OB - Individual Differences

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Partially based on the Kreitner/Kinicki (2009, McGraw Hill/Irwin) textbook with updated data from a variety of cited sources.

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  • Since we are beginning with individual differences, this model should help you organize the types of differences we are considering. First look at the left side of the figure that illustrates the components that are unique to the individual. At the center is self-concept. This is the concept (or assessment) the individual has of himself or herself. Think of these assessments as physical, social, and spiritual or moral. At this level, there are four terms you must be able to identify: Self-esteem – a belief about one’s own worth based on an overall self-evaluation. Self-efficacy – a person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. Self-monitoring – the extent to which a person observes his or her own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the situation. Organizational identification – a psychological process whereby one comes to integrate beliefs about one’s organization into one’s identity, which should result in employees with higher levels of organizational identification being more loyal, committed, and harder working. We’ll talk more about personal values and personality traits later, but let’s look at the forms of self-expression mentioned in this model. Abilities are what we are able to accomplish. Emotions, the human reactions to achievements and setbacks, will be covered in terms of emotional intelligence. Job satisfaction is how satisfied one is with his or her job. Now that you’ve seen an overview of the individual differences and how these differences are displayed, let’s discuss a few of these concepts in more detail.
  • Self-Esteem is one’s overall self-evaluation. Self-esteem develops by our life experiences and how others treat us. Researchers measure self-esteem by asking the extent to which an individual agrees with statements such as “I feel I am a person of worth, the equal of other people” or “I feel I do not have much to be proud of.” For example, those with high self-esteem see themselves as worthwhile, capable, and acceptable and would choose letter a on this slide. Those with low self-esteem would choose letter b and would most likely have trouble dealing effectively with others because of being hampered by self-doubts. Recent research has found that those with low self-esteem tend to have health problems, low-quality social relationships, and are vulnerable to depression.
  • Source: http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/isad6/papers/watson6.html. Jennifer Watson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP is a Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at . Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas
  • So if you watch a lot of television or other mass media, isn’t this the image that we get of what self esteem means? But those five “pillars” if you will, what happens to them over time, or outside of our control?
  • Live consciously: Be actively and fully engaged in what you do and with whom you interact. Be self-accepting: Don’t be overly judgmental or critical of your thoughts and actions. Take personal responsibility: Take full responsibility for your decisions and actions in life’s journey. Be self –assertive : Be authentic and willing to defend your beliefs when interacting with others, rather than bending to their will to be accepted or liked. Live purposefully: Have clear near-term and long-term goals and realistic plans for achieving them to create a sense of control over your life. Have personal integrity: Be true to your word and your values.
  • How strongly do you believe in yourself. I started with this image of reaching a successful peak personally or professionally, but
  • The fact is that none of us succeed on our own. Your ability to succeed in life, personally and professionally is impacted directly by your self-esteem and self-efficacy, but is also highly impacted by the mentors, associates, and encouragement and satisfaction you receive in working with others. Donny Deutsch inherited an ad agency founded by his father, but didn’t allow that to interfere with his ability to grow the company and then sell it for $265 million so he could go on to other ventures, including publishing several books, celebrity apprentice, The Big Idea with Donny Deutsch and he regularly appears on Morning Joe (MSNBC).
  • The first is prior experience – Have you done this before and been successful? This is the most important driver of your self-efficacy. What past experiences would be relevant in our example? [Brief pause.] Things such as prior international assignments, traveling abroad, and having a knowledge of the language. Next is behavior models – What success or failure have others that you know experienced? Third is persuasion from others – What kind of support does your organization provide? For example, will they help your spouse get a job, will they help you plan your re-entry back into the US? Do they present it as “you are really the right person for the job” or is it more that they “just need someone to go.” Fourth is assessment of physical or emotional states – Would you miss home and everything that is familiar to you? Maybe you have a health condition that you feel may prohibit your ability to perform well. If you have positive beliefs in these areas, you will try harder and actively take steps to succeed. You will exhibit behavioral patterns listed here. For example, if you are fluent in a foreign language you may have self-efficacy beliefs that you will be successful in learning another foreign language. So if your assignment is in France and you don’t speak French, you will be more likely to prepare for your assignment by learning to speak French.
  • From your own experience, is anyone willing to talk about examples of the difference between high and low self-efficacy?
