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Individual Learner Difference


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  • We are grateful for your regular support of the Rising Sun Institute for special children. It is because of our esteem donors that we are able to complete Pakistan’s largest purpose built campus of its kind in XX sector DHA, Lahore. We are now catering to more than 540 intellectually impaired special children in our DHA and Mughalpura campuses. We are providing education, vocational training, rehabilitation, physio, hydro, sensory integration and speech therapies to these special children on international standards.

    Rising Sun Institute spends Rs. 6,500/- per child per month each worth aggregating approximately Rs. 78,000/- per year for the above specialized services. Students of Rising Sun have achieved 25 Gold, 17 Silver and 17 bronze medals in various Special Olympics World Summer Games. Furthermore many students have undertaken jobs and some are doing their own businesses.

    We are looking forward for people supporting the cause of special children to participate in this noble act. We would also appreciate if you execute our fundraising campaign with ticket books in your school to help us for successful achievement of this noble cause. Rising Sun Gives recognition for students participation. If a student buys/sells Tickets worth Rs. 1000/- Rising Sun will issue an appreciation certificate and for Tickets worth Rs. 5000/- Rising Sun will issue a shield of appreciation with certificate. This certificate and shield add value to the curriculum of your students.

    Our Resource Development Officer will be in touch with you to further assist you in this School Campaign.

    Yours Faithfully,

    Prof. Dr. Abdul Tawwab Khan
    President Rising Sun Education and Welfare Society
    Honorary CEO Rising Sun Institute
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Individual Learner Difference

