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06 eu in the world


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06 eu in the world

  1. 1. EU in the world Foreign relations
  2. 2. External Relations European Neighbourhood Policy External Trade Development HumanitarianAid Enlargement
  3. 3. A system of external relations National foreign policies Intra-EU connections EC/EU level policies
  4. 4. Categories Large Western states Neutrals Small states Former socialist countries in the East
  5. 5. Evolution of foreign policies Trade policy naturally with common market Foreign policy Measure of independence NATO, other organizations handle it
  6. 6. Early attempts at political and defense cooperation 1950 European Defence Community European Political Community 1954: French Parliament votes no
  7. 7. Western European Union (WEU) 1954 Brussels Treaty BeNeLux, France, Germany, Italy, UK Aim is to ensure European defense 1984 Rome declaration European security policy Harmonisation of defence policies 1990 Spain, Portugal join
  8. 8. European Political Cooperation 1969 Hague summit Member States agreed to hold consultations on different levels to start cooperating in this area 1986 SEA incorporates this informal system formally into the Treaties Coordination of national foreign policies to reach a common conclustion and act on it
  9. 9. Levels of operation Heads of State and Government Foreign ministers Political Committee Just consultation: no certainty of acting together Collapse of the Soviet system Unified Germany
  10. 10. 1992, Maastricht Common Foreign and Security Policy = second pillar of the EU Still operating on an intergovernmental basis Member State governments European Council Council of Ministers Unanimity
  11. 11. Prospects of CFSP The common foreign and security policy shall include all questions related to the security of the Union, including the eventual framing of a common defence policy, which might in time lead to a common defence.
  12. 12. Western European Union (WEU) an integral part of the development of the Union implement decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications WEU Defence component of EU European pillar of NATO
  13. 13. WEU’s new roles Before: common defense 1992 Petersberg Declaration Humanitarian and rescue tasks Peacekeeping tasks Crisis management, peacemaking
  14. 14. Results of Maastricht Weak cooperation Joint actions fail Stronger Member States pursue their own interests Germany recognising Croatia France nuclear testing UK supporting Iraq invasion
  15. 15. Yugoslav dissolution wars Wars during the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: War in Slovenia (1991) Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995) Bosnian War (1992-1995) NATO campaigns against Serbia: NATO bombing of Republika Srpska (1995-96) NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (1999) Wars in Albanian-populated areas: Kosovo War (1996-1999) Southern Serbia conflict (2000-2001) Macedonia conflict (2001)
  16. 16. EC/EU participation? Yugoslavia might spill over Compromises: immediate practical cooperation and leave the door open for more ambitious steps toward unity later EU not speaking with one voice inability of the EC to settle the dispute EC dependence on NATO military resources Kosovo conflict: NATO intervention once more necessary
  17. 17. Amsterdam - Reform of CFSP Modified legal sources common strategies by European Council QMV for implementation in some cases Constructive abstention for joint actions High Representative of CFSP = Secretary General of the Council Troika: leadership of 3 Before Amsterdam: previous, current, next President of the Council After: President of Council, Secretary-General, Commissioner respolsible for external relations Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit Joint actions financed from EU budget Closer cooperation with WEU
  18. 18. Saint Malo process 1998: British position changes on WEU Its integration into EU does not threaten NATO cooperation Britain supportive of French plans in European defense Saint Malo declaration: EU should have an international influence equal to the size of its economy No duplication of NATO capabilities
  19. 19. European Security and Defence Policy Cologne European Council By 2000, WEU ceases to exist EU performs the Petersberg tasks EU needs an effective military force not dependent on NATO Helsinki European Council Create by 2003 a Rapid Reaction Force of 50-60000 troops Structures in the Council for defence policy Treaty of Nice: progress included in the Treaties
  20. 20. Further developments 2003: European Defence Agency Develop capabilities, promote cooperation in military technology, encourage research 2004: Headline Goals for 2010 Rapidly deployable combat units 1500 troops deployable in 5-10 days 13 units set up, 2 deployable at the same time 2003: European Security Strategy Terrorism, WMD, regional conflicts, weak governments, organized crime
  21. 21. LisbonTreaty No more pillarstructure Butunanimityremains President of the European Council HighRepresentative of the European Union forForeignAffairs and Security Policy CFSP HighRepresentative External Relations Commissioner European External Action Service SeparateForeignAffairsCouncil
  22. 22. External trade, Development, Enlargement, Humanitarianaid Commission – Parliament – Council CommonForeign and Security Policy: European Council, Council Representation: HighRepresentative,thePresident of the European Council and thePresident of theCommission Coherence HighRepresentative of the Union forForeignAffairs and Security Policy European External Action Service Institutionsinforeign policy
  23. 23. general guidelines decisions actions to be undertaken by the Union; positions to be taken by the Union; arrangements for the implementation of the decisions strengthening systematic cooperation between Member States in the conduct of policy Sources of lawinforeign policy
  24. 24. development and enlargement democracy, the rule of law the universality and indivisibility of human rights and fundamental freedoms respect for human dignity principles of equality and solidarity respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law Goals of foreign policy
  25. 25. Inallparts of theworld Trade Economiccooperation Development Humanitarianaid … EU abroad
  26. 26. EU in action EU Police Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina Concordia in Macedonia -> Proxima, EUPAT Artemis humanitarian rescue in Democratic Republic of Congo EUJUST / THEMIS in Georgia EUJUST / LEX in Iraq AMM monitoring mission in Aceh, Indonesia Peacekeeping in Darfur Palestinian territories border control aid Althea: EUFOR peacekeeping in Bosnia-Herzegovina …
  27. 27. Canuseanysource But no talking! Multiplechoicequestions True – false Yes – no Good answer 1 point, badanswer 0 point atleast 25% chance of guessingcorrectly Read thequestioncarefully! Midtermexam
  28. 28. Presentations 2-4 people – divide labour!!! 15 minutes Can use Powerpoint or similar, or handouts NOT reading the case out loud – quote the most important parts only! Describe the events that led to the case being brought to the Court Try to identify most important issues, topics Describe the reasoning of the Court from this point of view Research on the Internet, in Library first!
  29. 29. Parts of a judgment Keywords Summary Parties Subject of the case Grounds Decision on costs Operative part