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Activity 1: The EU Economic Situation

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  1. 1. THE EUROPEAN UNION 1. History 2. Figures 3. Institutions Students from 1º Bachillerato G.
  2. 2. 1. History
  4. 4. Beginning of the Europe Union Founders countries. Germany. Belgium. France. Netherlands. Italy. Luxembourg.
  6. 6. 30 July 1962 The EU starts its ‘common agricultural policy’ giving the countries joint control over food production.
  7. 7. 20 July 1963 The EU signs its first big international agreement — a deal to help 18 former colonies in Africa. By 2005, it has a special partnership with 78 countries in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) regions. The EU is the world’s biggest provider of development assistance to poorer countries. Its aid is linked to respect for human rights by recipients.
  8. 8. 1 July 1968 The six remove customs duties on goods imported from each other, allowing free cross- border trade for the first time. Trade among the six and between the EU and the rest of the world grows rapidly.
  10. 10. 24 April 1972 The EU’s first plan for a single currency dates from 1970. The EU adopts laws to protect the environment, introducing the notion of ‘the polluter pays ’ for the first time.
  11. 11. 1 January 1973 The six become nine when Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom formally enter the EU.
  12. 12. 10 December 1974 To show their solidarity, EU leaders set up the European Regional Development Fund.
  13. 13. 7–10 June 1979 EU citizens directly elect the members of the European Parliament for the first time. Previously they were delegated by national parliaments. Members sit in pan-European political groups
  14. 14. THE EIGHTIES
  15. 15. 1 January 1981 Membership of the EU reaches double figures when Greece joins. It has been eligible to join since its military regime was overthrown and democracy restored in 1974 .
  16. 16. 1 January 1986 Spain and Portugal enter the EU, bringing membership to 12.
  17. 17. 17 February 1986 Although customs duties disappeared in 1968, trade is not flowing freely across EU borders. The main obstacles are differences in national regulations. The Single European Act of 1986 launches a vast six-year programme to sort these out.
  18. 18. The collapse of communism across central and eastern Europe, which began in Poland and Hungary, is symbolised by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Faced by a mass exodus of its citizens to West, the East German government throws open the gates. Germany is united after more than 40 years, and its eastern part joins the EU (October 1990).
  19. 19. THE NINETIES
  20. 20. 7 February 1992 ● The Treaty on European Union is signed in Maastricht. It is a major EU milestone, setting clear rules for the future single currency as well as for foreign and security policy and closer cooperation in justice and home affairs. Under the treaty, the name ‘European Union’ officially replaces ‘European Community’.
  21. 21. 1 January 1993 The single market and its four freedoms are established: the free movement of goods, services, people and money is now reality.
  22. 22. 1 January 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU. The 15 members now cover almost the whole of western Europe.
  23. 23. 26 March 1995 The Schengentakes effect in seven countries — Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal. Travellers of any nationality can travel between all these countries without any passport control at the frontiers. Other countries have since joined the passport-free Schengen area.
  24. 24. 13 December 1997 EU leaders agree to start the process of membership negotiations with 10 countries of central and eastern Europe: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta are also included.
  25. 25. 1 January 1999 The euro is introduced in 11 countries (joined by Greece in 2001) for commercial and financial transactions only. Notes and coins will come later.
  26. 26. THE EU FROM 2000 TO NOWADAYS
  27. 27. From January 1, 1999, inclusive, the currency of the monetary Spanish system will be the EURO, which will happen to the PESETA (PESETA) In the same date, the PESETA will turn into DECIMAL FRACTION of the EURO, being able to continue being used as unit of account and liberation mean of payment of obligations until December 31, 2001, This way so, between 1.1.99 and 31.12.01, they will coexist, in his legal tender, EURO and PESETA, It is foreseen that, from January 1, 2002 they circulate fullly the tickets and coins named in EURO.
  28. 28. 1 January 2002 Euro notes and coins arrive. Printing, minting and distributing them in 12 countries is a major logistical operation. More than 80 billion coins are involved.
  29. 29. Notes are the same for all countries. Coins have one common face, giving the value, while the other carries a national emblem. All circulate freely. Using Finnish (or any other) euro coin to buy a Madrid metro ticket is something we take for granted.
  30. 30. 1 May 2004 Eight countries of central and eastern Europe — the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia — join the EU, finally ending the division of Europe decided by the Great Powers 60 years earlier at Yalta. Cyprus and Malta also become members.
  31. 31. Member States: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Finland and Sweden. New Member States: Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. Candidate Countries: Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey.
