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# Basic Aerodynamics and Flight Controls

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### Basic Aerodynamics and Flight Controls

1. 1. Welcome B a s ic A e r o d y n a m ic s a n d F lig h t C o n t r o ls 1
2. 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this course, you will be able to… v Explain the four basic aerodynamic forces that act on aircraft v Understand how these forces relate to and interact with each other v Identify common flight controls on aircraft v Explain the affect that each control has on the flight of an aircraft v Identify hybrid flight controls of advanced aircraft 2
3. 3. Four Basic Forces 3
4. 4. Four Basic Forces Lift Bernoulli’s Principle: v An increase in the velocity of any fluid is always accompanied by a decrease in pressure. v Since air behaves like a fluid, Bernoulli’s Principle applies. v Any time air moves, its pressure is lower than when it is still. v The faster air moves, the lower its pressure. 4
5. 5. Four Basic Forces Lift Air traveling over the curved surface of a wing has farther to go than air going under. v Air above must move lift faster in order to get to the back at the same time as the air underneath. v Faster air means pressure over the wing drops. v The low pressure above the wing lifts it up! 5
6. 6. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY Gravity / Weight: v All objects have mass, but the weight of an object is the result of the force of gravity acting on the mass. v Since the force applied to the aircraft is the same, gravity and weight are equivalent for our purposes. 6
7. 7. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY Center of Gravity: v The average weight of all parts, fuel, and payload is called the center of gravity. v In flight, the aircraft rotates about the center of gravity. 7
8. 8. Four Basic Forces GRAVITY (D1*W1) + (D2*W2) + (D3*W3) + (D4*W4) + (D5*W5) Distance to CG = Total Weight 8
9. 9. Four Basic Forces v The purpose of thrust is to Thrust overcome drag, not to lift the aircraft: A million pound airliner has 4 engines that produce a total of only 200,000 pounds of thrust. The wings are doing the lifting, not the engines. v The direction of thrust depends on the type of engine and where they are attached. 9
10. 10. Four Basic Forces drag Definition of Drag: v Drag is a mechanical force generated by a solid object moving through a liquid. v It results from the difference in velocity between the object and the fluid. v It can be considered to be aerodynamic friction that opposes the movement of the aircraft. v In layman’s terms it is often known as wind resistance. 10
11. 11. Four Basic Forces drag Types of Drag: v Induced drag - Occurs whenever a lifting body or a wing or generates lift. v Caused by air under the wing slipping around the wingtip to form a vortex which travels out behind the wing creating drag. v Also caused by downward force of wind leaving the trailing edge of the wing. More drag is thus produced at higher angles of attack. 11
12. 12. Four Basic Forces drag Types of Drag: v Parasitic drag v Results from the aircraft pushing air out of the way (form drag). v Also caused by the friction of air against the actual surface of the aircraft (skin friction). v Air vortices caused by some surfaces or structures on the plane can also cause interference drag. 12
13. 13. In the Cockpit A Guide to Basic Flight Controls 13
14. 14. The flight controls and instrument panel are in the front of the cockpit. 14
15. 15. Flight controls and instrument panels vary, but have the same basic functions “Glass Cockpit” Side Sticks 15
16. 16. The control wheel or yoke is used to steer the airplane in different directions. Turning Left Straight and Level Turning Right Side Stick Some airplanes have a stick rather than a wheel. Moving the stick to the right or left is like turning the wheel, and moving it forward and backward is like pushing the wheel forward and back. 16
17. 17. Moving the yoke (or pushing the stick) left or right moves the ailerons in opposite directions Turning Right One moves up while the other moves down 17
18. 18. The ailerons control roll 18
19. 19. Pulling back or pushing forward on the yoke moves the elevators up or down Climbing Pulling back on yoke moves elevators up, causing tail to drop and nose to rise. 19
20. 20. Elevators control pitch 20
21. 21. Pressing rudder pedals on the floor moves the rudder left or right to aid turns Brakes are located at the top or “toe” of the pedal Rudder controls yaw 21
22. 22. The airspeed indicator shows speed through the air --- not over the ground The pitot tube on the wing catches on-rushing air. This “ram air” is compared to static air to determine air speed. The static port measures still air that is not affected by the airplane’s speed through the air 22
23. 23. The attitude indicator provides an artificial horizon to show the pilot the airplane’s position in relation to the ground Here, the airplane is banking left with its nose on the horizon —where brown “ground” meets blue “sky.” 23
24. 24. The altimeter measures air pressure outside the airplane and compares it to air pressure at sea level to determine altitude Like clock hands, the long hand shows smaller increments (100s of feet) while the shorter hand shows larger increments (1,000s of feet). This altimeter reads 1720 feet. 24
25. 25. The turn coordinator shows if the wings are level or banked. The position of the ball indicates if the airplane is turning properly Turn Coordinator The ball is centered when the turn is balanced by rudder 25
26. 26. The heading indicator displays the direction of flight This airplane is heading south at 175 degrees. 26
27. 27. The vertical speed indicator uses changes in air pressure to indicate rate of climb or descent Airplane is descending at 190 feet per minute 27
28. 28. Radios help communicate with air traffic control (ATC) and other pilots. Other radios help navigate using ground stations or satellites. 28
29. 29. Most airplanes have a radar transponder that shows their location, speed and altitude to ATC An assigned four-digit code helps identify a particular airplane on a controller’s radar screen 29
30. 30. Pilots increasingly use GPS satellite navigation GPS can be small, handheld and portable. Flat-panel GPS moving maps and flight displays are just like the ones in airliners and some cars. GPS can be used to display position and ground speed, locate nearby airports, and plot course, distance and time to any destination 30