TEXTILE                                                        VALUE CHAIN                                                ...
advt.
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PANIPAT
EditorialSuccess is not the matter ofbeing the best and winning the race.Success is handling the worstand still finishing ...
08 Cover story : Indias Policy Power and Pollution                     Textile Parks,                                    o...
News: Global / National    06Cover story: Interview with Mr. S.N. Todi, Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd..   12               Int...
Levis® Debuts WasteLess™ DenimCollectionSource: www.textileworld.com      San Francisco-based Levi Strauss & Co.has introd...
NATIONAL NEWS                                                          Joint Venture                Mafatlal Forays into t...
COVER STORY                          India’s Policy on Infrastructure: Textile Parks, Power and CETP                      ...
COVER STORY                   Creating state-of-the-art infrastructure with facilities     in Rajasthan, 2 each in Tamil N...
COVER STORY              created and generating more than 2000 MW in Wind Mill              or there is shortage of power....
COVER STORY                   Energy cost is based on two part tariff – fixed charges and consumption charges. Billing par...
Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited                                                                  Islampur parkWe interviewed...
COVER STORY                                                                     Chiripal Group              Special interv...
COVER STORY                                                 Rishabh Metal & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd              Special Interv...
COVER STORY                                                                                                           Dr. ...
COVER STORY                                                           Pollution Redressal Policy                          ...
COVER STORY              TWM, by recycling the effluent for process requirements,              effluents containing benign...
COVER STORY              Classification of treatments followed in textile effluent:                  Primary Screening and...
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Tvc jan - march 2013

  1. 1. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN 100www.textilevaluechain.comPh.: + 9122-26844222. Email: lsauxichempvt@gmail.com B-301, Oxford Chamber, Saki Vihar Road, Tunga Village, Mumbai - 400 072. (India). CORPORATE OFFICE: Pure silver yarn for Jeans, Pure silver yarn for Suiting / Shirting Pure silver yarn for Dress Material Pure silver yarn for Embroidery
  2. 2. advt.
  3. 3. AAAAAAAAAAAAA advt.
  4. 4. PANIPAT
  5. 5. EditorialSuccess is not the matter ofbeing the best and winning the race.Success is handling the worstand still finishing the race Spinning, the pride of the Textile Value Chain Editorial Advisor, Secretary General of MOA
  6. 6. 08 Cover story : Indias Policy Power and Pollution Textile Parks, on Infrastructure 12 Cover Story continued... Interviews & Views Views and Interviews by Industrialists from Bombay Rayon Fashions, Chiripal Group, SVG Fashion, Rishabh Metals and Chemicals, and... 28 New Ageprevious editions New Age Fibres and Yarns Continuation of Fabric Applications and Architecture 36Artificial Turf. Artificial grassSPORTSTECH A look at Technical Textiles: for Indias needs 40 Visual Merchandising A Study to see its effect on the sale of textiles Development of Software to 43 Engineer Cotton knitted Fabric To solve inconsistency issues in Knitted Fabrics60 Approaches towards Effluent Treatment in Textiles Need of the hour!!
  7. 7. News: Global / National 06Cover story: Interview with Mr. S.N. Todi, Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd.. 12 Interview with Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal, Chiripal Group & 13 Mr. Sandip Agarwal, SVG Fashions Ltd. 13 Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, Rishabh Metal & Chmicals Pvt. Ltd & 14 View of Mr. Uttam Jain 14 Views of Mr. Aditya Biyani, Dr. Talukdar, Mr. Deshbandhu Kagzi, Mr. Kirti Shah 15 Pollution Redressal Policy 16Fibre : Banana : A Fruit fibre 20 SRTEPC Events brief 21Yarn : Influence of yarn and fabric structures on colour values of textiles 22 Linen & Chairs / Rattan Glitter presence in exhibition 25Colour forecast: Fall Winter 2013 32Technical textile: News 38Skill gap analysis: In Fabric Processing Sector 46Skill gap: Setting of Skill development project by Ministry of Textiles 48College focus: Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science 49Career focus: Career Opportunity in textilles with Home science courses 50Govt. policy: Good Economics is Good Politics 52Associations News: CITI & FICCI 54 TAI & HCC 55 BMC & MOA 56 ITAMMA 38Tradeshow details 57Tradeshow Review: ITME 2012 & Vastra 2012 58
  8. 8. Levis® Debuts WasteLess™ DenimCollectionSource: www.textileworld.com San Francisco-based Levi Strauss & Co.has introduced the Levis® Waste<Less™collection of denim jeans and trucker jacketsmade using materials derived from post-consumer recycled (PCR) polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) bottles and food trays.The garments, to be featured in the LevisSpring 2013 collection for men and women,will include a minimum of 20-percent PCRcontent, with an average of eight 12- to 20-ounce PCR PET bottles going into each pair ofjeans and more than 3.5 million bottles goinginto the overall Spring 2013 Waste<Lesscollection. The PCR materials include brown, greenand clear bottles and black food trays; and willbe sorted by color and processed into flake industry. The adhesive is packaged in a pre- In addition to high bond strengths, otherand then into fiber. The fiber will be blended pressurized cylinder for an easy-to-use, key advantages of this product include labor,with cotton in yarns that Greensboro, N.C.- maintenance-free delivery system. Workers equipment and materials savings. Bybased Cone Denim will weave with cotton simply spray the adhesive on the two fabrics eliminating the need for expensive sewingyarn into fabric for the collection. Levis notes being bonded and apply pressure to the machines and generators, contractors canthat the color of the bottles used will provide seam. The adhesive dries quickly, further also avoid unforeseen down time due toan undertone to the fabric and a unique finish enabling fast and efficient assembly. These equipment maintenance and repair.to the garment. simple steps create a bond strong enough to Additionally, in some cases, use of 3M According to James Curleigh, global meet the American Association of State Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesivepresident, Levis brand, the new collection Highway and Transportation Officials reduces the need for a geotextile materialdemonstrates the companys commitment to (AASHTO) M288-06 requirements for seam overlap from 24" to 6", providing additionalreducing its environmental impact and efficiency for a wide variety of specifications. material savings.encouraging others to do the same, whileproviding products of good quality. "By addingvalue to waste, we hope to change the way Pakistan – Textile Sector to Lose US $ 3 Billion Export Orderspeople think about recycling, ultimately Source: The Nation via www.yarnsandfibres.comincentivizing them to do more of it," he said."This collection