  32. 32. 29 October 2004 The 25 EU countries sign a Treaty establishing a European Constitution.
  33. 33. 1 January 2007 Two more countries from eastern Europe, Bulgaria and Romania, nw join the EU, brining the number of member states to 27 countries. Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey are also candidates for future membership
  34. 34. ● Member States: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. ● New Member States: Bulgaria and Romania. ● Candidate Countries: Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey.
  35. 35. 13 December 2007 The 27 EU countries sign the Treaty of Lisbon September 2008 A major financial crisis hits the world economy. The problems start with mortgage loans in the United States. Several European banks also experience difficulties. The crisis leads to closer economic cooperation between EU countries. The new decade starts with a severe economic crisis, but also with the hope that investments in new green and climate-friendly technologies and closer European cooperation will bring lasting growth and welfare.
  36. 36. 2. Figures
  37. 37. QUALITY OF LIFE Living standards can be compared by measuring the price of a range of goods and services in each country relative to income, using a common notional currency called the purchasing power standard (PPS). Comparing GDP per inhabitant in PPS provides an overview of living standards across the EU+.
  38. 38. SIZE AND POPULATION The EU covers over 4 million km² and has 503 million inhabitants — the world’s third largest population after China and India. By surface area, France is the biggest EU country and Malta the smallest.
  39. 39. Europe’s population is increasing through a combination of natural growth ( more people are born each year than die) and net migration (more people settle in the EU than leave it). At the same time, the population of Europe is ageing as life expectancy increases and fewer children are born.
  40. 40. ● Malta (MT) 4213640.08% ● Luxembourg (LU) 5370390.10% ● Cyprus (CY)8658780.17% ● Estonia (EE) 1320174 0.26% ● Latvia (LV) 2023825 0.39% ● Slovenia (SI) 2058821 0.40% ● Lithuania (LT) 2971905 0.58% ● (AM)3026878 0.59% ● (MD) 3559497 0.70% ● Croatia (HR) 4262140 0.84% ● Ireland (IE) 4591087 0.90% ● Slovakia (SK) 5410836 1.06% ● Finland (FI) 5426674 1.07% ● Denmark (DK) 5602628 1.10% ● Bulgaria (BG) 7284552 1.43% ● Austria (AT) 8451860 1.66% ● (AZ) 9356483 1.84% ● Sweden (SE) 9555893 1.88% ● Hungary (HU) 9908798 1.95% ● Portugal (PT) 104872892.06% ● Czech Republic (CZ) 105161252.07% ● Greece (EL)110625082.18% ● Belgium (BE) 11161642 2.20% ● Netherlands (NL)167795753.30% ● Romania (RO) 200200743.94% ● Poland (PL) 385332997.59% ● (UA)453726928.94% ● Spain (ES) 467278909.21% ● Italy (IT) 5968522711.77% ● (FX) 6365960812.55% ● United Kingdom (UK) 6390529712.60% ● France (FR)6557881912.93% ● Germany (DE) 8052374615.88% ● (EA18) 333114254 65.69% ● Total population 507 069 424100%
  41. 41. Measuring the EU’s economy The EU's economy — measured in terms of the goods and services it produces (GDP) — is now bigger than the US's: EU GDP in 2012: €12 945 402 million
  42. 42. Unemployment in the EU
  43. 43. The UE Symbols The EU is recognisable by several symbols, the most well-known being the circle of yellow stars on a blue background. This site introduces other symbols such as the European anthem and motto
  44. 44. The European Flag It's a symbol of unity. The European flag consists of 12 golden stars in a circle on a blue background. The stars symbolise the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe.
  45. 45. History of the European Flag. The history of the flag goes back to 1955. The council of Europe, adopted the present design for its own use. In 1983, the European parlament adopted the flag. In 1985, it was adopted by all EU leaders as the official emblem of the European Union (called the European Communities at the time). All European institutions now use an emblem of their own.
  46. 46. The European anthem. The melody used to symbolize the EU comes from the Ninth Symphony composed in  1823 by Ludwig Van Beethoven. The anthem symbolises not only the European Union but also Europe in a wider  sense. The anthem expresses idealistic vision of the human race becoming brothers. In 1972, the Council of Europe adopted Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" theme as its  anthem. In 1985, it was adopted by EU leaders as the official anthem of the  European Union. Without words, in the universal language of music, this anthem  expresses the European ideals of freedom, peace and solidarity.
