SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 30
Download to read offline
Individual differences determine our preferred behaviors.


By studying and understanding these tendencies, OB can
  more accurately predict individual and group
  interactions.
    Self awareness - a conscious understanding of ourselves
     (personality, talents, preferences and biases).
    Awareness of others - recognizing and being attuned to the
     styles, moods, and personality of others.




             Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.          2-2
Heredity and environment
   Heredity sets the limits on the development
   of personality characteristics.
   Environment determines development within
   these limits.
   About a 50-50 heredity-environment split.


         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-3
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-4
Personality
   Combination of characteristics that
    comprise the unique nature of a person as
    that person reacts and interacts with others.




         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-5
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-6
People and
            circumstances                                  I control what
            control my fate!                               happens to me!




EXTERNALS



                                                             INTERNALS


                Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.                    2-7
What are your Machiavellian tendencies?

Take the Mach test to find out.




         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-8
Self-monitoring
   A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior
    to external, situational (environmental)
    factors.




          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-9
Life stressors
   Family events

   Economic difficulties

   Personal affairs




          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-10
Stress and performance
                        Constructive stress (or eustress)
                          Moderate levels of stress act in a
                           positive way for both individuals
                           and organization.


                        Destructive stress (or distress)
                          Low and especially high levels
                           of stress act in a negative way
                           for both individuals and
                           organization.


Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.           2-11
Values
   Broad preferences concerning appropriate
   courses of action or outcomes.
   Values influence behavior and attitudes.




         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-12
Terminal values
   Reflect a person’s preferences concerning
    the “ends” to be achieved.

Instrumental values
   reflect a person’s beliefs about the means
    for achieving desired ends


         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-13
Gordon Allport’s values categories
   Theoretical- discover truth through reasoning.

   Economic – usefulness, practicality.

   Aesthetic – value beauty and form.

   Social - value people and relationships.

   Political – interest in power and influence.

   Religious – interest in unity.

           Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-14
Maglino’s categories of workplace values
   Achievement

   Helping and concern for others

   Honesty

   Fairness



         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-15
Value congruence
   Occurs when individuals express positive
   feelings upon encountering others who
   exhibit values similar to their own.




         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-16
Current trends in the workplace:
   From valuing shared values such as
    duty, honesty, organizational loyalty.
   To valuing meaningful work, self-
    fulfillment, and pursuit of leisure.



           Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-17
Culture
   The learned and shared way of thinking and
   acting among a group of people or society.




          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-18
1)   Power Distance                                              How willing are people to
                                                                  accept status and power?
                                                                 How strongly to people
3)   Uncertainty avoidance                                        preferred structured
                                                                  organizations?
                                                                 Which is more valued – the
5)   Individualism-collectivism
                                                                  individual or the group?
                                                                 Are stereotypical m/f traits
7)   Masculinity-femininity                                       valued?
                                                                 Save for the future and be
9)   Long-term/ short-term                                        persistent, or ‘live for
                                                                  today’?
     orientation

                   Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.                            2-19
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-20
Workforce diversity
   The presence of individual human
    characteristics that make people different
    from one another.
   Practices and policies that seek to include
    people who are considered in some way
    different from the prevailing group.

          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-21
Stereotyping
   Occurs when one thinks of an individual
   belonging to a group and the characteristics
   commonly associated with the group are
   assigned to the individual in question.



         Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-22
Benefits of focusing on diversity:
   Diverse talents and backgrounds contribute to
    competitive advantage.
   Promotes creativity and innovation.
   Workforce better reflects customer base.
   Increased employment increases productivity
    and benefits larger community.
   Reduced legal noncompliance costs.

          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-23
   Race                                           Religion
   Gender
                                                   Sexual Orientation
   Ethnicity
                                                   Marital Status
   Economic
                                                   Parental Status
   Education
   Disability                                     Military

   Religion                                       Experience

        Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.                     2-24
Gender
   After steady progress,
    advancement of
    women to higher
    levels has stalled.
   “Leaking pipeline”
    #of women decreases
    the more senior the
    roles become.

             Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-25
Race and Ethnicity
   Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 includes
    protections against discrimination in all areas of
    recruitment, hiring, and promotion.
   Workplace attitudes have changed: from focus
    on legal compliance to a focus on inclusion.



           Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-26
Social Identity Theory
   Developed to understand the psychological
    basis of discrimination.
   Categorizing yourself as a member of a
    social group leads to ‘in-group’
    identification.


          Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-27
Age
  Diverse workforce (40% Baby Boomers, 36%
  GenXers, 16% Millenials).
  Differences in work ethic among groups can
  result in organizational stress.
  Interesting discussion of this subject on current
  blogs. (e.g. CNNMoney)

        Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-28
Disability
    Any form of impairment or handicap.


    Advocates are seeking new definition in order to
     remove the stigma that has been associated with
     the term ‘disability




             Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-29
Important lessons for valuing and supporting
  diversity.
   Appreciate differences.

   Acknowledge that diversity shapes the organization.

   Respect the needs of all.

   Practice inclusion.

   Avoid linking differences to stereotypes.

   Commit to social responsibility.


           Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   2-30

More Related Content

What's hot

Approaches to organizational behaviour
Approaches to organizational behaviourApproaches to organizational behaviour
Approaches to organizational behaviourDanish Shoukat
 
Ob factor affecting perception ppt
Ob factor affecting perception pptOb factor affecting perception ppt
Ob factor affecting perception pptStudent council
 
History of Organisational Behaviour
History of Organisational BehaviourHistory of Organisational Behaviour
History of Organisational BehaviourRaj Shravanthi
 
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1Home
 
Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development
Human Resource Management and Human Resource DevelopmentHuman Resource Management and Human Resource Development
Human Resource Management and Human Resource DevelopmentMs. Shery Asthana
 
Organization development
Organization developmentOrganization development
Organization developmentKrishna Kanth
 
Personality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational BehaviorPersonality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational Behaviorshrinivas kulkarni
 
Social Loafing
Social Loafing Social Loafing
Social Loafing AyshaHudha
 
Organization culture
Organization cultureOrganization culture
Organization cultureBhavneet Kaur
 
Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Dr Kiran Kakade
 
Group structure and performance
Group structure and performanceGroup structure and performance
Group structure and performanceDR. RHEA SANTILLAN
 
Definition and nature of organizational development
Definition and nature of organizational developmentDefinition and nature of organizational development
Definition and nature of organizational developmentgaurav jain
 
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour Theory
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour TheoryOhio State Leadership Behaviour Theory
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour TheoryAnuj Gandhi
 
What Is An Attitude
What Is An AttitudeWhat Is An Attitude
What Is An AttitudeIBS
 
Psychological contract
Psychological contractPsychological contract
Psychological contractDuyen Cao
 

What's hot (20)

Approaches to organizational behaviour
Approaches to organizational behaviourApproaches to organizational behaviour
Approaches to organizational behaviour
 
Ob factor affecting perception ppt
Ob factor affecting perception pptOb factor affecting perception ppt
Ob factor affecting perception ppt
 
History of Organisational Behaviour
History of Organisational BehaviourHistory of Organisational Behaviour
History of Organisational Behaviour
 
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1
Social psychology in Organization.ppt 1
 
Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development
Human Resource Management and Human Resource DevelopmentHuman Resource Management and Human Resource Development
Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development
 
Organizational stress
Organizational stressOrganizational stress
Organizational stress
 
Organization development
Organization developmentOrganization development
Organization development
 
Personality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational BehaviorPersonality - Organisational Behavior
Personality - Organisational Behavior
 
Personality and values chapter 5 ( organizational behavior)
Personality and values chapter 5 ( organizational behavior)Personality and values chapter 5 ( organizational behavior)
Personality and values chapter 5 ( organizational behavior)
 
Social Loafing
Social Loafing Social Loafing
Social Loafing
 
Organization culture
Organization cultureOrganization culture
Organization culture
 
Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values Organizational Behavior : Values
Organizational Behavior : Values
 
Emergence of ob
Emergence of obEmergence of ob
Emergence of ob
 
Foundations of group behavior
Foundations of group behaviorFoundations of group behavior
Foundations of group behavior
 
Group structure and performance
Group structure and performanceGroup structure and performance
Group structure and performance
 
Definition and nature of organizational development
Definition and nature of organizational developmentDefinition and nature of organizational development
Definition and nature of organizational development
 
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour Theory
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour TheoryOhio State Leadership Behaviour Theory
Ohio State Leadership Behaviour Theory
 
What Is An Attitude
What Is An AttitudeWhat Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
 
Organisational stress
Organisational stressOrganisational stress
Organisational stress
 
Psychological contract
Psychological contractPsychological contract
Psychological contract
 

Similar to Individual differences,values, and diversity

Ob&l midterm ans by franklin
Ob&l midterm ans by franklinOb&l midterm ans by franklin
Ob&l midterm ans by franklinSaw Franklin Aye
 
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptx
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptxEmbracing_Your_Diversity.pptx
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptxEaglefly Fly
 
Introducing Organizational Behaviour
Introducing Organizational BehaviourIntroducing Organizational Behaviour
Introducing Organizational BehaviourHazwan Afiqq
 
Week 5 discussion
Week 5 discussionWeek 5 discussion
Week 5 discussionpejansen
 
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence MillerCultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence MillerKeith Miller
 
Generations: A Perspective to Employee Engagement
Generations:  A Perspective to Employee EngagementGenerations:  A Perspective to Employee Engagement
Generations: A Perspective to Employee Engagementsbasu_71
 
Generational Differences in the Workplace
Generational Differences in the WorkplaceGenerational Differences in the Workplace
Generational Differences in the Workplacemiraclecln
 
Understanding Generativity - 2018 Edition
Understanding Generativity - 2018 EditionUnderstanding Generativity - 2018 Edition
Understanding Generativity - 2018 EditionDon West, Jr.
 
Introducing organizational behavior
Introducing organizational behaviorIntroducing organizational behavior
Introducing organizational behaviorFatima Aljasmi
 
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...Samantha Brown
 
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptxch-02-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptxBeamlak5
 
Bba business ethics 1
Bba business ethics 1Bba business ethics 1
Bba business ethics 1NGAMING1
 
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago. Please.docx
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago.  Please.docxProf Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago.  Please.docx
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago. Please.docxwkyra78
 
Workfoce DIversity
Workfoce DIversityWorkfoce DIversity
Workfoce DIversityAmanNawaz3
 
W2 module 2
W2 module 2W2 module 2
W2 module 2GBU2012
 
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequality
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequalityBradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequality
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequalityJohn Bradford
 

Similar to Individual differences,values, and diversity (20)

Ch02
Ch02Ch02
Ch02
 
Ch02
Ch02Ch02
Ch02
 
Ob&l midterm ans by franklin
Ob&l midterm ans by franklinOb&l midterm ans by franklin
Ob&l midterm ans by franklin
 
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptx
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptxEmbracing_Your_Diversity.pptx
Embracing_Your_Diversity.pptx
 
Introducing Organizational Behaviour
Introducing Organizational BehaviourIntroducing Organizational Behaviour
Introducing Organizational Behaviour
 
Week 5 discussion
Week 5 discussionWeek 5 discussion
Week 5 discussion
 
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence MillerCultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller
 
Generations: A Perspective to Employee Engagement
Generations:  A Perspective to Employee EngagementGenerations:  A Perspective to Employee Engagement
Generations: A Perspective to Employee Engagement
 
Generational Differences in the Workplace
Generational Differences in the WorkplaceGenerational Differences in the Workplace
Generational Differences in the Workplace
 
Understanding Generativity - 2018 Edition
Understanding Generativity - 2018 EditionUnderstanding Generativity - 2018 Edition
Understanding Generativity - 2018 Edition
 
Introducing organizational behavior
Introducing organizational behaviorIntroducing organizational behavior
Introducing organizational behavior
 
ten things
ten thingsten things
ten things
 
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...
Essay On Nutritious Food. A healthy eating essay sample and professional writ...
 
