Labor Unions

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Discusses the popular labor unions, leaders and tactics used.

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Labor Unions

  1. 1. Labor Unions Workers had to fight to end exploitation.
  2. 2. Labor Unions . . . . Key Organizations:
  3. 3. Knights of Labor: <ul><li>Opened membership to all workers </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated 8 hr. day/ equal pay for equal work </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred arbitration to strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Under Terence Powderly, expanded membership in 1880’s </li></ul>Terence Powderly
  4. 4. American Federation of Labor: <ul><li>A craft union led by Samuel Gompers </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated collective bargaining with threat of strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on better pay and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>More associated with violence </li></ul>Samuel Gompers
  5. 5. American Railway Union: <ul><li>Founded by Eugene V. Debs </li></ul><ul><li>Included skilled and unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Led way to the foundation of the American Socialist Party </li></ul><ul><li>Won successful strike in 1894/ then faded </li></ul>Eugene V. Debs
  6. 6. International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union: <ul><li>Organized in 1909 by Pauline Newman </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to assist women in the garment workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly advocated better conditions in the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy of the “Triangle Fire” of 1911 </li></ul>146 workers died during this fire as the doors were locked to keep workers inside during the day, and the fire escape collapsed.
  7. 7. Tools of the Union: <ul><li>Collective Bargaining: negotiations between representatives of labor and management to reach agreement on wages, benefits and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration : allowing outside “referee” to decide issues between sides </li></ul><ul><li>Strike : refusal to work until demands are met </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some Strikes Turned Violent: <ul><li>Haymarket Square: 1886- confrontation between striking workers and police resulted in several deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Strike: 1892- steel workers against Carnegie fought hired “thugs” </li></ul><ul><li>Pullman Strike: 1894- Debs’ workers were attacked by “strike breakers” resulting in President Cleveland sending out troops </li></ul>Sketch of tension leading to violence during the Pullman Strike
  9. 9. GAINS: <ul><li>Limited work hours </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated work conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved rights to collective bargain </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of violence led public to distrust unions and fear threat of communism (Red Scare) </li></ul>

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