US History Chapter 13


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US History Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter 13: North and South<br />Magister Ricard<br />US History<br />
  2. 2. The North’s Economy<br />Chapter 13.1<br />
  3. 3. Technology and Industry<br />Industrialization <br />Division of labor among workers<br />Machines replace workers’ duties, now tended to machines<br />Industrialization lead to mass production<br />Elias Howe invents the sewing machine (1843)<br />Production on a large scale of cotton textiles<br />
  4. 4. Improved Transportation<br />Steamboats and Steamships – invented by Robert Fulton<br />Carried goods and passengers more quickly<br />Clipper Ships – could sail an average of 300 miles per day<br />Locomotives – Peter Cooper and the Tom Thumb<br />By 1860 almost 31,000 miles of rail, mostly in North and Midwest<br />
  5. 5. Faster Communication<br />The telegraph and Morse Code<br />1844 Samuel Morse sends a message from Washington, DC to Baltimore, Maryland<br />Spreading the news – newspapers explode<br />1846 Richard Hoe invents steam rotary press<br />
  6. 6. Revolution in Agriculture<br />1837 John Deere’s steel-tipped plow allows for pioneers in Great Plains to farm<br />1834 Cyrus McCormick mechanizes the reaper, used to harvest wheat which would become a staple crop of Midwest<br />
  7. 7. The North’s People<br />Chapter 13.2 <br />
  8. 8. Northern Factories<br />Between 1820s and 1860s, industrialization increased<br />Work was dangerous, conditions brutal<br />Workers were tending to machines with little protection<br />Owners cared more about profits than people – no laws existed to protect workers<br />Workers started forming trade unions, would strike for better conditions<br />
  9. 9. The Rise of Cities<br />Industrialization lead to Urbanization<br />People were looking for work, flocked to the factories<br />Urban living was dangerous<br />Run-down structures without plumbing or heat<br />Spread disease and danger of fire<br />1840s 14% lived in cities; 1860s 26%<br />
  10. 10. Immigration<br />Between 1846-1860 1.5 million Irish immigrated to US due to potato famine<br />By 1850 1/3 of workers in Boston were Irish<br />Between 1848-1860 1 million German immigrants came to US<br />Immigrants brought their languages, customs, cultures which were melted into American culture<br />Immigrants remind us of what we take for granted<br />
  11. 11. Immigration<br />Immigration leads to prejudice<br />Know-Nothing Party – a political party formed by nativists who claimed to “know nothing”<br />Called for stricter citizenship laws; prohibit foreigners from holding office<br />By mid-1850s would split into Northern and Southern branches over question of slavery<br />
  12. 12. Southern Cotton Kingdom<br />Chapter 13.3<br />
  13. 13. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom<br />Slavery was disappearing in the North by 1820s; grew stronger in the South<br />Tobacco and rice were former cash crops<br />Sugarcane was too costly to produce<br />Upper South produces tobacco; Deep South produces rice, sugarcane, and cotton<br />1793 Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin – removed seeds from cotton fibers<br />Increase in slave labor and need for land<br />
  14. 14. Industry’s Limited Role in the South<br />North = industry<br />North lacked good land, forced to innovate<br />South = agriculture<br />Lack of capital – money used to invest in business<br />Lack of vision in future markets<br />North used immigrant labor force, South slave labor force<br />Lack of industry and railroads would plague South in Civil War<br />
  15. 15. The South’s People<br />Chapter 13.4<br />
  16. 16. Small Farmers and Rural Poor<br />
  17. 17. Small Farmers and Rural Poor<br />Yeomen farmers made up largest group of Southern white farmers – no slaves<br />Ranged from 50-200 acres<br />Some rented land or were tenant farmers worked on landlord estates<br />Rural poor sustenance farming, proud to be self-sufficient<br />
  18. 18. Plantations<br />Measured wealth by number of slaves and size of land<br />Could be around several thousand acres<br />
  19. 19. Plantations<br />Plantation owners focused on making profits<br />Assessed their fixed costs to determine their profit margins each year<br />Profit was determined by the price of their products (cotton, etc.)<br />Agents would buy the cotton, extend credit to planters <br />Then sell when price rose to make their profit<br />
  20. 20. Plantations<br />Plantation wives watched over slaves who worked in the home, tended to them when sick, supervised construction, kept records<br />Domestic slaves worked indoors<br />Others were skilled laborers (blacksmiths, carpenters, etc.)<br />Most slaves were field hands – supervised by an overseer<br />
  21. 21. Life Under Slavery<br />Worked hard, earned no money, little hope of freedom<br />Feared being resold, separated from family<br />Formed networks of extended families to cope and give stability<br />Marriage was not honored by law, but did occur<br />Held on to their customs, but turned to Christianity for hope<br />Developed spirituals, or religious folk songs<br />
  22. 22. Life Under Slavery<br />Slave Codes – series of laws passed between 1830-1860<br />Slaves were not allowed to gather in large numbers<br />Slaves were not allowed to leave property without authorization<br />It was a crime to teach slaves how to read and write<br />
  23. 23. Life Under Slavery<br />Nat Turner lead a slave rebellion<br />Killed 55 whites in Virginia<br />Was literate<br />Lead to stricter Slave Codes<br />Inspired by the “Holy Spirit”<br />
  24. 24. Life Under Slavery<br />Many slaves attempted running away<br />Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman successfully escaped to the North<br />Used the Underground Railroad which had series of safe houses aiding escapees<br />Most runaways were captured and returned<br />Punishment was usually whipping<br />