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptxch-02-PPTaccessible.pptx
ch-02-PPTaccessible.pptx
 
Bba business ethics 1
Bba business ethics 1Bba business ethics 1
Bba business ethics 1
 
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago. Please.docx
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago.  Please.docxProf Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago.  Please.docx
Prof Mac.Queen,You did this forum a couple of weeks ago. Please.docx
 
Communication
CommunicationCommunication
Communication
 
Workfoce DIversity
Workfoce DIversityWorkfoce DIversity
Workfoce DIversity
 
W2 module 2
W2 module 2W2 module 2
W2 module 2
 
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequality
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequalityBradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequality
Bradford mvsu fall 2012 intro 211 stratification and inequality
 

More from Fatima Aljasmi

نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصال
نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصالنظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصال
نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصالFatima Aljasmi
 
Dubai residence monthly newsletter jan feb 2011
Dubai residence monthly newsletter  jan  feb 2011Dubai residence monthly newsletter  jan  feb 2011
Dubai residence monthly newsletter jan feb 2011Fatima Aljasmi
 
Methods and methodology
Methods and methodologyMethods and methodology
Methods and methodologyFatima Aljasmi
 
Methods and methodology
Methods and methodologyMethods and methodology
Methods and methodologyFatima Aljasmi
 

More from Fatima Aljasmi (14)

Ppt chapter08
Ppt chapter08Ppt chapter08
Ppt chapter08
 
نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصال
نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصالنظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصال
نظريات البناء التنظيمي لوسائل الإتصال
 
Dubai residence monthly newsletter jan feb 2011
Dubai residence monthly newsletter  jan  feb 2011Dubai residence monthly newsletter  jan  feb 2011
Dubai residence monthly newsletter jan feb 2011
 
Methods and methodology
Methods and methodologyMethods and methodology
Methods and methodology
 
Methods and methodology
Methods and methodologyMethods and methodology
Methods and methodology
 
كتاب السر
كتاب السركتاب السر
كتاب السر
 
وااااااااو
وااااااااووااااااااو
وااااااااو
 
Ob & management
Ob & managementOb & management
Ob & management
 
Motivation theories
Motivation theoriesMotivation theories
Motivation theories
 
Ob & management
Ob & managementOb & management
Ob & management
 
Point of sales
Point of salesPoint of sales
Point of sales
 
4 product decisions
4 product decisions4 product decisions
4 product decisions
 
2 market segmentation
2 market segmentation2 market segmentation
2 market segmentation
 
Ielts speaking format
Ielts speaking formatIelts speaking format
Ielts speaking format
 

Recently uploaded

How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media Component
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media ComponentVinícius Portella In Media Res Media Component
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media Component
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media ComponentVinícius Portella In Media Res Media Component
Vinícius Portella In Media Res Media Component
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 