  1. 1. Individual Learner Differences<br />@ What’s the best way to learn?<br />@ What tools help you to learn?<br />@ What are your personal techniques for learning?<br />@ Do you learn better in a group or <br />alone?<br />@ Do all the people learn the same? Why? Why not?<br />
  2. 2. Individual Differences<br />Variability in abilities and characteristics among students at a particular age<br />Students with special needs: Students different enough from their peers to require specially adapted materials and practice<br />
  3. 3. Examples of Learning Style Preferences <br />visual –relying more on the sense of sight and learn best through visual means (e.g., books, video, charts, pictures). <br />auditory– preferring listening and speaking activities (e.g., discussions, debates, audiotapes, role-plays, lectures). <br />Visual Vera-><br />
  4. 4. hands-on– benefiting from doing projects, working with objects and moving around.<br />
  5. 5. Workshop Outcomes:<br />1-Define differentiating Instruction.<br />2-Discuss the reasons for differentiating instruction.<br />Discuss what makes it successful .<br />Suggest how teachers can start implementing it.<br />Discuss Students’ Learning Styles.<br />
  6. 6. Differentiating Instruction<br />At its most basic level, differentiation consists of the efforts of teachers to respond to variance among learners in the classroom. Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual or small group to vary his or her teaching in order to create the best learning experience possible, that teacher is differentiating instruction.<br />
  7. 7. The invisible web of the language classroom<br />
  8. 8. Activity(1)<br />Directions<br />1-Think about any group of people (family members,students,friends)<br />2-Choose three members of that group.<br />3-Describe them listing their personal and intellectual characteristics on a three-column chart .<br />4- Work in small groups and compare the lists adding characteristics that others have included .<br />5-As a group check the cha.of each individual that you think would help them to learn another language.<br />6-For each person list two types of activities that he/she might do well in a classroom setting.<br />Time:20 minutes<br />Discussion of the lists and Brainstorming of classroom activities.<br />
  9. 9. 1<br />
  10. 10. Why Differentiate Instruction <br />A simple answer is that students vary greatly, and if teachers want to maximize their students’ individual potential, they will have to attend to the differences. There is evidence that students are more successful in school and find it more satisfying if they are taught in ways that are responsive to their readiness levels, interests and learning profiles. Another reason for differentiating instruction relates to teacher professionalism. Expert teachers are attentive to students’ varied learning needs; to differentiate instruction, then, is to become a more competent, creative, and professional educator.<br />
  11. 11. Why Differentiate Instruction<br />Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred Intelligences in learning.<br />Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligences. <br />Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligences .<br />
  12. 12. Why Differentiate Instruction<br />Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences offers one kind of explanation for learner differences. According to Gardner, there are eight different types of Intelligences :<br />Linguistic:Sensitivity to spoken and written language,the ability to learn language.<br />Logical-mathematical:Capacity to analyze problems logically,carry out mathematical operations.<br />Visual-spatial:Able to recognize and use the patterns of wide space.<br />Musical:Skill in the performance,composition,and appreciation of musical patterns.<br />
  13. 13. Intelligences<br />
  14. 14. Why Differentiate Instruction<br />Bodily-Kinesthetic:Potential to use one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems .<br />Interpersonal:Capacity to understand the intentions,motivations and desires of other people.<br />Intrapersonal:Capacity to understand oneself,to appreciate one’s feelings,fears and motivations.<br />Naturalistic:Able to recognize,categorize and draw upon certain features of the enviroment.<br />
  15. 15. Activity(2)Video Segment (1),<br />Observation Guide(Using different skill)<br />Gather the following information from the video segment.<br />1-Explain how the class is organized to work on the different activities.<br />2-List the four activities that students did with the song.<br />3-After each activity ,list the skills students had to use to complete the activity<br />4-Explain the macro level strategy the teacher uses. <br />
  16. 16. Activity(3) Observation Guide(Using different skill)<br />Read and answer after viewing<br />1-Is this a large or small class?How is the class organized to do the activities? What might be some reasons for this organization? Do you think it was effective?<br />2-Compare your lists of activities and skills.Do you feel that one or two of the activities were better than the others in terms of language learning?Talk about the non-language skills.What is the purpose for including such skills in the language classroom.<br />3- What was the strategy the teacher used ?Why did she do this?<br />Can you give examples of activities you use that requires the use of different skills,not only different language skills but other kinds of skills ?<br />
  17. 17. AnswersObservation Guide(Using different skill)<br />1- This is a a middle school class of about 45ss. Organized into large groups.Each group did a different activity related to the chosen song.They were able to work together ,helping each other do the task.The teacher was able to work with each group at different times during the work session.<br />2-The groups performed or reported on four different activities.<br />A-Prepare and perform a music video for the song (listening,discussion,drama).<br />B-Write a story that has similarities to the song and tell it.(listening,writing,speaking)<br />C-Draw a picture about the song and explain it(listening, drawing,speaking)<br />D-Change some words in the song and sing the new version.(listening ,reading,vocabulary)<br />
  18. 18. Answers Observation Guide(Using different skill)<br />By including artistic areas the teacher can lower affective barriers in the class ,make the languagelearning tasks more enjoyable and motivating,and allow students with abilities in those areas to display those abilities and use them to enhance their language learning.<br />3- During the performances ,the teacher talked about the purpose of the activities(to learn vocabulary).She asked the students if the song made it easier to learn vocabulary.Stopping to clarify the purpose of learning during a lesson helps those learners who need a purpose and those who learn better when given an overall picture .Besides vocabulary learning, such activities practice listening skills and fluency,while making learners feel more comfortable using the language , <br />
  19. 19. Activity(4)Video Segment(2)<br />Learning Stations and Self-access Rooms.<br />Another way to meet the needs of students with learning differences is to set up learning stations in a classroom or create an entire room for individual, independent study .<br />This segment shows one entire room designed for student self-access or self-study ,and a classroom with learning stations .<br />
  20. 20. Activity(4)Video Segment(2)<br />(Gather the following information from this video segment)<br />1-Explain the purpose of SEAR, the self-study centre, and the student projects displayed there.<br />2-List the self-access areas you see or hear the teacher talk about, and some of the resources available in each .<br />3-Describe what students are doing.<br />4-Try to find one or two techniques the teacher uses to enable students to take some responsibility for their own learning and for the learning areas .<br />5-Look for things that might increase learner motivation or that might make learning more real to the students.<br />
