Law for m ds


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Law for m ds

  1. 1. Law forMDs<br />Eszter Karoliny<br /><br />
  2. 2. Outline & purpose<br />Law ingeneral<br />Legalissuesformedicalprofessionals<br />Basic introductiontothekind of issuesyouwill / mightface<br />
  3. 3. Law ingeneral<br />Law is everywhere<br />law ≠ law ≠ law<br />TV & movielaw ≠ RL law<br />Law changesallthetime<br />Ignorance of thelaw is no excuseforillegalacts<br />
  4. 4. Sources of law<br />Legislation<br />Parliament<br />Government<br />Local authorities<br />Courtjudgements (case-law)<br />Religiousrules<br />Tradition<br />
  5. 5. Legalfamilies - a typology of legalsystems<br />Continental / civil law<br />Commonlaw<br />Religious / traditional<br />Socialist<br />Howtheydiffer<br />Sources of law – relativeorderofimportance<br />Legalprofessions<br />Lawmakingorinterpretation<br />Branches of law, legalterms and categories<br />Procedure<br />
  6. 6. Continental / civil law<br />Legislation<br />General rulesappliedtospecificcases<br />Courtsinterpret, notmakelaw<br />No strictprecedentsystem<br />Professional legalpersonnel<br />
  7. 7. Commonlaw<br />Judge-madelaw (case-law) is most important<br />Precedentsystem<br />specific -> general<br />Sometimes no legaleducationnecessary<br />
  8. 8. ”Soft”law and atypicalsources of law<br />Non-bindingacts of otherwiselegislativebodies<br />Governmentorministerialregulationsrelevantforjustoneprofession<br />Rules and regulations of a medicalboardorprofessionalassociation (Chamber, etc.)<br />
  9. 9. International law<br />Law amongstates<br />Differentset of sources<br />International treaties<br />International courts<br />International organisations<br />…<br />European Union<br />Supranationalorganisation<br />Not a state, butstrongerthannormalIGOs<br />
  10. 10. Branches (areas) of law<br />Publiclaw<br />State v. individual, state v. state<br />Strictstateregulation<br />Privatelaw<br /><ul><li>Person v. person
  11. 11. Main rulesset, butdiscretionallowedforparticipants</li></li></ul><li>Public law<br />Constitutionallaw<br />Administrativelaw<br />Criminallaw<br />International law<br />European Union law<br />Taxlaw<br />…<br />
  12. 12. Privatelaw<br /> Civil law<br />Property<br />Obligations and damages<br />Tort<br /> Copyright & intellectualproperty<br />Inheritancelaw<br />Familylaw<br />Companylaw<br />Employmentlaw<br />Privateinternationallaw – conflict of laws<br />…<br />
  13. 13. Anotherway of categorisation<br />Substantivelaw<br />What?<br />What is a crime? <br />Whatelementsareessentialfor a contract? <br />Who is a father of a child?<br />Procedurallaw<br />How?<br />Whataretheconsequences of a guiltyplea? <br />Whodecidesonthevalidity of a contract? <br />Howcan I provethat a child is mine?<br />
  14. 14. Aboutprocedure<br />Criminalprocedure<br />State v. defendant<br />Judge, prosecution, defense<br />Strictproceduralrules and rights: presumption of innocence, right to an attorney, no self-incrimination<br />Burden of proofonprosecution<br />End result is a punishment – owedtothestate<br />Civil procedure<br />Plaintiff v. defendant<br />Judge, parties<br />No privilegedparty<br />Burden of proofonplaintiff<br />End result is damages – owedtoplaintiff<br />
  15. 15. Aboutprocedure 2<br />Adversarialsystem<br />Prosecution v. defense<br />Plaintiff v. defendant<br />arguetheircase, presentevidence, examinewitnesses<br />Judgemainlyproceduralrole, judgment<br />Commonlaw<br />Oftenwithjury<br />Inquisitorialsystem<br />Judgeasksthequestions, interrogateswitnesses<br />Continental / civil law<br />
  16. 16. The medicalprofessional and thelaw<br />