  • Quotes source: http://www.leaderworks.com/knowyourself/quotes.html Self-monitoring is the degree to which you are aware of how your actions and behaviors affect others and monitoring those behaviors to “fit in” or adapt to the situation you’re in. Self-monitoring is not an either-or proposition, it’s a matter of degree. The dangers associated with high self-monitors who regulate their expressive self-presentation in order to present the desired public appearance is that they may be considered to be insincere chameleons. On the other hand, low self-monitors lack either the ability or the motivation to regulate their expressive self-presentations; therefore, these individuals may be viewed as insensitive. Research has shown that high self-monitoring is positively related to career success and relates to more promotions than low self-monitoring.
  • Really?
  • Source: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/meriw007/psy_1001/2011/11/the-big-five-of-personality.php
  • Source: http://www.gp-training.net/training/leadership/five_facets.htm.
  • Which two of the Big Five personality traits were found to be the most stable? Answer: C Does taking this or other tests mean that that is who you are forever? You were required to take the Big 5 basic test, who wants to share what they learned?
  • The proactive personality was derived from the big 5 trait of conscientiousness. Researchers Batemen and Crant define the proactive personality as someone who exhibits the above. Why is being proactive often more effective than a reactive personality? Shall I pull out the “Rush” song “Free Will” – “If you choose not to decide you still have made a choice.”
  • Another important individual difference you will encounter in the workplace is locus of control . An individual has an external locus of control if he or she attributes outcomes to circumstances beyond his or her control. An individual has an internal locus of control if he or she attributes outcomes to his or her own actions. Let’s answer the big question: “Why should we care about locus of control?” Well, studies have shown that compared to externals, internals tend to experience greater work motivation, stronger effort-performance expectations, higher performance when performance leads to valued rewards, a stronger relationship between job satisfaction and performance, higher salaries, and less anxiety. In addition, locus of control has implications for reward systems and motivation that will be discussed in later chapters.
  • Successful performance depends on the right combination of effort, ability, and skill. An ability , or the capacity to perform, represents a broad and stable characteristic responsible for a person’s maximum performance on mental and physical tasks. A skill is the specific capacity to physically manipulate objects. Together, abilities and skills can be referred to more broadly as “competencies.” Finally, effort is energy focused on performing a task. Are equal amounts of these traits used consistently?
  • Cognitive relates to knowledge and intellectual skills. Psychomotor relates to physical movement and motor skills. Both terms have a large number of subsets we’re not delving into here. The answer is? C. .1, which is higher than the alcohol limits in the country.
  • Intelligence is the capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. In research attempting to understand the nature of the concept “intelligence” Charles Spearman proposed that there are basically two ways to categorize cognitive abilities: general and specific. General mental ability helps you in all cognitive tasks. Now you may all be thinking that you have high general mental ability but would admit that there are some cognitive tasks that are more difficult for you than others. For example, perhaps you did particularly well on the verbal part of the SAT and worse on the quantitative part or vice versa. These would be considered more specific mental abilities. Does anyone know what the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is? Several intelligence tests have been created and used to select employees. In fact, intelligence has been found to be the best predictor of job performance, better than personality or past experience. In fact, several professional football teams give their potential players the Wonderlic test which is basically a timed test that asks you a variety of verbal, reasoning, and quantitative-type questions. You have 12 minutes to answer 50 questions. A score of 21 is considered average intelligence. Beyond their physical skills, it is also important for players to be able to interpret and remember plays in order to execute them well. Some examples of those who scored poorly, but have fared pretty well in the pros are Donovan McNabb (12), Mike Vick (20), Daunte Culpepper (15) and Jeff George (10). [ Wonderlic Provides Easy Entertainment by Rob Riva http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/2004/04/04-14-04tdc/04-14-04dsports-column-01.asp] Other specific intelligence-related predictors of job performance are: Numerical ability Spatial ability Inductive reasoning
  • Graphic Source: http://be-human.org/2008/03/24/gardner%E2%80%99s-theory-of-multiple-intelligence/ Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences includes not only cognitive abilities, but social and physical abilities and skills as well. This appeals to some educators and parents who know that some children are gifted in certain ways but may not do well on an IQ test. This is because most IQ tests measure only the first two intelligences on this list.
  • An emotion is a complex human reaction (both felt and displayed) to personal achievements and setbacks. We can distinguish between positive (blue) and negative (pink) emotions. Negative emotions are the result of frustration and failure when pursuing one’s goals. So now, let’s talk about how emotions come into play at work…. One strategy a company may use is to reward new, innovative ideas or excellent effort that led to achieving the company’s goals is to have a surprise celebration where everyone gathers around and the awardee stands on a chair. Everyone claps and the individual is given a token of appreciation such as a gift certificate or a small bonus. This is done very publicly so that everyone knows what the individual did that deserved recognition. So how would this make you feel if your coworker was awarded in this way? You may be happy for the employee, but it may also give you some feelings of envy that you wish that that would happen to you. Therefore, the slightly negative emotion might spur and motivate action in you. Employers can use recognition and rewards to motivate others to achieve great things.
