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The Case of the Disengaged Distance Learner

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Learner engagement is key to meaningful and deep learning. However, most online instruction provides abundant content with minimal opportunities for learners to interact and engage with that content. But it doesn’t have to be that way. Based on solid research and years of experience teaching with technology, This presentation explores practical and inexpensive methods to infuse online learning programs with engagement, interactivity, and fun.

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The Case of the Disengaged Distance Learner

  1. 1. Twitter:@kkapp The Quest for Learner Engagement By Karl M. Kapp Distance Teaching and Learning Conference Professor , Bloomsburg University Author: Gamification of Learning and Instruction
  2. 2. For: Notes/Slides Additional Ideas www.karlkapp.com www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes
  3. 3. Let’s Get Started
  4. 4. What game elements are used?
  5. 5. Lunchtime Theatre Presents
  6. 6. Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office, like a Dean who had a problem that needed solved … Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office, like a Dean who had a problem that needed solved … Hi Dean.
  7. 7. I have a problem that needs to be solved.
  8. 8. We need more engagement. She wanted to increase online student engagement and have more interactive learning for our online students. She wanted to increase online student engagement and have more interactive learning for our online students.
  9. 9. You came to the right instructor that’s what I do…
  10. 10. Yeah, I know…that’s why I hired you. Ugh.. Now take the new person here and go ask Clyde, he went to a conference on the subject.
  11. 11. For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered by the fact that she was breaking the school’s no smoking policy… For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered by the fact that she was breaking the school’s no smoking policy…
  12. 12. Here’s where you come in. Help me figure out the clues …and fast. Here’s where you come in. Help me figure out the clues …and fast.
  13. 13. Text karlkapp to 37607 Or PollEv.com/karlkapp Text karlkapp to 37607 Or PollEv.com/karlkapp First, take out your text machines. First, take out your text machines. k a r l k a p pk a r l k a p p
  14. 14. Choose your disguise…Choose your disguise…
  15. 15. Stakes are high and time is short.Stakes are high and time is short.
  16. 16. “Disengaged” Learners They are Everywhere Learning  Times August11, 2016 See Section D for Coupons Image of Larry the Learner at his desk. Karl M. Kapp Reporter. University of Wisconsin-Madison- Today the wrong content caught up with Larry the Learner. He was not learning what he needed to. The instructional designer provided the wrong content to Larry. Unfortunately, this is not an unusual occurrence. It was a Declarative knowledge strategy. This was teaching as verbal knowledge or factual knowledge. This is any piece of information that can only be learned through memorization. It is an association between two or more items. Designer Perplexed There are four types of content. The most basic is Declarative. Then Conceptual. Then two or more concepts Becomes a procedure. The final level is Called “Problem-Solving.” This level is Learning Suffers!Is Boring Online Learning the Cause? Instructional Leader August 11, 2016 See Section F for Coupons Image of Larry the Learner at his desk. How could This Happen? Madison, Wisconsin--Today thewrong content caught up with Larrythe Learner. He was not learningwhat he via the right content. It was a Declarative knowledgestrategy. This was teaching as verbalknowledge or factual knowledge.This is any piece of information thatcan only be learned throughmemorization. It is an associationbetween two or more items. Gamification of Learning & Instruction Wonderful Book!! Promotional Daily August 11, 2016 See Section F for Coupons Order Your Copy Today Madison, WIsconsin– Every once in a while a truly entertaining and educational book is written. In this century, the book is the Gamification of Learning and instruction. The book carefully describes how an instructional designer can take the elements of instructional design and game design and combine them to create instruction that motivates and excites learners. These are not boring games but games that teach. Online Students not Engaged? Why? Learning eagLe August 11, 2016See Section F for Coupons Professors Called Into Action! By Harry James University of Wisconsin- Madison– It started out as just another normal day. Larry the Learner had just sat at his desk to embark on a learning journey. A journey that turned horrific within only a few moments. The result is unnecessary incident that could and should have been avoided by having the right instructional strategy The news of disengagement was spreading…The news of disengagement was spreading…
  17. 17. We need to find Ivan…the Informant...We need to find Ivan…the Informant...