Individual differences,values, and diversity

  • 1.
  • 2. Individual differences determine our preferred behaviors. By studying and understanding these tendencies, OB can more accurately predict individual and group interactions.  Self awareness - a conscious understanding of ourselves (personality, talents, preferences and biases).  Awareness of others - recognizing and being attuned to the styles, moods, and personality of others. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-2
  • 3. Heredity and environment  Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics.  Environment determines development within these limits.  About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-3
  • 4. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-4
  • 5. Personality  Combination of characteristics that comprise the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-5
  • 6. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-6
  • 7. People and circumstances I control what control my fate! happens to me! EXTERNALS INTERNALS Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-7
  • 8. What are your Machiavellian tendencies? Take the Mach test to find out. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-8
  • 9. Self-monitoring  A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external, situational (environmental) factors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-9
  • 10. Life stressors  Family events  Economic difficulties  Personal affairs Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-10
  • 11. Stress and performance  Constructive stress (or eustress)  Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization.  Destructive stress (or distress)  Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-11
  • 12. Values  Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes.  Values influence behavior and attitudes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-12
  • 13. Terminal values  Reflect a person’s preferences concerning the “ends” to be achieved. Instrumental values  reflect a person’s beliefs about the means for achieving desired ends Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-13
  • 14. Gordon Allport’s values categories  Theoretical- discover truth through reasoning.  Economic – usefulness, practicality.  Aesthetic – value beauty and form.  Social - value people and relationships.  Political – interest in power and influence.  Religious – interest in unity. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-14
  • 15. Maglino’s categories of workplace values  Achievement  Helping and concern for others  Honesty  Fairness Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-15
  • 16. Value congruence  Occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-16
  • 17. Current trends in the workplace:  From valuing shared values such as duty, honesty, organizational loyalty.  To valuing meaningful work, self- fulfillment, and pursuit of leisure. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-17
  • 18. Culture  The learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or society. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-18
  • 19. 1) Power Distance  How willing are people to accept status and power?  How strongly to people 3) Uncertainty avoidance preferred structured organizations?  Which is more valued – the 5) Individualism-collectivism individual or the group?  Are stereotypical m/f traits 7) Masculinity-femininity valued?  Save for the future and be 9) Long-term/ short-term persistent, or ‘live for today’? orientation Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-19
  • 20. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-20
  • 21. Workforce diversity  The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different from one another.  Practices and policies that seek to include people who are considered in some way different from the prevailing group. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-21
  • 22. Stereotyping  Occurs when one thinks of an individual belonging to a group and the characteristics commonly associated with the group are assigned to the individual in question. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-22
  • 23. Benefits of focusing on diversity:  Diverse talents and backgrounds contribute to competitive advantage.  Promotes creativity and innovation.  Workforce better reflects customer base.  Increased employment increases productivity and benefits larger community.  Reduced legal noncompliance costs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-23
  • 24. Race Religion  Gender Sexual Orientation  Ethnicity Marital Status  Economic Parental Status  Education  Disability Military  Religion Experience Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-24
  • 25. Gender  After steady progress, advancement of women to higher levels has stalled.  “Leaking pipeline” #of women decreases the more senior the roles become. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-25
  • 26. Race and Ethnicity  Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 includes protections against discrimination in all areas of recruitment, hiring, and promotion.  Workplace attitudes have changed: from focus on legal compliance to a focus on inclusion. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-26
  • 27. Social Identity Theory  Developed to understand the psychological basis of discrimination.  Categorizing yourself as a member of a social group leads to ‘in-group’ identification. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-27
  • 28. Age  Diverse workforce (40% Baby Boomers, 36% GenXers, 16% Millenials).  Differences in work ethic among groups can result in organizational stress.  Interesting discussion of this subject on current blogs. (e.g. CNNMoney) Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-28
  • 29. Disability  Any form of impairment or handicap.  Advocates are seeking new definition in order to remove the stigma that has been associated with the term ‘disability Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-29
  • 30. Important lessons for valuing and supporting diversity.  Appreciate differences.  Acknowledge that diversity shapes the organization.  Respect the needs of all.  Practice inclusion.  Avoid linking differences to stereotypes.  Commit to social responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-30

