Chapter 8 Islamic Art

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  • [Point out fractal theory, quantum theory, and the idea of a holographic universe. All of these ideas were known to Islamic mystics who believed the true nature of the universe was revealed in this form – much like Pythagoreans. - Ricard]
  • [Point out fractal theory, quantum theory, and the idea of a holographic universe. All of these ideas were known to Islamic mystics who believed the true nature of the universe was revealed in this form – much like Pythagoreans. - Ricard]The Kaaba was the a cubical shrine built for God by Abraham but full of idols due to pilgrimage. Muhammad removed the idols. This example was followed by later Muslims who discouraged the use of images but instead chose non-representational ornaments using complex geometric designs.
  • Chapter 8 Islamic Art

    1. 1. Chapter 8: Islamic Art<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
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    3. 3. Key Ideas<br />Chief building of worship is the mosque<br />Worship is directed to Mecca through an arch called a mihrab<br />Due to religious law, calligraphy is most prized art form as pictorial representations are not allowed<br />Islamic textiles are treasured as great works of woven art<br />
    4. 4. Historical Background<br />Islam was founded during the 7th century by Muhammad <br />Originally al-Amin merchant from Mecca<br />The Qur'an is the word of Allah sent to Muhammad by an angel<br />Muhammad died in 632 AD,<br />Four of his followers became caliphs (“successor”)<br />
    5. 5. Historical Background<br />By 750 AD, Islam spread to North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Spain, and India<br />Caliphates conquered neighboring lands<br />From 700’s to 1400’s Muslims were leading merchants<br />They used coins and kept detailed records<br />
    6. 6. Historical Background<br />As trade increased, cities grew<br />Cities on trade routes (Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus) became centers of government and learning<br />Made contributions to math, astronomy, chemistry, medicine<br />Preserved writings of ancient Greek thinkers<br />
    7. 7. Historical Background<br />After the Mongols sack of Baghdad in 1258, Islam split<br />East: South and Central Asia, Iran and Turkey<br />West: Near East and Arabic Peninsula, North Africa, parts of Sicily and Spain<br />Two major forms exist: Shiite and Sunni<br />
    8. 8. Five Pillars of Islam<br />There is no God besides Allah and Mohammed is his prophet (Shahadah)<br />Must pray 5 times a day (Salat – consists of 5 prayers)<br />Give to the poor (Zakat)<br />Fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)<br />A pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life (Hajj)<br />
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    10. 10. Patronage of Islamic Art<br />Most patronage is by rulers and social elite<br />Items of value (textiles, metalwork, ceramics) produced for an art market<br />Calligraphy was most popular art form<br />Calligraphers were more respected artists in Islam<br />Started off anonymous<br />By 13th-14th century, signed examples appear<br />Apprenticeship was main form of training<br />
    11. 11. Islamic Architecture<br />Chapter 8<br />
    12. 12. Key Features of Islamic Architecture<br />Mosques were oriented towards Mecca<br />The qiblah (direction to Mecca) marked by mihrab<br />Minarets served to call for prayer<br />Consisted of a base, shaft, internal staircase, gallery<br />Mosques can either be hypostyle or centrally planned<br />
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    24. 24. Islamic Art<br />Chapter 8<br />
    25. 25. Characteristics of Islamic Art<br />
    26. 26. Characteristics of Islamic Art<br />Used only a straightedge and compass<br />Artwork encompassed high level math; high order thinking and geometry<br />The universe demonstrates intelligent design, based on logic, or mind of divinity<br />Patterns radiate from a central point<br />Prayer rugs highly regarded; featured geometric designs<br />
    27. 27. Characteristics of Islamic Art<br />Islamic art is intellectual<br />Not emotional, but expresses awe and divine harmony<br />Images are avoided (aniconism); due to the tradition of Muhammad removing images from the Kaaba<br />

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