EU Security Strategy Overview


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Overview of the EU security strategy and counter terrorism policy.

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  • But this system of dividing the EU’s policy areas was abolished under the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 Changes in the Lisbon Treaty Extends the EU’s powers to include humanitarian & evacuation missions, peacekeeping operations and the stabilization of post conflict zones
  • Over the last decade the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), as an integral part of Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP), has grown in experience and capability with over 20 MISSIONS DEPLOYED in response to crises. (Ex post tsunami peace building in Aceh & protecting refugees in Chad) EU countries must abide by fundamental principles of the UN Charter & OSCE principles and commitments. Sovereignty, independence & territorial integrity of states & peaceful settlements of disputes are NOT negotiable. At global level – Europe most lead a renewal of multilateral order
  • The ESS (2003) identified a range of threats and challenges to our security interests. Five years on, these have not gone away: some have become more significant and more complex.
  • Libya has dismantled its WMD program. However Iran & N. Korea don’t have int’l trust WMD 2003 Strategy – The strategy emphasizes prevention by working through the UN and multilateral agreements by acting as a key donor and by working with third countries and regional organizations t enhance their capabilities to prevent proliferation. At the forefront of international efforts to address Iran’s nuclear program.
  • Alliance of Civilizations
  • Strategy for a Secure Information Society
  • EU Energy Policy (internal & external dimensions) the joint report from the High Representative and Commission in June 2006 set out the main elements. INSIDE Europe – need a more unified energy market with greater inter-connection, particular attention to most isolated countries and crisis mechanisms to deal with temporary disruption to supply. Greater diversification of fuels, sources of supply and transit routes as are Good governance, respect for rule of law and investment in source countries.
  • 2008 – High Representative and Commission presented a report to the European Council which described climate change as a ‘threat multiplier’ Photoclima book -
  • European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) - Union for the Mediterranean Maritime safety, energy, water & migration, terrorism Eastern Partnership Political, economic and trade relations (energy, security & mobility of people) Strengthen prosperity & stability of these countries Lasting Stability UN, OSCE, U.S. & Russia Partnership based on respect for common values: human rights, democracy, rule of law, market economic principles and common
  • Image - The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon ( UNIFIL ) was created with the adoption of Security Council Resolutions 425 and 426 on March 19, 1978, primarily to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon and “to restore international peace and security”. Both goals have proved elusive these past three decades with Israel still in Shebaa Farms, the village of Ghajar, and violating Lebanese airspace and sovereignty at will. EUJUST LEX -
  • On 15 June 2007 the EUPOL Afghanistan Police Mission approved by the Council of the EU started its work. (under German leadership)
  • Sexual violence – results in displaced people, families & population. Emotional tarnishing/weakening of the female population Displaced people – Sfollati To displace – Spostare UNSCR 1820 -
  • ATALANTA MISSION The mission of Operation Atalanta has been 3 fold. Firstly, the mission provides close escort protection by EU Naval Force warships to World Food Program shipments of food from Mombasa into Somalia. Secondly, the mission is to deter and disrupt piracy and thirdly to protect vulnerable shipping. 10 December 2009 marks the first anniversary of EU NAVFOR Somalia – Operation Atalanta, the successful EU Naval Force operations in the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin against piracy. This anniversary represents a period of concerted achievement by the EU Naval Force in its fight against piracy.
  • EU Security Strategy Overview

