The centralization of CFSP goes against many preferences held by member governments on foreign, security, and defence policy. Only areas such as procurement, policing, and peacekeeping are agreed upon, since there are no requirements to provide additional funding or capabilities, or already have pre-existing agreements.
1st Step-establishment of European Political Cooperation(EPC) framework from the Luxembourg Report of 1970. Used as a means of coordinating meetings between foreign ministers. Until 1987 EPC did not have its own institution and was managed by TROIKA, led by country holding the EU presidency. This however was very limited because presidency changes often. It failed to forge a common response to end of communism and collapse of the U.S.S.R., and is thus often criticized. Collapse of U.S.S.R.- many Scandanavian countries submiteed applications, “buffer zone” decreased, and preparing for enlargement of the community.
CFSP formed Pillar 2, which is intergovernmental, involving very little input from the Eureopean Commission and Parliament. rests on member state unanimity in the Council, enabling each country the ability to veto, thus EU foreign and security policy have a low common denominator process.CFSP is also in opposition to the other 2 pillarsWith Pillar 1- the supranational EC pillar has impact on EU’s external relations With Pillar 3- which deals with immigration, asylum, terrorism, and other civil security, use decision-making procedures that are different than CFSP’s.
2nd source- focused on matters that increase international leverage they can excert working together. The Council can establish a Common Position as done in the care for eradication of landmines, then it falls to the national govts to ensure their policies are in line from the Ottowa Treaty. They can also adopt Joint Actions, allowing EU to go beyond merely consulting, obliging member states to conform to positions they adopt. However the British and French disagreed at how the European Security and Defence Policy should be written, as the British think reactions to Yugoslav situation is confirmation EU’s failure at common foreign policy, and French argue that’s the reason why EU needs a common policy.
High Representative for CFSP- act as secretary general of the EU council (Javier Solana)Policy Planning was the council secretariat and became known as the “Policy Unit”Amongs other initiatives, started to bring external relations closer to Brussels and away from member states. Common Strategy- decided unanimously by the European Council on the basis of a recommendation by the Council, for example: policy on Russia. Using Joint Actions and Common Positions that can be achieved through a qualified majority vote.
This became the symbol of UK government’s pro- European leanings led by Labour party. This also prevent other Western EU countries from forcing military and security policy onto the British agenda.
Link them together via policies on border checks and asylum and immigration. The Lisbon Agenda- idea of a European economy supported by innovative technologies that trickle down into mainstream manufacture.s
Joint action & common positions- successful in landmine issues, but is successful because countries already have finance in placeForeign and security policy is one area where essential authority remains with EU governments, although the European Commission and, to a lesser extent the European Parliament, are associated with the process. Key decisions are taken by unanimous vote.Aware of this constraint, the Union has introduced more flexible voting procedures on CFSP decisions by allowing individual governments to abstain, or by using majority voting, or by allowing a majority of countries to act on their own; but unanimity is still required on decisions with military or defence implications.
Presentation example 1
European Union’s Foreign, Security, and Defence Policies<br />RenXu<br />Professor D’Alimonte<br />New York University<br />
Introduction<br />EU has not moved much closer towards a supranational foreign policy, although the EU remains a “civilian superpower”<br />Move towards “Brusselsized” Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP) is slow. <br />A look at historical and institutional developments and the future of such policies. <br />
Brief History<br />1st Step-establishment of European Political Cooperation(EPC) framework from the Luxembourg Report of 1970. <br />Collapse of U.S.S.R. affected E.U. greatly<br />
The Maastricht Treaty<br />CFSP formed Pillar 2, rests on member state unanimity in the Council, enabling each country the ability to veto. <br />CFSP is also in opposition to the other 2 pillars since it is positioned outside the Community decision-making structures. <br />
Treaty on European Union(TEU)<br />Three identifiable sources of external relations policy in the EU<br />Member states pursue their own policies independent of CFSP<br />Coordinating CFSP frame work which places responsibility on member states to inform and consult with each other<br />The Commission with increasing responsibilities over trade and overseas representations<br />
Amsterdam Treaty<br />Constructive Abstention- enabled less than a third of member states to opt out of a Joint Action without vetoing it for the others. This was later replaced by Enhanced Cooperation. <br />Creation of High Representative for CFSP<br />Creation of the Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit<br />Common Strategy<br />
The Saint Malo Process<br />Led by the UK and France aimed to bring defense cooperation into the heart of Europe<br />However there’s trouble as UK see NATO as a security institution choice and French want EU to be more independent, however is difficult funding is difficult for these nations as education or health care is more electorally attractive<br />
Treaty of Nice<br />Empowered the Commission to ensure EU’s actions are consistent and designed to meet the national governments’ objectives. <br />Also allowed Council to use Qualified Majority Voting for decisions relating to internal matters. <br />
Lisbon Treaty<br />Aimed to move nations more closely and changes to institutional framework. <br />European External Action Service is created to act as diplomatic corps for the EU<br />Linking internal and external Security together<br />Lisbon Agenda<br />
Global Terrorism<br />Divisions over Iraq War once again deepened the separation. <br />European Security Strategy was drafted to share intelligent information, strongly rejected<br />Even today, the civilian superpower in economy was not transferred acrossed to foreign, security, and defense sphere. <br />
Conclusion <br />Enhanced Cooperation<br />Joint Action & Common Positions<br />Does a “Europeanized” foreign & security policy strengthen member states?<br />What do CSFP and ESDP tell us about EU as a political entity?<br />