  47. 47. ● Europe Day – EU Open Doors Europe Day held on 9 May every year celebrates peace and unity in Europe. The date marks the anniversary of the historical `Schuman declaration´. At a speech in Paris in 1950, Robert Schuman, the then French foreign minister, set out his idea for a new form of political cooperation in Europe, which would make war between Europe’s nations unthinkable. His vision was to create a European institution that would pool and manage coal and steel production. A treaty creating such a body was signed just under a year later. Schuman’s proposal is considered to be the beginning of what is now the European Union. – Open doors at EU institutions. To celebrate Europe Day, the EU institutions open their doors to the public in early May in Brussels and Strasbourg. Local EU offices in Europe and all over the world organise a variety of activities and events for all ages.
  48. 48. The EU motto. "United in diversity", the motto of the European Union, first came into use in 2000. It signifies how Europeans have come together, in the form of the EU, to work for peace and prosperity, while at the same time being enriched by the continent's many different cultures, traditions and languages.
  49. 49. Finnish: Moninaisuudessaan yhtenäinen.
  50. 50. German: In Vielfalt geeint.
  51. 51. Polish: Zjednoczeni wróżnorodności.
  52. 52. Spanish: Unida en la diversidad
  53. 53. 3. Institutions
  54. 54. INDEX ● Parliament ● European Council ● Council of the UE ● European Commission ● Court of Justice of the UE ● European Central Bank
  55. 55. PARLIAMENT Directly elected by EU voters every 5 years, members of the European Parliament represent the people. Parliament is one of the EU’s main law-making institutions . ROLES: -Passing european laws. -Democratic supervision. -Supervising the budget. -Composition. -Location
  56. 56. THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL The European Council defines the general political direction and priorities of the European Union. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, it became an institution. Its President is Herman Van Rompuy.
  57. 57. COUNCIL OF THE UE Also informally known as the EU Council, this is where national ministers from each EU country meet to adopt laws and coordinate policies. Not to be confused with: European Council Council of Europe
  58. 58. What does it do? - Passes EU laws -Coordinates the broad economic policies of EU member countries - Signs agreements between the EU and other countries - Approves the annual EU budget - Develops the EU's foreign and defence policies - Coordinates cooperation between courts and police forces of member countries
  59. 59. Who are the members of the Council? There are no fixed members as such. At each Council meeting, each country sends the minister for the policy field being discussed Who chairs the meetings? The foreign ministers’ Council has a permanent chairperson – the EU's High Representative for foreign and security policy. All other Council meetings are chaired by the relevant minister of the country holding the rotating EU presidency Voting Decisions in the Council of the EU are taken by qualified majority as a general rule. The bigger a country’s population, the more votes it has, but in fact the numbers are weighted in favour of the less populous countries.
  60. 60. EUROPEAN COMMISSION The European Commission is one of the main institutions of the European Union. It represents and upholds the interests of the EU as a whole. It drafts proposals for new European laws. It manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and spending EU funds.
  61. 61. Composition The 28 Commissioners, one from each EU country, provide the Commission’s political leadership during their 5-year term. Each Commissioner is assigned responsibility for specific policy areas by the President. The current President of the European Commission is Jean-Claude Juncker.
  62. 62. Purpose The Commission represents and upholds the interests of the EU as a whole. It oversees and implements EU policies by: proposing new laws to Parliament and the Council managing the EU's budget and allocating funding enforcing EU law (together with the Court of Justice) representing the EU internationally, for example, by negotiating agreements between the EU and other countries. Location The Commission is based in Brussels and Luxembourg and has offices (representations) in every EU country and delegations in capital cities around the world.
  64. 64. The Court of Justice is composed of 28 Judges and nine Advocates General. The Judges and Advocates General are appointed by common accord of the governments of the Member States after consultation of a panel responsible for giving an opinion on prospective candidates' suitability to perform the duties concerned. They are appointed for a term of office of six years, which is renewable. They are chosen from among individuals whose independence is beyond doubt and who possess the qualifications required for appointment, in their respective countries, to the highest judicial offices, or who are of recognised competence. The Court of Justice of UE is seated in Luxembourg.
  65. 65. European Central Bank.
  66. 66. The ECB is the central bank (ECB, based in Frankfurt, Germany) for Europe's single currency, the euro. The ECB’s main task is to maintain the euro's purchasing power and thus price stability in the euro area. The euro area comprises the 18 European Union countries that have introduced the euro since 1999.
  67. 67. The European Central Bank and the national central banks together constitute the Eurosystem, the central banking system of the euro area. The main objective of the Eurosystem is to maintain price stability: safeguarding the value of the euro. .