proves that you dont have to The All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, additional burden of Rs4 per unit of highersacrifice quality, comfort or style to give an while appreciating government proposal of electricity cost to the consumers.end a new beginning." restricting CNG fuel only to public transport, He said that the solution to the issue of has said that textile industry would lose $3b gas lies in prioritising industry and power exports if gas curtailment continued for sector and only giving direct targeted support3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray another three months, as gas suspension to to low income group by subsiding cheap fuelAdhesive introduced industry continued for five days a week. to only public transport. This should also beSource: GM via www.technicaltextile.com The leader of textile sector and former regulated so that the advantage should be 3M introduces 3M Geotextile Seaming chairman of the Aptma Gohar Ejaz hailed the passed to common man, besides fair ofCylinder Spray Adhesive, a new method for PM Adviser on Petroleum and Natural transport should also be fixed according toseaming geotextile fabrics for uses including, Resources Dr Asim Hussain for supporting CNG rates, he added.but not limited to, erosion control, and soil longstanding stance of textile industry in public He strongly protested against five days aseparation and subgrade stabilization interest to prevent use of CNG in vehicles week gas curtailment to textile industry by theapplications. The adhesive is an extremely over 1,000cc and increasing taxes on CNG SNGPL, as the industry would not be able toversatile, fast-tacking construction-grade with a view to bring its price to a level 20 per perform when it is already passing through sixspray adhesive with a unique wide-web spray cent lower than petrol. hours a day electricity load shedding. He saidpattern, ideal for bonding geotextile fabrics. “Aptma endorses Dr Asims measures for the industry was unable to understand theWith this innovative solution, installers of fair support of local industry as part of the plan logic behind gas curtailment for five days ageotextile fabric can see time-savings of more to phase out CNG industry, which is eating up week when CNG pumps were onthan 56 percent compared to sewing. 425 million cubic feet gas per day,” the Aptma countrywide strike against price reduction. 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray group leader observed. He said that long queues outside CNGAdhesive lets contractors create quick, Because of this usage of 400mmcfd gas in stations show that consumption of CNG haspermanent bonds on many geotextile fabrics, CNG, 3,000MW electricity, which can be increased out of proportions and it is in theand also provides a seam strength that produced from this gas, is being produced interest of the country to do away with CNGoutperforms the fabric strength for many through furnace and diesel, costing $3 billion as it was wastage of resources.commonly used fabrics in the construction of import of this oil to Pakistan, along with
  9. 9. NATIONAL NEWS Joint Venture Mafatlal Forays into towel business in quality 100% cotton yarn in a wide range Beaulieu International Group enters a Joint Venture with Girosons Clothing of 11 bright & fresh colours. The Lagoona JV with Lucknow-Based INDTEX Industry range of towels is made from premium International Source: Press Release combed cotton for a softer feel and high Source:www.economictimes.com absorbency. The Coral range is made The project entailing an investment from rich combed cotton, which is lint of Rs 100 crore would be through a joint less and available in 11 inspiring pastel, venture with its Indian partner Lucknow medium & dark colours. The Pearla range based, Indtex International. Beaulieu is a 100% cotton fancy jacquard towels. would hold the majority stake in the Marina range offers a range with stripe project. designs. Desire range offers a range with Vice President and CTO, Beaulieu Mafatlal Industries Ltd. has forayed into polka dot designs. Thus, Mafatlal Towels International Group, Guy Verrue along towel business on a massive scale by have set new tradition to enhance the w i t h M a n a g i n g Pa r t n e r I n d t e x entering into bathing experience. International, Iqbal Siddiqui met the a joint venture with Girisons Mr. Vineet Jain, Director- Girisons Principal Secretary, Infrastructure and Clothing Industry. Group further stated that Mafatlal Towels Industrial Development, Siddiqui said that Mafatlal Towels with high absorbency are introduced initially in Maharashtra, they received assurance of full in various sizes are manufactured with the Gujarat, Tamilnadu and KeralaMafatlal cooperation by the state government and state-of-the art technology on most Towels will be available in 14200 retail work on the plant would begin shortly. modern sophisticated machines Mr. outlets, within a year consisting of multi He said that the $1.5 billion, Beaulieu Vineet Jain, Director-Girisons Group brand outlets & Mafatlal Family Shops. International Group, is a leading global stated that the major sale of towels in the Girisons Clothing Industry is a part of player in floor covering business and is country is from unorganized sector 50 years old Girisons Group. The Group setting up a plant in China with an where quality is not satisfactory. Big Is actively engaged in textiles, garments, investment of Rs 250 crores. manufacturers of towels are in export travel, real estate, E-education and E- The plant in UP would come up at Dewa business and they supply surplus stock commerce businesses. Road near the state capital for which the with odd sizes in the market. With the land has already been acquired by the entry of Mafatlal in this field, the company. It would manufacture consumer will have a wider choice and extrusion of PP granules into yarn and selection with best of qualities. weaving carpet backings, said Arshad Mafatlal Towels offer several Iqbal. He said that their product which is categories of towels to cater to the currently imported would find ready demand of discerning consumers. The market among carpet weavers and Oasis range of towels is made from high flooring material manufacturers. Being human to being citizen, need of steps like the information system, an hour...!! complaint boxes, regular interactions etc Source : foundation day of BMC taken by Sri Satyapal Singh for efficient At the occasion of 54th foundation day control. The C.P requested Mumbaikars . celebration of BHARAT MERCHANTS to be responsible citizen apart from being CHAMBER, chief guest Dr. Sri Satyapal a good citizen. He clarified that a Singh, Commissioner of Police, Mumbai responsible citizen keeps his eyes, ears & emphasized the need for citizens to be nose open and informs any suspicious vigilant and help the Police to help the activity to the police through anonymous business practice and other programs in people of the city. President Yogendra complaint letter, emails, sms, letters etc. co-operation with Mumbai Police. BMC Rajpuria & Trustee Rajiv Singal praised the He also emphasized the need of teaching also requested for seat in advisory effective law and order control during his moral value system at school, college and committee of the Mumbai Police, so that regime. Honorary Secretary Shiv even at business chamber level like stake holders are consulted before any Kanodia congratulated his smooth and Bharat Merchants Chamber. Honorary policy is formulated, and they can incident free completion of 31st Dec. and Secretary Shiv Kanodia appreciated his recommend the needs of general equated him to Narayan Murthy of Police valuable guidance and assured that he will citizens. Force. Shiv Kanodia enumerated several ensure strengthening of CSR, fair