  • Emotional intelligence, which is defined here, is related to Gardner’s concept of interpersonal intelligence. The four key components of emotional intelligence are self-awareness, self-management, social competence, and relationship management. In addition, other OB research on emotions is yielding interesting and instructive insights in two areas, emotional contagion (that both foul moods and good moods are contagious) and emotional labor (that which is required to mask true feelings and emotions). Clearly, managers need emotional intelligence in order to be attuned to and responsive to the emotional states and needs of their people to help improve productivity and job satisfaction. 1995: Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence. Graphic Source: http://kelseyrush.com/2010/09/the-link-between-emotional-intelligence-job-satisfaction/
  • Emotions are contagious True - People can “catch” one another’s bad mood or displayed negative emotions and likewise with positive emotions. So think about that – being negative can decrease the morale of those you work with. Managers who are trying to help people through an organizational change, need to stay positive and highlight the positive aspects in order to keep the morale of their employee high. Masking one’s true feelings may cause long-term psychological and physical problems. True - Emotional labor is another important dynamic – when you have to act in opposition to your true emotions for an extended period of time. For example, --“faking” a positive attitude for the sake of the customer or organization can cause a build up of resentment if not given a healthy expressive outlet; Emotional repression can lead to emotional exhaustion and burnout For example, the flight attendant in the movie clip we just saw has had to repress her true emotions. Hopefully she’s not having to deal with people like that too often but if she does it could cause some psychological damage. Women’s felt emotions are no different than men’s. True - Research indicates that no gender difference in felt emotions are found, but women tend to be more emotionally expressive than men. This may mean that women are a little less likely to burn out in their jobs but they also need to be able to let their emotions come out in constructive ways. 9/the-link-between-emotional-intelligence-job-satisfaction/
  • D – self-efficacy E. – Conscientiousness B – Self-monitor F – emotional intelligence A – Self Esteem C – internal locus of control
  • D – self-efficacy E. – Conscientiousness B – Self-monitor F – emotional intelligence A – Self Esteem C – internal locus of control
  • Psychological Capital: Striving for success by developing one’s self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency [PsyCap is] an individual's positive psychological state of development and is characterized by: (1.) having confidence ( self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; (2.) making a positive attribution ( optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; (3.) persevering toward goals, and when necessary, redirecting paths to goals ( hope) in order to succeed; and (4.) when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond ( resiliency) to attain success. Deliberate Practice A demanding, repetitive, and assisted program to improve one’s performance Luck - Lucky people make their own good fortune; here are ways to improve your luck 1. Be active and involved: Be open to new experiences and networking with others to encounter more lucky chance opportunities. 2. Listen to your hunches about luck: Learn when to listen to your intuitive gut feelings. Meditation and mind-cleaning activities can help. 3. Expect to be lucky no matter how bad the situation: Remain optimistic and work to make your expectations a self-fulfilling prophecy. 4 . Turn your bad luck into good fortune: Take control of bad situations by remaining calm, positive, and focused on a better future. Humility A realistic assessment of one’s own contribution and the recognition of the contribution of others and luck to one’s success
  • Reason: Allowing members to understand the need for change. Research: Providing important information that supports the reason. Resonance: The understanding of change must reach to the core beliefs of members. Redescriptions: The basis for change must be expressed in multiple forms (numbers, graphics, etc.). Schein suggests that the stories which bind members together are the most important (Schein, 2004) Resources and Rewards: Members must have the tools they need to complete the change, and a reward for success (beyond simply keeping your job). Real World Events: Change will not be successful if it doesn’t relate to real life and what’s occurring outside of the organization. Resistances: Every human comes from their personal paradigms and resistance to change is inevitable, but can be overcome.
  • Where are you going?
  • OB - Individual Differences

    1. 1. BUSA 220 Spring 2012 Professor Wallace
    2. 2. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    3. 3. <ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>What would a person with high self-esteem say? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel I am a person of worth, the equal of other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel I do not have much to be proud of. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Source: http://www.videojugpages.com/pages/14712-Self-acceptance-and-Self-esteem
    5. 6. Source: http://www.videojugpages.com/pages/14712-Self-acceptance-and-Self-esteem
    6. 7. <ul><li>A person’s belief about their chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Once you realize there are no geniuses out there, you can think, ‘I can do that.’ One reason I’ve succeeded is I have that naïve sense of entitlement.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donny Deutsch, Deutsch, Inc. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>A person’s belief about their chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Once you realize there are no geniuses out there, you can think, ‘I can do that.’ One reason I’ve succeeded is I have that naïve sense of entitlement.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donny Deutsch, Deutsch, Inc. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Prior Experience Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Feedback Behavioral Patterns Results High “ I know I can do this job” Self-efficacy beliefs Behavior Models- Mentors Persuasion from Others Assessment of physical/ emotional state <ul><li>Be active—select best opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the situation - avoid or neutralize obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Set goals - establish standards </li></ul><ul><li>Plan, prepare, practice </li></ul><ul><li>Try hard: persevere </li></ul><ul><li>Creatively solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from setbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize success </li></ul><ul><li>Limit Stress </li></ul>Success!
