile back:)
In Red Narra1ve, I tried to express my emo1ons visually (signs, leAers, places, abstract
shapes). I chose red because this color is expression of hidden hyper feelings and thoughts
(trying to come over the sickness, par1cipa1ng in diﬀerent events, avoiding the depressive
moments, some failures in studies, errors in some situa1ons, organiza1ons, contrasts of
emo1ons, lack of sun, winter, spring feelings, etc). This is a conceptual collec1on of
“similar” photos labeled in “red”.
Image repositories as triggers of
How would you describe happiness?
Entangled dimensions as triggers
Perceiving several dimensions
simultaneously enables to tag
loca1vely ac1vi1es, emo1ons
and even these percep1ons
that we cannot really transfer
through virtual reality.
Playing with literary narra1ves
From the legend
Estonia is a country of legends.
'When you ﬂy into Estonia,
you go over Lake Ülemiste,
which lies high up to the east
of the city. The lake has an
inhabitant, according to local
myth – the 'Ülemiste
Elder' (Ülemiste vanake), who
by legend comes to the city
gates every Thursday and asks
'Is Tallinn ﬁnished yet?' To
which the residents answer,
'No, not yet' – if they answer
'yes', the ﬁgure would then
ﬂood the city.
Referencing on literature
Gosh! I never thought I would
see Voldemort statue... I
mean You Know Who... Hope
he is not a social network
Contras1ng subjects and environment
Be classy even if You are
on trash bin!
Places are powerful triggers
Embedding feelings to places
Themes are followed
Buildings and places are personiﬁed and loaded emo1onally
Collabora1on: ac1vity on the picture
Dedica1ng content as a
form of collabora1on
A tram narra1ve example
Adding content to another story
• Yesterday I walked around and
recorded some city sounds ‐ like
tram and trolleybuses speaking
out next stop names, voices on
the streets and so on. Had an
idea that maybe Geroli would
like to enrich her
tram narra1ve with a sound ﬁle
as well. But of course I picked
the wrong tram :)
Picking up traces and ac1ng in
Mixed body parts
• As in previous projects there were less people on
images I came up with the idea of new narra1ve using
parts of bodies in urban environment and trace the
dimension of urban hybrid being, thus research how
diﬀerent people perceive and par1cipate.
• For this experiment common tag besides
#narra1veecology is mixedbodies and then for
par1cular images ‐ head, foot, torso, arm.
• In ﬂickr you can easily organise photos in a batch
(rotate, add tags, geo loca1on to all needed pictures at
once and send them to the group sets ;).
The ﬂickr group is created
Mixed body parts and you are welcome to
add your body parts.
It is not easy to trigger par1cipa1on
Commen1ng as a form of no1cing
Embedding ac1on triggers to the hybrid space
I don’t exactly know what this
pain1ng represents, but it caught
my eye. On one hand it made me
think of panthers hiding, on the
other hand I was thinking of
Do you see something else in it?
Mapped stories: Narra1ve
paths in the city
Make your narra1ves sequen1al on the map by using My
maps of the Google Map.
Start a map and draw your path on the map.
The Flickr images can be pulled as a new layer on top of
your personal map and you can search only speciﬁc tags
enrich your map.
Following the trace in town and
I can follow his trail hihihihi…
Collabora1ng on “Hats”
OAavio ‐ #narra1veecology hats! ‐ photo: hAp://
Used by Geroli
Reused by Auli
Originally uploaded by Olga
Let’s imagine that you wish to collaborate on the map.
One person switches on one tag dimension and adds
something on the collabora1ve map.
Another collaborator may switch on totally diﬀerent tag
and the images direct to make more adds on the map.
Stories as narra1ve dimensions
The tag onto‐space of my stories
I have wriAen three stories:
‘an ecology story’ is about my percep1ons related to theory of narra1ve ecology;
‘an invasion story’ is about natural world invading as ar1facts; and
‘ sustainable message story’ is about messages that are recycled on ar1facts.
• Par1cipa1ng in social networks resides on social
• However, when many transac1ons are
aggregated, paDerns become visible.
• Narra1ve paAerns may be used to assemble a
detailed proﬁle revealing the ac1ons, habits,
beliefs, loca1ons frequented, social connec1ons,
and preferences of the individual.
• Swarms can use it as environmental informa1on
to adopt them beDer to the environment.
• Involves community‐based recording of an
ac1vity from the perspec1ve of a par1cipant
in the ac1vity.
• Personal sousveillance is the art, science, and
technology of personal experience capture,
processing, storage, retrieval, and
• In social networks
• Swarm decides, leads
and makes its own
• The main is triggering
swarm and leaving
Marke1ng swarms by Chuck Brymer
• Today, we are dealing with a swarm where people
gather and deposit informa1on with the collec1ve
intelligence of an en1re social network.
• Ul1mately the swarm decides whether your brand is a
peer or a predator, and does so quickly and
• Since you only control part of this informa1on, it will
become more cri1cal than ever to engage the people
who inﬂuence swarm communi,es.
• Once a swarm has been launched, human overseers
can observe its emerging behavior and intervene on an
Swarm marke1ng of shoes for na1onal dance party in
Facebook, Microblog and social repositories (eg. Flickr)
Untrustworthy communica1on is
• An enemy trying to conceal the search target,
may spread false signals to aAract the agents
to a loca1on of liAle interest.
• Strategy: respond to an external signal only if
it passes a threshold value.
• Strategy: in case of detected communica1on
disturbance enter to an isola,on state for a
1me and act independently not responding to
Swarm marke1ng of na1onal items in Facebook
What happens if compe1ng brand uses
swarming in same ecosystem?
• What kind of aAractors work in the hybrid
• Can these aAractors be used for triggering
• Monitoring swarm paAerns becomes essen1al to
sell beAer, to trigger for swarming, but how can
we monitor automa1cally?
• Can we avoid being monitored without harming
swarming? What and where to restrict access,
and think of security?
Contact: Kai Pata firstname.lastname@example.org