  10. 10. COVER STORY India’s Policy on Infrastructure: Textile Parks, Power and CETP Avinash Mayekar The main promoters in the ITP would be Industry MD & CEO, Associations/Groups of Entrepreneurs Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. The ITP should have maximum of 8 Separate Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) and shall be formed with the Introduction representatives of Local Industry, Financial Institutions, State Indian Textile industry is one of the major sectors of and Central Govts. Indian economy, largely contributing to the growth of the The scheme targets industrial clusters/locations with countrys industrial sector in terms of export earnings. high growth potential, which require strategic interventions However, in order to nourish this industry there has to be by way of providing world-class infrastructure support. An facilities like road network, power, water and other ITP will have components like Land, Common infrastructural aspects. Somehow, Indian Govt. has yet not Infrastructure, buildings for common facilities, factory focused on policy framework required by the industry and buildings for production purposes and Plant & machinery hence it is being created by the industrialists themselves. with flexibility in setting up to suit the local requirements. The However, it means delays in getting land parcels, plenty of following are the elements of the project cost eligible for the bottle necks in the systems and procedures and many grant: obstacles in liaison with Govt. bodies. In order to give a major thrust to the development of textile industry in India, Govt. has now come out with schemes like SITP which should create good infrastructure , with state-of-the-art facilities as per the guidelines. Scheme for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) SITP was launched by merging two schemes, namely, Apparel Parks for Exports Scheme (APES) and the Textiles Centre Infrastructure Development Scheme (TCIDS). The primary objective is to provide the industry with world-class infrastructure facilities for setting up their textile units and facilitate them to meet international environmental and social standards. The total project cost is funded through a mix of Equity/Grant – from the Ministry of Textiles, State Govt., State Industrial Development Corporation, Industry, Project Management Consultant and Loan - from Banks/ Advantage India Financial Institutions. Abundant availability of raw material (like cotton, silk, The Government of Indias (GOI) support under the jute etc.), growing domestic market, investor friendly govt. Scheme by way of Grant or Equity will be limited to 40% of policies and availability of skilled manpower makes India an the project cost, subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 crores. GOI ideal location for investment in textiles. The major factors support under the scheme will be generally in the form of affecting the viability of the textile park are availability of raw grant to the SPV unless specifically decided to be equity. material and labour in the vicinity, well-equipped However, the combined equity stake of GOI/State infrastructure in and around the park, availability of market Govt./State Industrial Development Corporation, if any, and investor friendly govt. policies. Hence while selecting a should not exceed 49%. However, GOI support will be location for a textile park; we need to consider parameters provided at 90% of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs. like logistics, availability of raw material, skilled labour and 40 crore for first two projects in the States of Arunachal supervisory staff and nearness to targeted market. Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Presence of back-end resources, targeting suitable Tripura, Sikkim and Jammu & Kashmir. customers, customer profiling, catering to customer needs, creating state-of-the-art infrastructure are some of the The pre-requisites for SITP differentiating factors for a textile park. Some of the strategies The Integrated Textile Park (ITP) should have atleast 50 to be adopted to create a techno-economic viable textile units park are The land area should be minimum 100 acres Conducting market research globally and domestically The aggregate investment in land, factory buildings and to understand the current demand-supply situation, assess plant & machinery by the entrepreneurs in ITP shall be at any gaps in demand-supply, target new market segments and least twice the cost of common infrastructure proposed for identity key growth areas, key product segments & key the ITP business requirements 8 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
  11. 11. COVER STORY Creating state-of-the-art infrastructure with facilities in Rajasthan, 2 each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and 1 matching the international standards each in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh, Determine the product mix of the park with appropriate Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal. land location & its details, location analysis, arriving at the Some of the established ITPs are Islampur Integrated most beneficial investment and understand the overall Textile Park (Maharashtra), Latur Integrated Textile Park requirement of infrastructure like CETP power, water, , (Maharashtra), Gujarat Eco-Textile Park (Gujarat), Palladam marketing hub and other facilities Hi-Tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), Karur Textile Park Mapping the quality of infrastructure provided by the Limited (Tamil Nadu), Madurai Integrated Textile Park (Tamil competitors against the price offered by them and Nadu), Komarapalayam Hi-tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), positioning ourselves to be competitive Baramati Hi-tech Textile Park (Maharashtra), Doddaballapur Existing parks under SITP Integrated Textile Park (Karnataka) and Vraj Integrated Textile Till date 40 parks (Locations of which are shown in the Park (Gujarat). map of India below) have been sanctioned under the 11th Some of the solutions proposed for the Govt. are to Five Year Plan of which 24 have already started operations understand requirement of the industry, reserve land parcels and have attracted investments of over Rs.18,880 crores. at appropriate places for Textile parks, and develop schemes Below is the graph showing the grant in percentage received for mini parks of about 25 acres which can be developed for by the 40 textile parks. specific requirements and to support the industry on merits. Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) The textile processing industry which takes care of value additions in the fabric is characterized by the high volume of water required at various stages of processing and the range of chemicals required for the various processes. These processes generate tremendous amount of waste, the nature of which depends on the type of textile facility, the processes and technologies being involved, and the types of fibres and chemicals used. The waste generated from these processes needs to be disposed correctly otherwise it causes environmental pollution. This necessitates the need for effluent treatment plant wherein the effluent generated in the process house can be treated to such a level that it can be disposed of without causing any damage to the environment. The best case study to emphasize the significance of effluent treatment plant is the Tirupur textile industry. In Tirupur, the effluent generated from the bleaching and dyeing units was discharged into the River Noyyal & River Nallar. The two rivers are natural drainage courses that only The 40 ITPs is estimated % Subsidy Received by the Parks carry water in the monsoon period. During the remainder of to have an investment of Rs. the year, they used to carry only industrial effluents that 18,425 Crores with stagnate in the riverbeds and percolate into the combined project cost of groundwater. As a result, the groundwater quality around around Rs. 4,486 Crores and the cluster of bleaching and dyeing units was polluted to such annual production of Rs. a level that it was unfit for domestic, industrial and agricultural 33,964 Crores. The grant activities. sanctioned to the ITPs is Due to public pressure (especially the farmers), the around 1,385 Crores with Rs. court intervened and closed the dyeing units several times 825 Crores of grant released since 1997. Recently, in June 2005, this took an ugly turn, to these ITPs. The total no. of when the Chennai High Court ordered complete closure of entrepreneurs or units in the ITPs are 1,893 and the total the dyeing units and slapped crores of rupees of employment generated in the park is 6,16,388 (Direct: compensation to clean the environment on the dyeing units. 2,82,576 & Indirect: 3,33,812). This created a furore in the whole textile industry as this lead Govt. has sanctioned Rs. 2,100 crores to set up 21 new to more problems when the demand for the processed textiles wherein ITPs would leverage an investment of over fabrics was increasing. Rs. 9,000 crores, provide employment to nearly 4 lakh However, at present all Dyeing & Processing units are workers. Of the 21 units approved, 6 are in Maharashtra, 4 using 100% Zero Discharge technology and units in Tirupur Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 9
  12. 12. COVER STORY created and generating more than 2000 MW in Wind Mill or there is shortage of power. Shortage of power in textile Energy. Both Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) cluster leads to load shedding thereby leading to drop in and Individual units are following this ZLD technology and production. SSIs are unable to sustain in these conditions are meeting the requirements of the trade and servicing the and this leads to the closure of the units. requirements. More than 50% of total units are running, 494 States Rs./ Unit Dyeing units and 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to court order. There are 16 CETPs under Maharashtra 7.01 operation out of 18 now. Punjab 4.95 Below is the picture of River Noyyal at Tirupur which Tamil Nadu 5.50 looks visibly cleaner downstream of Tirupur (inset) after the Rajasthan 6.25 citys dyeing factories were shut in February: Gujarat 5.00 Karnataka 5.50 Andhra Pradesh 3.97 The combined net profit of BSE Sensex companies in the sector fell from Rs 5,166 crores in 2010-11 to Rs 1,845 crores in 2011-12, which is a decline of 64%. As cited by DK Nair, secretary general, CITI, the financial results of 287 textile companies listed on the BSE for 2011-12 have shown a sharp decline in net profits during the year compared to the previous year, despite a growth in net sales. This is indeed a worrying trend that shows a combination of increasing input costs and declining profits. To balance our demand and supply of power, we must take into account the supply of power from the generation CETP is the concept of treating effluents by means of a or HT grid to the specific machinery, increase supply by collective effort mainly for a cluster of small scale industrial selecting secure & uninterrupted power supply, checking the units. The main objective behind setting up of a CETP in a voltage profile and going for cost effective power. While cluster is eliminating the need of effluent treatment plants in planning the supply of power, we should also consider the individual process house which has following advantages: cost of infrastructure required to bring the power from the Saving in capital and operating cost of treatment plants grid to the factory premises, power losses and any other Availability of land at ease concern to the environment. We should reduce demand by Disposal of treated waste water & sludge becomes monitoring and controlling demand, optimizing energy more organized consumption, improving productivity, building capacity and Reduced burden of various regulatory authorities in training human resources. ensuring pollution control requirements Some of the solutions are suggested to the textile industry for implementation of CETPs. The State Pollution Control Boards should prescribe standards for discharging effluents and conduct regular jar tests and submit to CETP . Govt. should come out with CETPs at most of the State Industrial Development Corporations to facilitate good quality infrastructure. No industrial park should be allowed without CETP Build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) . should be adopted for CETP as well. BOOT is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance expenses in the project. Power Generation and Distribution Electricity is one of the major components contributing to the hassle-free operations of the textile units. Textile industry is bound to suffer if cost of power (diesel) increases 10 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
  13. 13. COVER STORY Energy cost is based on two part tariff – fixed charges and consumption charges. Billing parameters are based on FAC charges, TOU charges, penalties/incentives and electricity duty. If we plot a load curve for the measured power data for entire day for a week, we can observe from the graph that the power variations are with high troughs and crests which indicate fluctuations in the power received by the unit. The energy losses can be reduced by plotting the energy data against production and understanding the fixed energy consumption. One more graph can be plotted by plotting cumulative data of past 12 months of the production against cumulative data of past 12 months of the energy. With the help of these 2 graphs, power factor can be improved. To understand the demand side of power, month wise data of maximum load (KVA), connected load (KVA) should be plotted in to a graph and the actual gap regarding power issues should be identified. Energy Monitoring System Peak Load Reduction Demand side Re-scheduling of Management load Base Load Reduce Demand Reduction Energy Conservation GAP Technical Intervention Energy Efficiendcy PowerInstallation Training Increase Supply Condition Evaluation Capacity Building Automation Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) has been consider various land parcels; all equipped with enforced wherein certain % of total power consumed by infrastructure either for textile parks (or mini parks of 25 Obligated Entities should be renewable energy based. If acres each) or through various industrial corporations. Govt. RPO is not complied with, then amount equivalent to the should give major emphasis on clearing all statutory number of RECs at Forbearance Price should