    9. 10. Prior Experience Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Feedback Behavioral Patterns Results Low “ I don’t think I can get the job done ” Self-efficacy beliefs Behavior Models- Mentors Persuasion from Others Assessment of physical/ emotional state <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid difficult tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Weak aspirations and low commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on personal deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Weak effort </li></ul><ul><li>Quit or discouraged by setbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Blame setbacks on bad luck or lack of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Increased worry, stress and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Make excuses </li></ul>Success!
    10. 11. <ul><li>Know Thyself </li></ul><ul><li>What are the dangers of being a: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Self-Monitor? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Self-Monitor? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is high or low-self-monitoring related to job success? </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>You have just watched a very talented individual receive an award you thought your friend should have been given </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run up on stage, grab the microphone and make an ass of yourself in front of millions of people . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort your friend and celebrate a decision you had no control over to begin with. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Source
    13. 15. <ul><li>Which two of the Big Five personality traits were found to be the most stable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness & Emotional Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to Experience & Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion & Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness & Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>Initiative and Perseverance </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to handle pressure and quickly bounce back from personal and career set-backs </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>External: Outcomes are tied to fate or luck. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal: One has some measure of control and response to consequences. </li></ul>
    16. 18. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    17. 20. <ul><li>Staying awake 24 hours impairs cognitive psychomotor performance to the same degree as having a _____% blood alcohol level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.01 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>General mental ability </li></ul><ul><li>Specific mental ability </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence-related predictors of job performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><li>Most Commonly Used: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Word fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul>
    20. 24. Happiness /Joy Pride Love/ affection Relief Anger Fright/ anxiety Guilt/ shame Sadness Envy/ jealousy Disgust Negative Emotions (goal incongruent) Positive Emotions (goal congruent)
    21. 25. (Goleman, 1995)
    22. 26. <ul><li>True (A) or False (B) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Masking one’s true feelings may cause long-term psychological and physical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s felt emotions are no different than men’s. </li></ul>
    23. 27. <ul><li>High Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>High Self-Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>High Internal Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>High Self-Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>High Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>High Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>I’m good at math </li></ul><ul><li>I’m a dependable, responsible person </li></ul><ul><li>I know when to speak up and when not to during work meetings </li></ul><ul><li>I effectively keep my emotions under control </li></ul><ul><li>I am a person of worth </li></ul><ul><li>I believe I am the cause of the good or bad things that happen to me </li></ul>
    24. 28. <ul><li>High Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>High Self-Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>High Internal Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>High Self-Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>High Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>High Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>I’m good at math (D) </li></ul><ul><li>I’m a dependable, responsible person (E) </li></ul><ul><li>I know when to speak up and when not to during work meetings (B) </li></ul><ul><li>I effectively keep my emotions under control (F) </li></ul><ul><li>I am a person of worth (A) </li></ul><ul><li>I believe I am the cause of the good or bad things that happen to me (C) </li></ul>
    25. 30. <ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Redescriptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Real World Events </li></ul><ul><li>Resistances </li></ul>
    26. 31. <ul><li>Companies today aren’t managing their employee’s careers; knowledge workers must, effectively, be their own chief executive officers. It’s up to you to carve out your place, to know when to change course, and to keep yourself engaged and productive during a work life that may span 50 years. To do these things well, you’ll need to cultivate a deep understanding of yourself—not only how you learn, [but] how you work with others, what your values are, and where you can make the greatest contribution. Because only when you operate from strengths can you achieve true excellence. </li></ul>
    27. 32. <ul><li>Disciplined Mind – Seek to be an expert. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing Mind – Learn to sort and communicate diverse data in multiple forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Mind – Change how others think and behave. </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful Mind – Understand and accept diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Mind – Behave not based on your rights but responsibilities to others. </li></ul>
    28. 33. <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles Inventory (done) </li></ul><ul><li>Big Five (done) </li></ul><ul><li>Values? </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams? </li></ul><ul><li>New skills? </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT? </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors? </li></ul>

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