Editor's Notes

  1. Every person is unique because of background, individual characteristics, needs, and how they perceive the world and other individuals People who perceiv e things differently behave differently. People with different attitudes or biases respond differently to instructions and work assignments. People with different personalities interact differently with supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, and customers. Individual differences explain why some people embrace changes, and others are fearful of changes; why some people are productive only when they receive detailed directions, others just require a broad outline. Individual differences shape our organizational behavior and impact our success.
  2. Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context.
  3. Who we are is a function of two forces: what we have inherited (nature), and how we are raised (nurture). OB researchers have found significant evidence of this relationship by studying groups of twins. A recent study found that heredity, family experience, and work experience all contributed to whether or not an individual assumed a leadership role. Similar patterns were shown for males and females.
  4. Personality combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. Special tests have been developed that attempt to measure personality dynamics, and thereby predict certain. Some employers have used these tests in hiring and in promotion. Managers should use caution. There is no foolproof ‘one size fits all’ when it comes to aligning a personality type to job situation. Also, technological sophistication has spawned various forms of cheating on these tests - from acquiring electronic answer keys, coaching by friends who supply the ‘correct’ answers, to the prevalence of overall dishonesty.
  5. Fig. 2.3
  6. The degree to which you are aware of how your actions and behaviors affect others, and monitoring those behaviors to adapt to the situation. High self-monitors are: Sensitive to external cues. Behave differently in different situations. Good at changing behavior contingent on the environmental circumstance. Low self-monitors: Not sensitive to external cues. Not able to disguise their behaviors. “What you see is what you get”. Are not always able to hide their feelings. In many situations, it is not prudent for others to always know what your are thinking. Recall Chapter introduction regarding Anne Mulcahy’s (Xerox CEO) relationship with Xerox president Sandra Burns, during developmental years. Mulcahy tells Burns to develop a poker face… “Ursula, they could read your face. You have to be careful. Sometimes it’s not appropriate.”
  7. Since it is difficult to completely separate work and non-work lives, life stressors can spillover into the workplace. This compounds the stress and can negatively impact attitudes and performance.
  8. Too much stress can overload and break down a person’s physical and mental systems, resulting in absenteeism, turnover, errors, accidents, dissatisfaction, reduced performance, unethical behavior, and even illness.
  9. Parents, friends, teachers, and external reference groups can influence individual values. Values develop as a product of learning and experiences.
  10. Terminal values are the goals individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime. Instrumental values represent how a person might go about achieving important end states.
  11. Different professions rank these categories differently.
  12. Maglino’s values schema is aimed at people in the workplace. Maglino’s framework should be particularly relevant for studying values in OB.
  13. Researchers have found greater follower satisfaction with the leader when there was congruence in terms of achievement, helping, honesty, and fairness values.
  14. Younger workers perform better when supervisors share their values. Studies identified the nine more prevalent work-related values to be: Recognition of competence and accomplishment Respect Personal choice and freedom Involvement at work Pride in one’s work Quality of life Financial security Self development Health and wellness
  15. Culture can be thought of as the “software of the mind.” It helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one another.
  16. Geert Hofstede studied how value differences can influence behavior at work. The dimensions are interrelated, expressing each dimension to a larger or lesser degree.
  17. High power distance and collectivism are often found together. Although the group reaches a consensus, they may still defer to the authority of the leader.
  18. The challenge of workforce diversity is respecting individuals’ perspectives and contributions and promoting a shared sense of organizational vision and identity.
  19. Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis of stereotypes that obscure individual differences and prevent people from getting to know each others as individuals. Stereotypes may present an obstacle that prevents an accurate assessment their performance potential.
  20. Stereotyping that views senior management roles as occupied by males presents a significant barrier to advancement. Studies show that both men and women viewed women as supportive and encouraging roles, and men as taking charge. Impact of stereotypic bias has been generally underestimated. Research shows that gender is not a reliable predictor of how people will lead.
  21. Organizations have acknowledged the social and business advantages that are gained with a diverse, multicultural workforce. Maintaining this diversity needed more than affirmative recruitment efforts. Policies and practices of inclusion were developed that offer equal opportunity for advancement to all levels of the organization.
  22. Organizations may inadvertently set up potentially discriminatory situations by naming or creating special racial or ethnic clubs or social groups.
  23. Baby Boomers value hard work, professional dress, long hours, and steady organizational advancement through established hierarchy. GenXers value work-life balance and professionalism. Millenials value diversity and gender equality, flexibility, fun, meaningful work, and flexible career paths.
  24. Americans with Disabilities Ac t is a federal civil-rights statute that protect the rights of people with disabilities. The ADA has helped to generate a more inclusive climate in organizations. Universal design has resulted in greater access to buildings and work spaces.