be deposited requirements on fast track basis. In short it can be concluded by Obligated Entity. For complying with RPO, three options as: are available: 1) Invest in Renewable Energy Power Projects, ITP scheme: ITP scheme is industry friendly, easy to 2) Purchase Renewable Energy Certificates and 3) Purchase implement and can generate interest in the industry. Hence Merchant Power. this scheme should continue and generate investment and Some of the solutions are suggested for power employment opportunities in the Indian textile industry. It problems to be jointly considered by textile industry and also may have a module of land parcel of 25 acres which can government bodies. Textile industry should be given serve as a Mini Textile park which can be created by existing continuous and quality power supply. Government should textile entrepreneurs for their own expansions or for giving it ensure textile industry to have no power cuts and shut to others as well. downs with uniform rates across country. Various sources of CETP: Govt. should be completely involved in power and new energy development techniques should be developing infrastructure. CETP should be made mandatory explored. We should continuously monitor production and in any industrial park/ textile hub. CETPs may operate on energy consumption and understand our needs. BOOT principal. Power: Special focus on power sector needs to be given Conclusion to fulfill industrial need which is 24x7 especially for textile Looking at all these concerns, we need to devise a industry. Entrepreneurs should focus on various comprehensive strategy for a better Indian textile industry. methodologies to reduce power tariff. Renewable Energy The infrastructure requirements are huge and we need to Obligation could be made mandatory in the coming days. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 11
  14. 14. Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited Islampur parkWe interviewed companies for their take on SITPs,Power, Pollution and more…Here, we have an ExclusiveInterview with Mr. S.N.Todi, Commercial Advisor ofBombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. BRFL is a vertically integratedtextile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide rangeof fabrics and garments from state of the art productionfacilities. BRFL owns Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt.Ltd. (IITPL, near Sangli) and Latur Integrated Textile Park T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFLs factory set-up in thePvt. Ltd. (LITPL). They are soon going to start work on Parks with the production and employment detailstheir 3rd park in Kagal (Kolhapur). S.N.T.: In IITP we have weaving, garmenting, garment , washing, and packaging. In LITP we have garment and , Mr. S.N. Todi garment washing, value-added machines, embroidery Commercial Advvisor of plants. In Kagal, it will be Knitting- Yarn based textiles Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. factories. Ÿ Production till date @ LITPT.V.C: You throw light on the Govt. SITPs and how it Garments: 6.38 lacs pcs, Total value - Rs.1.356 lacs.benefits the Common Man? Manpower: Garment Units -1170, Washing Units - 14, Total Manpower – 1184S.N.T.: SITPs benefit everybody and in the end everyone Ÿ Production till date @ IITPcomes out a winner. Weaving: Grey and dyed fabric - 267.92 lacsmtrs. TotalŸCommon Man - It generates substantial employment in value - Rs. 16,872 lacsthe vicinity. Moreover, it has a large potential for Garments: 42.93 lacs pcs. Total value - Rs. 9,230 lacsemployment especially for Women in case of Garmenting. Total product value: Rs.26,102 lacs at the Park.Ÿ Textile industry Entrepreneurs / Owners- It leads to new Manpower: Direct employment: 2042, Indirectventuring in the Textile Parks. It motivates them to avail the employment: 130. Total: 2172benefits under the Scheme and subscribe and participate dueto ready infrastructure and common utilities and facilities T.V.C: What is your take on the Power supply in the Parksavailable. or in general?ŸGovernment & Associations- The Textile Parks generate S.N.T.: Power Cuts, failures and disruptions are required toand contribute to the exchequer to the Govt. and be regulated with modern transmission and distributiondevelopment in the vicinity and to the bodies associated with systems to reduce the Industrys sufferings and deliver timelytraining of skills and development amongst the workers results.T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFL Parks. T.V.C: What are the measures taken by BRFL to beS.N.T.: BRFL has successfully completed and promoted two environment friendly since Textile Industry generatesparks; one at Islampur (IITP) and the other at Latur (LITP) in plenty of effluents? How can India control and discardMaharashtra. It has also got an approval for one more park at hazardous chemicals in areaMIDC-Kagal (Kolhapur) and it is ready to take-off shortly S.N.T.: Yes, sadly Textile Industry generates plenty of effluents while processes like dyeing, processing, printing, sizing and washing of garments. It also generates effluents by way of High BDS in the return water line from boiler and gases/smoke in air pollution by hot exhaust gases. Pollution Control Boards have prescribed norms and limits to treat each effluent and this can only be controlled by regular monitoring and civic sense by all. Latur Park We have installed a Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) and Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) at Islampur since we haveT.V.C: When did BRFL receive permission for the set-up garment washing in that Park. We also have taken ownershipof the parks? to control and discard hazardous chemicals from weavingS.N.T.: For Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (IITPL) and washing operations and are being regulated to disposeand Latur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (LITPL) we got such waste in areas as prescribed. th rdpermission on 29 May, 2008. For the 3 park at Kagal, we We have been trying to build up Green Zones aroundgot approval on 08.11.2011. the Parks. We have planted nearly 5000 trees in the Park at We took 3 yrs to complete our projects at Islampur and IITP alone and similar at LITP too in the rocky lands.Latur. We expect the same for the plant at Kagal. 12 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