  21. 21. Activity(4)Read and answer after viewing<br />1-Compare your lists with others in your group.What are the learning areas that you saw or heard described in the self-study centre?What activities were the learners doing?Were the areas & activities appropriate to the age of the children in each setting? <br />2-What has the teacher done in the first room to help students be more self-directed?<br />3-What are some ways to create self-access in a classroom?<br />4-There are two motivational techniques displayed in the segment and one activity that is both motivational and makes learning more real for the students.What are they?In your situation is it possible to move students outside the classroom ?If so, what language activities might you organize around that?<br />
  22. 22. AnswersLearning Stations and Self-access Rooms.<br />1-The teacer talks at length about in-depth projects that groups of students produce each year and then store them in notebooks on shelves in the self-access room.Other students can read them and use them as models.The process is one they can transfer to other classes,<br />2-Here are some of the learning areas:<br />A-Reading areas with tables or book carts.<br />B-Writing areas .<br />C-Audio and video listening stations.<br />D-Displays of student projects.<br />E-Areas where students can work together.<br />Many of the areas have instructions and schedules posted so students can self-monitor and help themselves.<br />
  23. 23. AnswersLearning Stations and Self-access Rooms.<br />3-Students are choosing and reading books that interest them from the table,working together on projects, and individually with the teacher.There are instructions posted for how to use the listening area and equipment,and a schedule for use of the different areas that allows students to determine their own activities and amount of time working on them while using the room.Such techniques for self-monitering and directing help sudents manage their own learning time .<br />5- One motivational technique used in both classrooms is the posting and display of student work.Another is giving students the opportunity to choose material that interests them from a wide variety of available resources.<br />
  24. 24. An Action Plan<br />1-Identify a lesson or a class topic from your own course that you would like to teach with a focus on individual learner differences .<br />2-Brainstorm possible procedures,materials,and activities that might facilitate more effective learning in your classes.Create a plan.<br />3-Share your plan with others.Get ideas and formative feedback.<br />4-Change your plan as needed.<br />
  25. 25. What Makes Differentiation Successful?<br />The most important factor in differentiation that helps students achieve more and feel more engaged in school is being sure that what teachers differentiate is curriculum and instruction. For example, teachers can make sure that:<br /> (1) curriculum is clearly focused on the information and understandings that are most valued by an expert in a particular discipline; <br />(2) lessons, activities, and products are designed to ensure that students grapple with, use, and come to understand those essentials; <br />(3) materials and tasks are interesting to students and seem relevant to them;<br /> (4) learning is active; <br /> (5) there is joy and satisfaction in learning for each student.<br />
  26. 26. What Makes Differentiation Successful?<br />The following broad principles and characteristics which are useful in establishing a differentiated classroom:<br />• ASSESSMENT IS ONGOING AND TIGHTLY LINKED TO INSTRUCTION. Teachers are hunters and gatherers of information about their students and how those students are learning at a given point. Whatever the teachers can get about student readiness, interest, and learning helps the teachers plan next steps in instruction.<br />• TEACHERS WORK HARD TO ENSURE “RESPECTFUL ACTIVITIES” FOR ALL STUDENTS. Each student’s work should be equally interesting, equally appealing, and equally focused on essential understandings and skills.<br />
  27. 27. What Makes Differentiation Successful?<br />FLEXIBLE GROUPING IS A HALLMARK OF THE CLASS. Teachers plan so that all students work with a variety of peers over a period of days. Sometimes students work with like-readiness peers, sometimes with mixed-readiness groups, sometimes with students who have similar interests, sometimes with students who have different interests, sometimes with peers who learn as they do, sometimes randomly, and often with the class as a whole. In addition, teachers can assign students to work groups, and sometimes students will select their own work groups.<br />
  28. 28. What is the Best Way to Begin Differentiation?<br />The following guidelines are helpful to many teachers as they begin to differentiate. •<br /> Create a mental image of what you want your classroom to look like, and use it to help plan and assess changes.<br />• Prepare students and parents for a differentiated classroom so that they are your partners in making it a good fit for everyone. Be sure to talk often with students about the classroom—why it is the way it is, how it is working, and what everyone can do to help.<br />
  29. 29. What is the Best Way to Begin Differentiation?<br />Think carefully about management routines—for example, giving directions, making sure students know how to move about the room, and making sure students know where to put work when they finish it.<br />• Enjoy your own growth. One of the great joys of teaching is recognizing that the teacher always has more to learn than the students and that learning is no less empowering for adults than for students.<br />
  30. 30. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Auditory Learners<br />Students with this style will be able to recall what they hear and will prefer oral instructions. They learn by listening and speaking. These students enjoy talking and interviewing. They are phonetic readers who enjoy oral reading and listening to recorded books. They learn best by:<br />• interviewing, debating •• participating in oral discussions of written material • giving oral reports<br />
  31. 31. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Visual Learners<br />Visual learners will be able to recall what they see and will prefer written instructions. These students are sight readers who enjoy reading silently. Better yet, present information to them with a video. They will learn by observing and enjoy working with the following:<br />• computer graphic • cartoons<br />• maps, graphs, charts • posters<br />• diagrams • graphic organizers<br />• text with a lot of pictures<br />
  32. 32. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Tactile Learners<br />Students with this strength learn best by touching. They understand directions that they write and will learn best through manipulatives. These students will also benefit from whole language approaches to reading. They’ll learn best by :<br />• drawing • playing board game • making models<br />• following instructions to make something<br />
  33. 33. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Kinesthetic Learners<br />Kinesthetic learners also learn by touching or manipulating objects. They need to involve their<br />whole body in learning. They remember material best if they act it out. These students learn best by:<br />• playing games that involve their whole body • movement activities<br />• setting up experiments • making models<br />• following instructions to make something<br />
  34. 34. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Global Learners<br />Global learners are spontaneous and intuitive. They do not like to be bored. Information needs to be presented in an interesting manner using attractive materials. Cooperative learning strategie works well with these learners. Global learners learn best through<br />• recorded books<br />• story writing • computer programs<br />• games • group activities<br />
  35. 35. Students’ Learning Styles.<br />Analytic Learners<br />Analytic learners plan and organize their work. They focus on details and are logical. They are phonetic readers and prefer to work individually on activity sheets. They learn best when:<br />• information is presented in sequential steps<br />• goals are clear<br />• lessons are structured and teacher-directed • requirements are spelled out<br />