  18. 18. I knew one of his old haunts…I knew one of his old haunts…
  19. 19. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. Hello, Clueless…
  20. 20. Look I am going to ask you some questions, the right answer gives you a clue to interactive online learning. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention.
  21. 21. What do you and your detectives here have to say about this?
  22. 22. Are Game-based Learning and Gamification are the same thing? Are Games and Gamification are the same thing?
  23. 23. Gamification uses parts of games but is not a game itself. Game-based Learning is teaching using a self-contained game. Definite beginning, middle and end. Game-based Learning is teaching using a self-contained game. Definite beginning, middle and end.
  24. 24. Enter Question TextNext clue, how many types of gamification are there?
  25. 25. There are two types of gamification.
  26. 26. He grabbed his typewriter and made some notes to explain to me the difference between the two types of gamification. He grabbed his typewriter and made some notes to explain to me the difference between the two types of gamification.
  27. 27. Structural Gamification is use of game- elements to propel a learner through content with no alteration or changes to the content. Structural:  Points  Badges  Leaderboard
  28. 28. Content Gamification use of game thinking to alter content to make it more game-like but doesn’t turn the content into a game. Content:  Challenge  Story  Characters  Missions
  29. 29. Ivan then grabbed his laptop to show me a demonstration of the two types. Ivan then grabbed his laptop to show me a demonstration of the two types.
  30. 30. First Structural Gamification….First Structural Gamification….
  31. 31. Gamification The concept of gamification Consists of many different elements. These elements can include: •Story •Character •Mystery •Curiosity •Curve of Interest •Surprise •Chance •Points •Badges Screen captures courtesy of MindTickle….Screen captures courtesy of MindTickle….
  32. 32. Then he demonstrated content gamification....Then he demonstrated content gamification....
  33. 33. It was a little like déjá vu ….this content gamification….. It was a little like déjá vu ….this content gamification…..
  34. 34. It has elements of story, characters and content that was altered to be more game-like… It has elements of story, characters and content that was altered to be more game-like…
  35. 35. Twittermission @kkapp #gamification email -Questions -Call Your Mother Lynda.com Courses -How to Increase Learner Engagement -Core Strategies for Teaching in Higher Ed -Grant Writing for Education -Gamification of Learning -How to Write a Syllabus
  36. 36. Welcome back detectives, let me tell you about a robust educational phenomenon called “Spaced Retrieval” Sometimes called “Distributed Practice.”
  37. 37. Let me tell you about a study using a randomized control group in a trial at ten sites in southeast India with over 500 subjects. Working Indian men (aged 35—55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to either a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care.. Ramachandran, A. et. al. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6
  38. 38. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6 “Avoid snacks while watching TV; you may overeat.” “Use stairs instead of an Elevator” “Take stairs instead of elevator.” “Don’t eat while watching TV.
  39. 39. Lowered risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 36%. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6
  40. 40. Now let me tell you about this thing called “Retrieval Practice.”
  41. 41. Require students to recall content to enhance learning. In other words, use testing to reinforce learning—not just for evaluation.
  42. 42. Combining Spaced Retrieval and Retrieval Practice is really powerful. One study in the subject of Anatomy and Physiology revealed retention benefits of between 35% and 61% with average of 41%. Dobson, J. L. (2013) Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information Advances in Physiology Education 37: 184–191, 2013; doi:10.1152/advan.00174.2012
  43. 43. Ivan had another question for me…I was the one who was supposed to be ask’n questions…. Ivan had another question for me…I was the one who was supposed to be ask’n questions…. Fact or Fishy? Learners remember facts better when presented in a bulleted list rather than presented in a story?