  15. 15. COVER STORY Chiripal Group Special interview: Chiripal Group: Directors Jaiprakash Chiripal and Mr. Yogesh Thaker Chiripal Group is a vertically integrated enterprise having manufacturing facilities for POY, Texturising, Cotton Spinning, Denim Weaving, Knitting and Processing, Home Furnishing, Garmenting, Retail and own Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited (VITPL), Ahmedabad. Technical textiles, weaving and allied sectors like washing, Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal embroidery etc. We have generated approximately 3000- MD of Chiri pal Group 4000 employment till now, directly and indirectly through our park. T.V.C.: What is the reason behind choosing Ahmedabad T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITPs and for the Park? how is it beneficial? JC & YT: Ahmedabad is a mega city and has a long history of JC & YT: These Parks are for SMEs and work on “Plug and textiles. It has excellent resources like excellent rail & road Play” concept with ready availability of all facilities required network, air connectivity, hotels, continuous water supply, for successful functioning of textile business. They offer the well spread drainage system and uninterrupted power user enterprises, benefits of “cluster economies” and great supply. It is on the path of development with mega projects opportunity for SMEs to grow together along with the seeing the light of the day every moment. Gujarat is a raw industry and achieve their business goals. material hub for cotton, nearness to processing cluster in T.V.C.: Please tell us about Chiripal Groups Park set-up. Narol for weaving and garmenting units. Proximity to city JC & YT: We have set-up Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited also makes availability of business resources. This is beneficial (VITPL) in Ahmedabad. We received Textile Park permission to the entire city, state and country. As the Industry says, “A in 2006 and completed the park in 2012. The Park is now true value for money destination for the textile completely ready. VITPL is designed to set-up garmenting, manufacturing sector.” SVG Fashions Limited Exclusive interview with Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal, MD of industry ranging from various types of yarns to sports wear, SVG Fashions Ltd. knits, embroideries, prints, for home textiles and dress Mr Sandiip Agarwwal heads ‘Karma’ the home textile materials. Textile Parks are like Malls where everything is division of SVG. SVG Fashions Ltd. is a part of the diversified available in one place. So textile buyers also get to see vertical SVG that is Shree Venkateshwar Group. It has a vertically and and lateral integrated processes for textile products. laterally integrated manufacturing set-up with in-house Everything under one roof makes the park more lucrative R & D labs and design studios. and exciting. T.V.C.: Where is SVG looking to set-up a Park and what Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal are the plans for the same? MD, SVG Fashions Ltd. SA: We are looking to set-up Park in Jhagadia village, near Surat and Baroda, Gujarat. Jhagadia is a place where cotton and polyester raw materials are easily available. We have T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITP’s and already acquired 50 Acres of land in Jhagadia in GIDC area a how is it beneficial? year back. If approved, the Park cost is estimated to be SA: SITP is a Single Window Scheme for SME’s and a cost around Rs. 60-70 crores. saving scheme. It is a common platform to share resources, synergise the activity of various stages of production, T.V.C.: What type of factories is SVG planning for the maintenance, packaging and distribution. It benefits all intended Park? SA: We are planning for all sectors of value chain from raw manufacturers and also professionals related to the industry. material to finished goods. In this manner our park members T.V.C.: Does SVG own any park or SEZ? If No, is SVG will get their raw materials and services on time. As we are planning to invest in any Parks and why? also into exports, we are aware that reaching export SA: We do not own a Park yet. We had applied for a Park but deadlines is sometimes really difficult in a country like India still haven’t’ received Govt’s approval. SVG’s presence and where raw materials and finished goods are far way from interest in setting up a Textile Park is for a good cause. Being each other. Having raw material manufacturers within the skilled players in the value chain in the textile segment makes park will prove to be a boon for the complete value chain in our company an ideal candidate for setting up an SITP We . terms of timely delivery and quality control because feedback have experience across the entire value chain of the textile will be immediately available to the seller. Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012 13
  16. 16. COVER STORY Rishabh Metal & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd Special Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, MD Rishabh T.V.C.: Is your future plan for addressing concerns for Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. being cost effective and modern? Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (RMC) is a diverse RJ: We are planning new range of products; in one, the waste company manufacturing a range of specialty chemicals, coagulates in liquid form with different combination of equipments for specialized applications in various industry chemicals. We have a research laboratory in Jalgaon. We do segments including water, waste water treatment, textiles, regular in-house research as well as outsource through paper, etc. In Textiles, they treat Waste Water which is various university like ICT, scientists and industry consultants. Effluent Treatment given after dyeing and washing the In this way, we get a great combination of knowledge, fabrics. guidance and advice. Mr. Rishabh Jain T.V.C.: There are always substitutes for any product. MD Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Substitute for your chemical is other chemical material like Ozone treatment, amongst many others. Also the biggest machinery agent in India is marketing Biological T.V.C.: What challenges does RMC face? How does RMC System where no chemicals are required. How is RMC intend to address them? facing this competition and do you feel chemical RJ: The challenge we face is to give the cheapest product and treatment is out-dated? at the same time be a quality service provider. As per RJ: One needs to look at Cost Benefit Ratio. If any machinery Pollution Control Board strict effluent treatment requires provides the same solution, then what is the one time water for treatment. But the industry is still not ready for machine cost, instalment cost, adding the running cost (need increase in their budget for the treatment. So solution is Be to calculated fix cost and variable) about other treatment, cost effective and be sustainable in the industry. Our clients same cost benefit and advantage and disadvantage of each are Alok Industries, Welspun, Bombay Rayon and many treatment, etc. So it all depends on buyers requirements, more... feasibility, need, urgency, availability and many other factors. We dont fear competition as we are confident about our T.V.C.: Industry is passing through a difficult time. product. Treatment costs have increased. How is RMC addressing this issue? How is RMC handling industry reactions? T.V.C.: RMC have certified drinking water plant? RJ: Yes, we know, we also understand industry problems and RJ: Yes, without certificate we can not supply water to reactions. Globally, chemical costs have shot up by 70%. anybody. We have NSF certification, which is applicable There is serious competition in the chemical industry; few across the world including countries like US, Europe and large players and many small players. Depending upon the other Asian countries. NSF is US based certification for chemical, sometimes we bear the cost and sometimes the drinking water. Every year, there is an Audit check by US customer. We are also working on various technologies; authorities without any prior notification. If the water and treatment balancing cost effectiveness by combing Organic plant are not up to standards, they cancel the certificate. and Inorganic Coagulants which will be 95% cost effective to Since the past two years we have a plant in Jalgaon, industry, amongst other methods. Maharashtra. Views of Industrialists regarding SITPs, Power, Pollution and more… - Mr. Uttam V. Jain, Director