    1. 1. The EU Security Strategy & Counter Terrorism Strategy April 7 th , 2010 Università degli Studi di Siena Strategia Europea In Materia Di Sicurezza & Strategia Di Antiterrorismo
    2. 2. Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP) <ul><li>Organized & agreed foreign policy of the EU for security & defense diplomacy actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions require unanimity among member states in the EU’s Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy is chaired and represented by the EU's High Representative </li></ul>
    3. 3. CFSP was previously a distinct pillar of the EU since the Treaty of Maastricht of 1992 PILLARS ABOLISHED Treaty of Lisbon 2009
    4. 4. European Security & Defense Policy (ESDP) <ul><li>Aims to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities in conflict prevention and crisis management. </li></ul><ul><li>To influence policies violating international law or human rights, or policies disrespectful of the rule of law or democratic principles, the EU has designed sanctions of a diplomatic or economic nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The EU is also a leading international actor in the fight against illicit accumulation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Global Challenges and Key Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Building Stability in Europe and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s Role in the World </li></ul>European Security Strategy (ESS) ESS Implementation Goal: “ For our full potential to be realized we need to be still more capable, more coherent and more active.” ‘ più capace, più coerente & più attivo’ <ul><li>European Council adopted ESS in December 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>20 Missions deployed </li></ul><ul><li>EU Countries must abide/comply by UN Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Independence, territorial integrity of states & peaceful settlement of disputes are NOT negotiable </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>I. Global Challenges and Key Threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism and Organized Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul></ul>Post ESS 2003 - In 2008 threats persist…
    7. 7. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction <ul><li>EU very active – WMD Strategy 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes prevention via multilateral agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU acts as key donor & works with 3 rd world countries/regional organizations to enhance their capabilities to prevent proliferation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At forefront of international efforts to address Iran’s nuclear program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons May 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursue Disarmament, responsible & peaceful uses of nuclear energy & strengthen non-proliferation regime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More work is needed on nuclear fuel cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-safety & bio-security </li></ul></ul>‘ Greatest threat/ minaccia to EU security’
    8. 8. Terrorism and Organized Crime <ul><li>2004 Hague Program </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Strategy of the External Dimension of Justice & Home affairs </li></ul><ul><li>2005 EU Counter Terrorism Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment of Counter Terrorism Coordinator at European Level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-cultural dialogue to counter radicalization & recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Deepen partnerships in EU & within UN to address organized crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control money, movement of people, encourage information sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police and judicial cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress has been slow and incomplete, need to improve: Coordination Transparency Flexibility </li></ul></ul>‘ Remains a major threat’ Madrid 2004 London 2005
    9. 9. Cyber Security <ul><li>EU Strategy for a Secure Information Society (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses internet-based crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEW! Attacks against private & government IT systems in EU Member States </li></ul><ul><li>More awareness & cooperation necessary </li></ul>‘ New dimension as military weapon’
    10. 10. Energy Security <ul><li>Declining EU production means that by 2030 up to 75% of oil & gas will have to be imported </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: oil & gas from unstable countries </li></ul><ul><li>EU Solution: EU energy policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified energy market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification of fuels, sources of supply & investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia, Caucasus & Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Partnership & Union for the Mediterranean Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU – Russia Relations (EX: Russia/Ukraine Dec 08/Jan09) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable energy with China, India, Japan & US </li></ul></ul>‘ Concerns about energy dependence ’
    11. 11. Climate Change <ul><li>Climate Change & Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Why “threat multiplier”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exacerbate conflict, especially in situations of poverty and population growth, with humanitarian, health, political and security consequences, including greater migration . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU can not act alone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with others to strengthen at risk nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Cooperation with the UN & regional organizations </li></ul></ul>‘ Threat Multiplier’
    12. 12. “ The ESS acknowledges that Europe has security interests beyond its immediate neighborhood.” II. Building Stability in Europe and Beyond Largest civilian ESDP mission to date. Duty: Continue providing substantial economic support Cooperation & good neighborly relations are indispensable European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) &quot;Our Neighborhood Policy provides us with a coherent approach that ensures that the whole of the EU is committed to deeper relations with all our neighbors. At the same time, it allows us to develop tailor-made relations with each country.&quot; Štefan Füle, Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighborhood Policy
    13. 13. Building Stability in Europe and Beyond ( Continued ) Annapolis Process
    14. 14. EU & the Middle East <ul><ul><li>Security and Development Nexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Arms & Light Weapons (SALW), Cluster Munitions and Landmines </li></ul></ul>Nuclear Iran = Threat to EU Dual-track approach, Combining dialogue and Increasing pressure With USA, China & Russia High Representative has delivered an offer to Iran to rebuild confidence and engagement with the international community. IF Iran’s nuclear program advances EU will support the UN process & will work with regional actors. EU has security interests beyond its immediate neighborhood (Ex: Afghanistan) EU member states contribute to NATO mission and are engaged in governance And development at all levels. Namely: The EU Police Mission EX: Siena Paracaduti
    15. 15. Security and Development Nexus ESS & the 2005 Consensus on Development agreed that there can not be sustainable development without peace & security and without development and poverty eradication there will be no sustainable peace. <ul><li>What undermines development </li></ul><ul><li>Poor health – Pandemics </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual violence as weapon of intimidation & terror </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapes, gang rapes and genital mutilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESS says implementation of UNSCR 1820 ‘Women Peace & Security’ is essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict is linked to state fragility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somalia caught in a vicious cycle of weak governance & recurring conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU assistance: development assistance & measures to ensure better security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU supports the Kimberly Process & Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combats the exploitation of natural resources which is often an underlying cause of conflict </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Piracy <ul><li>World economy relies on sea routs for 90% of trade </li></ul><ul><li>EU’s 1st Maritime ESDP Mission !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Operation ATALANTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides close escort protection by EU Naval Force warships to World Food Program shipments of food from Mombasa into Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To deter and disrupt piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect vulnerable shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*10 December 2009 marked the first anniversary of EU NAVFOR Somalia – Operation ATALANTA </li></ul></ul>‘ New Dimension of Organized Crime’ Strait of Mallaca
    17. 17. Small Arms & Light Weapons (SALW), Cluster Munitions and Landmines <ul><li>Council adopted the EU Strategy to combat illicit accumulation & trafficking of SALW & their ammunition. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation – EU supports UN Program of action </li></ul><ul><li>EU major anti-mine donor </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Cluster Munitions 2008 important step </li></ul><ul><li>EU supports an adoption of a munitions protocol within UN framework </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><ul><li>A more effective and capable Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Engagement with our neighborhood (ENP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships for Effective Multilateralism </li></ul></ul>“ To respond to the changing security environment we need to be more effective – among ourselves, within our neighborhood and around the world.” “ Maintaining public support for our global engagement is fundamental.” III. Europe’s Role in the World
    19. 19. EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy PREVENT PROTECT PURSUE RESPOND IMPEDIRE PROTEGGERE INSEGUIRE RISPONDERE EU’s Strategic Commitment: “ To combat terrorism globally while respecting human rights and make Europe safer, allowing its citizens to live in an area of freedom, security and justice”