  44. 44. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  45. 45. Speer, N. K., Reynolds, J. R., Swallow, K. M., & Zacks, J. M. (2009). Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences.Psychological Science, 20(8), 989–999. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02397.x Speer, N. K., Reynolds, J. R., Swallow, K. M., & Zacks, J. M. (2009). Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences.Psychological Science, 20(8), 989–999. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02397.x When a person reads about certain activities in a story, the areas of the brain associated with those activities are activated. When a person reads about certain activities in a story, the areas of the brain associated with those activities are activated. The research found that different brain regions track different aspects of a story. If the character moved, the corresponding region of the brain for physical movement became active. The research found that different brain regions track different aspects of a story. If the character moved, the corresponding region of the brain for physical movement became active.
  46. 46. Zombie Sales Apocalypse!©
  47. 47. Thanks, Ivan.Get out of here…. This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape… This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape…
  48. 48. Let’s brief the Dean on what we know so far…Let’s brief the Dean on what we know so far…
  49. 49. So what have we learned?
  50. 50. So far, so good. Follow the next clue on the matchbook I found in my desk drawer….
  51. 51. Light’sCamera….Nite Club
  52. 52. I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse… I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse…
  53. 53. Enter Question TextHmm… what could this location and clue mean??? Tell me. Does engaging instruction start with:
  54. 54. Action draws in the learner and encourages further engagement.
  55. 55. Too often instruction is about the content and not about interacting or engaging with the content.
  56. 56. Make the learner do something Answer a question Identify a procedure. Make a decision. Solve a mystery. Confront a challenge. Pick a team.
  57. 57. A meta-analysis of 225 studies of (STEM) undergraduate courses showed that active learning increased the average examination scores by 6%, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
  58. 58. Create Open Loops Law & Order
  59. 59. Time for a recap with the boss…she looked a little frantic…she wanted to know one more thing. Time for a recap with the boss…she looked a little frantic…she wanted to know one more thing.
  60. 60. I want to know one more thing. What game elements can engage learners?
  61. 61. What game elements did we encounter today that can engage learners?
  62. 62. Great stuff, you folks really seemed to have cracked the case as to what makes engaging learning.
  63. 63. Let me give you some more examples.
  64. 64. VENDOR http://www.theknowledgeguru.com/
  65. 65. Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory which argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by investing in capital and by  lowering barriers on the production of goods and services.
  66. 66. Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory which  argues that economic  growth can be most effectively created  by investing in capital and by  lowering barriers on the  production of goods and services.
  67. 67. Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic  theory which argues that economic  growth can  be most effectively created by investing in  capital and by  lowering barriers on the  production of goods and services. Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic  theory which argues that economic  growth can  be most effectively created by investing in  capital and by  lowering barriers on the  production of goods and services.
  68. 68. http://www.insitehub.co/
  69. 69. http://www.mlevel.com
  70. 70. http://www.Axonify.com
  71. 71. MeaningfulOutcomeCaféStart with theEnd in Mind I thought my work was done but then….I found another pack of matches on my way home… I thought my work was done but then….I found another pack of matches on my way home…
  72. 72. But we’ll have to leave that mystery for another presentation…. But we’ll have to leave that mystery for another presentation….
  73. 73. How did you do?
  74. 74. What game elements went into this design?
  75. 75. Don’t need to have a detective. You can be more realistic.
  76. 76. Given those symptoms, what you would you do?
  77. 77. QUESTIONS?
  78. 78. The End
  79. 79. Credits: Detective Artwork Courtesy of Vanessa Bailey Typewriter is MS Clip Art Audience Response Devices by PollEverywhere Demo of Gamification Software by MindTickle
  80. 80. 90 Days of Premium: Free 1. Create a free account 2. Email code: K_Kapp to support@polleverywhere.com Automatically downgrades to the standard free plan after 90 days
  81. 81. Related Resources…Related Resources… Lynda.com Course: Gamification of LearningYouTube Video Web Site:www.karlkapp.com Books
  82. 82. For: Notes/Slides Additional Ideas www.karlkapp.com  www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes

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