of PDEXCIL Water Pollution: Large-scale garment manufacturing units deal with them. have several technological options to combat with the Evaluation of existing exhaust systems. pollution problems. Besides having effective in - house Consideration of exhaust stream pre-cooling. Effluent Treatment Plants or using Common Treatment Consideration, comparison and selection of optimum Plants, other process technology options are available where Air Pollution Control equipment. the water used itself is very minimal. In many Industrial areas Dealing with obnoxious odour: The problem with odour is the effluent water is purified by treatment and recovered that it is not practically measurable. Odorous molecules over 90% for re-use. Currently, the Reverse Osmosis attach themselves to the particles of smoke and can be Technology and other Ion Exchange processes are in vogue. carried great distances from their point of origin, causing Air Pollution: The major air pollution problem in the textile complaint. When air pollution equipment has abated the industry occurs during the finishing stages where various smoke, the odour molecules have no vehicle to carry them. processes are employed for colouring or coating the fabrics. That is why savvy plant managers find that the installation of In order to take measures to check the air pollution it is smoke abatement equipment sometimes solves the odour necessary to: problem, too. Relatively inexpensive equipment is also Analyse chemicals so that systems can be fine-tuned to available to address the problem directly. 14 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
  17. 17. COVER STORY Dr. Talukdar, VP of Kusumgar Corporates Park: Technical Textiles needs separate textile parks in India as their needs are specialized. As of now Kusumgar is not planning for any Park. Pollution: In India, we dont give any importance to pollution. The norms are not clearly specified and hence not strictly followed. Power: There should be uniform policy maintained throughout the country. Stern action should be taken for stealing power. Mr. Aditya Biyani, Marketing Director of Damodar Thread Ltd. Textile Park: Specialization is the need of the hour. Textile Parks will play a vital role for overall growth of the Indian Textile Sector particularly small and medium Scale industries. Both, sourcing and marketing will become economical, efficient and prompt which will help organisations to use their resources efficiently. Pollution: Right infrastructure needs to be built to treat the effluents released from dyeing and processing units. Serious measures have to be taken very soon. It is not possible for individual organisations to build the infrastructure themselves due to capital constraints. Textile Parks will play a very critical role since it is mandatory for textile parks to have common effluent plants, recycling centres etc. Power: Across India, infrastructure for power is being created. Many companies are now installing their own power generation capacities. It is very expensive for organisations to have plants closed due to power cuts. Mr. Kirti Shah, MD of Textile World, Mumbai Market Analysis: Textile business is changing with fashion and production is entirely driven by it. People who are technical qualified with fashion will only survive. In todays highly complex and changing consumer marketplace, brands and retailers need to be sure that the products they deliver meet consumer expectations. Along with that, they also need to meet the required safety, regulatory and government standards, domestically and globally. Textile testing is an integral part of it; Good quality can be achieved either by meeting the standard norms as devised by the buyer or passing the complete parameters for further shipping out the goods to the end user. Power and Pollution: Many production centres like Ichalkaranchi, Erode, and Tirupur are facing problems of power and loosing valuable orders. Textile industry is shifting to Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bihar & U.P Southern mills are shifting to Gujarat & Maharashtra . due to power cut problems. In Gujarat, Jetpur is suffering from water problem which is the biggest industry near Rajkot. Govt is not bothered to resolve this. Due to the Central Govt rule for water pollution, in Ahmedabad, all factories remain closed for one month every six months. Nobody is seriously interested in taking actions & regularizing norms. About half of the worlds waste water problems are linked to the production of textile goods including many of the chemicals which cause harm. Textile has grown up to the peak of the consumer needs which requires the assured quality & sustainable characteristics to further meet the competency in the market. Shri Deshbandhu Kagzi, President of Hindustan Chamber of Commerce Textile Parks: SITPs have several benefits as similar types of manufacturing are based at one place. The Common facility Centre at the Parks provides technical solutions to the process with knowledge sharing rather than competing with each other in isolation. They will facilitate good investment opportunity, employment generation and increase in quality textiles production. SITPs are very attractive as the very word of the park is Integrated Textile Park; it definitely helps in backward as well as forward integration for the products. Thus, it is very useful across the value chain. Water Pollution: The Garment Industry is not as polluting as it is made out to be. Majority of the units convert finished fabric into garment without going for garment wet processing i.e garment dyeing and printing processes. Textile industry is one of the leading consumers of water. It consumes about 3.2% of total consumption of water for various processes such as sizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing and other finishing processes. The used water containing various constituents such as dyes, chemicals etc gets contaminated if released directly into the sources of water. This is resulting into water pollution. Nowadays the use of synthetic fibres, polymers and finishes by textile industry is increasing at rapid rate. Since many of these products are resistant to biological degradation, more care is required in their treatment. Pollution Control Boards have norms and methods in place to monitor the ETPs and CEPTs. The awareness level amongst the Textile Industries has considerably increased after the incidences at Tirupur and Rajasthan. Power: Power cuts and high costs are main hindrance in development. It is also the negative aspect of the industrial scenario. The captive power generation units with natural gas are part solutions to the problem. The Central Government has started the National Grid Concept which is yet to materialise in true sense. The Power Tariff and its availability for the industry at any state should be at par to offer level playing field for the entrepreneurs as well as real growth of the Industry. The Centralize system for power distribution will go a long way in industrial growth and healthy atmosphere. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 15