  17. 17. Constitutionallaw & human rights<br />Type of legalsystem<br />Relevantsources of law<br />Functioning of the country<br />
  18. 18. Constitutionallaw & human rights<br />Right to life and human dignity<br />Right toinformation<br />Privacy – dataprotection<br />Right tomedicalattention ???<br />Life-saving measures<br />Painalleviation<br />Medicalprocedurestoperventseriousorlastingbodilyharm<br />Withinsurance: reasonable, appropriate, accessible and equalmedicalaid<br />Right toself-determination<br />
  19. 19. Criminallaw<br />What is a crime?Whichpunishment?<br />Dangerto life, society<br />Intention and negligence<br />Somecriminaloffencescanonly be committedbydoctors / most likelyto be committedbydoctors<br />endangering within the sphere of occupation<br />procedures on human genetic structure<br />altering the gender of an unborn child<br />violation of the rules of experimental research on humans<br />violation of right of autonomy concerning medical procedures<br />illegal use of a human body<br />breakingdoctor-patientconfidentiality<br />
  20. 20. Criminallaw<br />Capabilities of a person<br />mental<br />phsical<br />Consequences of an action<br />Cause of death<br />…<br />
  21. 21. Criminalprocedure<br />as a defendant<br />as an expert<br />as a witness<br />as a victim<br />public service<br />as a jurymember<br />
  22. 22. Defendant<br />Get a lawyer!<br />Ifin a foreign country, getconsularaid!<br />Proceduralrights:<br />no self-incrimination<br />defense / representation<br />information<br />…<br />
  23. 23. Alternatesolutions<br />(to a criminaljudgment)<br />Pleabargain<br />Mediation<br />
  24. 24. Medicalexpert<br />to aid the court with scientific expertise <br />not there to decide legal questions, make a judgment <br />membershipin a professionalassociationmay be a requirement, qualification, expertise<br />writtenororaltestimony<br />right to<br />remuneration<br />allrelevantdata , askingquestions<br />refusetestimonyoncertaingrounds<br />obligationto<br />be present<br />give an objectiveexpertopinion<br />tellthetruth!<br />
  25. 25. Administrativeissues<br />Qualificationsforpracticingmedicine<br />Establishing a medicalpractice<br />Professional organisations<br />Requalification, continuingeducation<br />Taxes, obligatoryinsurance<br />Socialsecurityfinancing<br />Allowedsuppliers, wastedisposal etc.<br />
  26. 26. European Union<br />Free movement of workers and services<br />Mutualrecognition of degrees and qualifications<br />
  27. 27. Civil law<br />Insurance<br />thatyoupayforinyourmedicalpractice<br />Contracts<br />between a doctor and a patient<br />for a certainresult<br />forprovidingcare/ a medicalprocedure<br />Damages out of contract (tort law)<br />negligence<br />malpractice<br />Paternity<br />Legalage / determination of sanity<br />
  28. 28. Civil procedure<br />as a defendant<br />as a witness<br />as an expert<br />as a plaintiff<br />
  29. 29. Defendant<br />informedbythecourtthat he is being sued<br />has toacceptordenyclaims of theplaintiff<br />presentevidencetosupporthisclaims<br />Get a lawyer!<br />
  30. 30. Alternatesolutions<br />(to a civil judgment)<br />Arbitration<br />Mediation<br />Settlement<br />
  31. 31. Business & employmentlaw<br />Establishing a company<br />Types<br />Procedure<br />Self-employedorin a hospital, publicorprivatemedicalpractice<br />Rules of liability<br />Rules of intellectualproperty<br />Safety & healthstandards<br />
  32. 32. Medical & healthlaw<br />Euthanasia, abortion<br />Experiments<br />Rights and obligations of patients<br />Rights and obligations of doctors<br />Sytem of medicalcare<br />Prevention and treatment of infectiousdiseases<br />Obligatoryvaccinations<br />…<br />
  33. 33. Thankyou!<br />Questions?<br />