Regionalism <ul><li>Prof.Palmer and Perkins : “……in international relations a region is invariably an area embracing the territories of three or more states. These states are bound together by ties of common interests as well as geography. They are not necessarily contiguous, or even in the same continent.” </li></ul>
<ul><li>There are no hard and fast rules to determine what regions are. Regions are often constituted by countries sharing common affinities of race, institutions and political interests. When these states come together and form an organization associational at the regional level to attain specific objectives then it gives birth to regional arrangements. </li></ul>
Regional Arrangements <ul><li>San Francisco Conference of 1945, the Egyptian delegation introduced an amendment to the draft text of the United Nations Charter where they limited the term “regional arrangements” by definition to “ organizations of a permanent nature, grouping in a given geographical area, several countries which, by reason of their proximity, community of interest or cultural, linguistic, historical, or spiritual affinities, make themselves jointly responsible for the peaceful settlement of any disputes which may arise between them and for the maintenance of peace and security in their regions, as well as safeguarding of their national interests and the development of their economic and cultural relations.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. E.N. Van Kleffens: “…regional arrangement or pact is a voluntary association of sovereign states within a certain area or having common interests in that area for a joint purpose, which should not be of an offensive nature, in relation to that area.” </li></ul>
North Asia Central Asia West Asia South Asia East Asia Southeast Asia
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (formerly Burma) , Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Afghanistan, Iran and Sri Lanka
Initial Efforts towards European Integration Convention for European Economic Cooperation signed in Paris on 16 April, 1948--------Emergence of Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) OEEC ---coordinating agency of the counries receiving Marshall Plan Aid---continuation even after the official end of Marshall Plan in 1951. European Payments Union created within OEEC to facilitate trade and economic transactions among member countries. 1946– Churchill’s Call for a “United States of Europe” ----formation of Council of Europe 1950—The Schuman Plan Proposed
E Stages of European Integration 1949 – The North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) signed. 1950 – Schuman Plan proposed . 1951-- The European Coal and Steel Community established with six founding members (Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg and the Netherlands). 1952 – Nordic Council formed to augment cooperation among Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. 1954 – The Paris Treaty setting up the Western European Union (WEU) 1958 – Treaties of Rome set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European, Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). 1960 – The European Free Trade Association set up. 1965– the Merger Treaty, 8 April, 1965—Single Executive established for the ECSC, the EEC & Euratom 1973 – Britain, Denmark and Ireland join the EEC. 1974 –The European Council created. The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) set up
1975 – The Lomé Convention is signed between the European Communities (EC) and the African-Caribbean-Pacific (APC) Group. 1978 – The European Monetary System (EMS) proposed. 1979 – The European Monetary System begins its operations. 1981 – Greece becomes the member of EC. 1985– the Schengen Agreement---created open borders without passport controls 1986 – European flag began to be used by the European Community. Spain and Portugal join EC. Single European Act )SEA) was signed which set 1 January, 1993 as the date by which full internal market was to be established. 1989 – The fall of Berlin Wall. 1990 – East and West Germany reunite. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development set up to support economic reforms and transition in the former communist countries with major contributions from EC.
1991 – Sweden applied to join. 1992 – Treaty of European Union signed in Maastricht on 7 February, 1992. Finland and Switzerland applied to join. 1993 – Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November, 1993. The European Union came into existence. 1995 – Austria, Finland and Sweden join the European Union. European currency named ‘Euro’. 1999 – Treaty of Amsterdam comes into force. A step towards Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). 2000—Treaty of Nice, reformation of the institutional structure of the European Union to withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to have been done by the Amsterdam Treaty, but failed to be addressed at the time. 2002—Euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. 2004 – Constitution of the European Union adopted on 19 June, 2004 in Brussels (but never came into force). Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the European Union. 2007 -- Romania and Bulgaria joined the European Union. Slovenia adopted the euro .
Members of EU <ul><li>Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UnitedKingdom, </li></ul>
Institutions of EU 1]Commission of the European Communities : This constitutes the executive wing of the European Union. It is a body composed of one appointee from each state and at present there are twenty-seven Commissioners. This body is to initiate proposal for legislation, to act as a “Guardian of the Treaties” and to be the manager and executor of EU policies and international trade relationships. But in dispensing all its function, the Commission is designed to be independent of national interests. This body also has the responsibility of dealing with the day-to-day running of the EU. Commission President José Manuel Barroso 2]Council of the European Union : The Council of the European Union is the principal decision making institution in the European Union (EU). It is often informally called the Council of Ministers or just the Council . It is the more powerful of the two legislative chambers, the other being the European Parliament. President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy 3]European Parliament (EP): is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU). It is the bicameral legislative branch of the European Union's institutions and has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world. The Parliament and Council form the highest legislative body within the Union. However their powers as such are limited to the competencies conferred upon the European Community by member states. Hence the institution has little control over policy areas held by the states. The EP has supervisory, budgetary and some legislative powers which were increased by the Single European Act, the Treaty of European Union (Maastricht Treaty) and the Treaty of Amsterdam.
4] Court of Justice of the European Communities: The European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). It has the ultimate say on matters of EU law in order to ensure its equal application across all EU member states. It has the function to ensure that the Union’s law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied. It has the jurisdiction in disputes involving the member states, EU institutions, business and individuals. 5] Court of Auditors: European Court of Auditors, which despite its name has no judicial powers. The court provides an audit report for each financial year to the Council and Parliament. The Parliament uses this to decide whether to approve the Commission's handling of the budget. The Court also gives opinions and proposals on financial legislation and anti-fraud actions . 6]European Economic and Social Committee (EESC): It was established in 1957. It is a consultative assembly composed of employers, employees and representatives of various industries and work sectors. It advises on economic and social policy (principally relations between workers and employers). The EESC shares the Delors building in Brussels as its seat with the Committee of the Regions. Among the other prominent EU institutions are the Committee of the Regions, European Central Bank, the European Investment Bank and the European Investment Fund.
President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy Commission President José Manuel Barroso High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton. EU Member States have a standardised passport design with the name of the member state, a symbol, and the words "European Union" given in their official language(s).
EU participation in G20 Summit Emblem of the European External Action Service Collectively, the EU is the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. The European Commissions Humanitarian Aid Office, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2006 its budget amounted to €671 million, 48% of which went to the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.
Problems: Legitimacy Gap Problem as a result of “widening” an “deepening” Future of Common Foreign Security Policy (CFSP) Challenges Ahead: International terrorism WMDs Failed States Regional conflicts due to expansion of the EU to conflict-prone zone in Central Asia