The Adams Administration


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Controversies during the administration of President John Adams, including the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

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The Adams Administration

  1. 1. 1797-1801The Constitution in Crisis
  2. 2. Explain how the fundamental principleof limited government is protected bythe Constitution and the Bill ofRights, includingdemocracy, republicanism, federalism,the separation of powers, the systemof checks and balances, and individualrights.Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency ofGeorge Washington, includingcontroversies over domestic andforeign policies and the regionalinterests of the [Jeffersonian]Republicans and the Federalists.
  3. 3. WARNINGS:Political PartisanshipSectionalismForeign EntanglementsRespect the Constitution
  4. 4. ACTIONS:Political PartisanshipSectionalismForeign EntanglementsRespect the Constitution
  5. 5. REPUBLICANJohn Adams Thomas JeffersonFEDERALIST
  6. 6. SECTIONALISM18001796
  7. 7. The Constitution, as originallywritten, made no provisions for politicalparties. The original formula for theselection of the President and Vice Presidentreflected this.
  8. 8. John Adams,PresidentThomas Jefferson,Vice President
  9. 9. Partisan NewspapersNational Gazette(Republican)Gazette of the United States(Federalist)
  10. 10. oldQuerulousBaldBLINDcrippledtOOTHLESSAdams
  11. 11. 1798
  12. 12. I’ve got 99 problems…Partisanship’s only one.
  13. 13. FEDERALISTS The First Party System REPUBLICANSHAMILTONJohn AdamsLeaders JEFFERSONJames MadisonStrong CENTRAL Gov. Federalism States’ RightsAnarchy / Mob Rule Fears TyrannyLOOSE Construction Constitution STRICT ConstructionYESGov. Involvementin EconomyNOVERY YES National Bank NOYES Protective Tariff NOYESFederal Assumptionof State War DebtsNOUrban (Commerce) Support Base Rural (Agrarian)Anglophiles Foreign Policy Francophiles
  14. 14. naval conflictbetween the US and France(1798-1800).The XYZAffair
  15. 15. To thewicked, everything serves as apretext.Voltaire
  16. 16. Naturalization ActAlien Friends ActAlien Enemies Act1798• Allowed the President todeport undesirable aliens• Extended the residencyrequirement forcitizenship from 5 to 14years
  17. 17. Were the Alien Actsconstitutional?To establish an uniformRule of Naturalization…From Article I, Section 8:DELEGATED
  18. 18. 1798Sedition ActOutlawed thepublication of"false, scandalous, andmalicious writing"against the government
  19. 19. Was the Sedition Actconstitutional?From Amendment I:RESERVEDCongress shall make no law…abridging the freedom ofspeech, or of the press…
  20. 20. The Sedition Act violatedthe Constitution on twocounts:• Free Speech & Press (1st)• States’ Rights (10th)EPIC FAILClip from HBO’s John Adams(2:46)
  21. 21. Federalist No. 10AMONG the numerousadvantages promised by a wellconstructed Union, none deserves tobe more accurately developed thanits tendency to break and controlthe violence of faction…
  22. 22. Passed bystate legislaturesThe Constitution is acompact (agreement)between the states, andthey have the authorityto interpret it.
  23. 23. NULLIFICATIONINTERPOSITIONHow far can states goin resistingunconstitutional lawspassed by the federalgovernment?
  24. 24. Kentucky ResolutionsIn questions of power,then, let no more be heard ofconfidence in man, butbind him down…by thechains of the Constitution.
  25. 25. Jeffersonto John Taylor of Caroline“A little patience, and weshall see the reign of witchespass over, their spells dissolve,and the people, recovering theirtrue sight, restore theirgovernment to its trueprinciples.”
  26. 26. 18001796REVOLUTION?
  27. 27. 05101520251798 1800Parties in the U.S. SenateSixth and SeventhCongressesFederalistsRepublicans0102030405060701798 1800Parties in the U.S. HouseSixth and SeventhCongressesFederalistsRepublicans