  18. 18. COVER STORY Pollution Redressal Policy Mr. C. N. Shivramakrishnan Waste water characteristics: Waste water quality can be Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC defined by physical, chemical and biological characteristics. (Chartered Colourist) Physical parameters include color, odour, temperature, Senior Textile Advisor solids (residues), turbidity, oil, and grease. Solids can be Water pollution control is concerned with the further classified into suspended and dissolved solids (size protection of the aquatic environment and the and settle ability) as well as organic (volatile) and inorganic maintenance of water quality in lakes, reservoirs, (fixed) fractions. Chemical parameters associated with the streams, rivers, estuaries and the seas. The desired or organic content of wastewater include the biological oxygen required water quality that must be maintained depends on demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total the uses to be made of the water. Therefore, water quality organic carbon (TOC) and total oxygen demand (TOD). criteria must be available for alternative beneficial uses if the BOD is a measure of the organics present in the water, adequacy of various pollution control measures is to be determined by measuring the oxygen necessary to bio- assessed properly. Domestic water supply, industrial water stabilize the organics (the oxygen equivalent of the supply, agricultural water supply, water for recreational use biodegradable organics present).Inorganic chemical and water for fish, other aquatic life and wild life are well parameters include salinity, hardness, pH, acidity, alkalinity, established beneficial uses. Once the criteria necessary for iron, manganese, chlorides, sulphates, sulphides, heavy the protection of the various beneficial uses have been metals (mercury, lead, chromium, copper and zinc) nitrogen established, it is possible to set standards for surface water (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), phosphorous. with the stipulation that no discharge shall create conditions Bacteriological parameters include coli forms, fecal coli that violate them. These standards are known as receiving forms, specific pathogens and viruses. water or stream standards. Water and energy requirements during the processing and Different states have taken the approach of classifying manufacturing of cotton textiles are tremendous. It can take streams in several categories in accordance with the highest up to 200 litres of water to produce, dye and finish one beneficial use to be made of the stream. This use is based, to kilogram of textile. Wastewater from textile production is a certain extent, on existing conditions. Effluent standards often difficult to treat as it contains high concentration of pertain directly to the quality of the treated wastewater dyes, BOD, total organic carbon, dissolved solids and high discharged from a sewage treatment plant. Designing content of toxic metal (chromium, copper, cobalt, lead, zinc, industrial discharge standards should reflect the numerical etc.) compromise between what can be achieved to prevent Colour removal technologies: Considerable amounts of environmental pollution and sustainable development. They water and energy are used in the processing of different should involve categorical limitations for specific sources. materials in the textile production chain. Water is also used in Difficulty in enforcing receiving water standards arises when huge quantities during cotton cultivation. An area of great the combined load of several discharges exceeds the self environmental concern is about the amount of water purification capacity of the receiving waters. Micro pollutants discharged and the chemical load it carries. Other important represent the major concern for industrial effluents. A micro concerns are energy consumption, air emissions, solid pollutant- based sub categorization is needed for an effective wastes and odours, which can create significant problems to control of industrial effluents. environment. Air emissions are usually collected at their In recent years different approaches have been point of origin. Because they have long been controlled in discussed to tackle man-made environmental hazards. different countries, there is good historical data on air Clean technology, eco-mark and green chemistry are some emissions from specific processes. This is not the case with of the most highlighted practices in preventing and or emissions to water. The various streams coming from the reducing the adverse effect on our surroundings. different processes are mixed together to produce a final Environmental issues associated with textile industry effluent whose characteristics are the result of a complex effluents include: combination of factors such as, the types of fibres and make- ups processed, the techniques applied and the types of Ÿ Residual dyestuffs-toxicity,colour, Ÿ Auxiliary agents for dyeing- chemicals and auxiliaries used. biodegradability toxicity and biodegradability Total water management: Conventionally, water coming Ÿ Halogenated organic Ÿ Surfactants and synergistic into a process plant, which generates effluents, are treated compounds (AOXs) relationship with toxicants and discharged. In Total Water Management (TWM), the Ÿ Heavy metal contamination (Cr, Ÿ Finishes - toxicity and effluents are treated and recycled. Water and valuable by- Cu, Zn) biodegradability products are reclaimed and reused. Physical, chemical and Ÿ Salts in effluent which is to be Ÿ Elevated temperatures biological treatments are given to the effluents. The reused for land application Ÿ High levels of total oxidized advantages of TWM are multifold. The inlet water quantity Ÿ High BOD levels. sulphur (TOS) and the effluent discharge quantity are reduced. So through 16 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
  19. 19. COVER STORY TWM, by recycling the effluent for process requirements, effluents containing benign contaminants or being treated to the discharge is also minimized considerably. a level guaranteeing that the receiving stream is not Developing a treatment strategy: A set of cost effective on- impacted. site unit operations and processes can be installed in areas Discharge to sewer: Effluent wastewater treatment which require effluents treatment. These remedial operations are sent to the sewer, which is connected to the techniques consist of preliminary and primary process common effluent treatment plant. The wastewater is subject equipment, instrumentation and control units related to the to municipal pretreatment containing constituents that the textile processing and the waste water characteristics. CETP can effectively degrade. Common outlets for waste water discharges are as follows: Offsite disposal: Effluents and other residues (sludge) Discharge to surface water: Effluent from waste water from wastewater treatment operations are transported to treatment operations is piped directly to a surface water an offsite treatment facility. The handler determines the level body and is subject to local regulations. Effluent limitations of pretreatment required for off site disposal. This method is depend on the ambient water quality criteria, the conditions appropriate for low volume, high toxicity effluents and of the receiving stream and the amount of mixing available. residuals. Effluents and residuals in this category are usually Discharge to surface water is usually a viable outlet for prohibited from discharge through other outlets. Criteria for selection of an ETP system Effluent Character Details of ETP Recurring Expenditure 1 Characteristics of raw effluent Tentative cost of Treatment Plant 1 ETP Cost 1Quantity of chemicals for treatment & 2 Design and treatment unit size cost per day (m3/day and m3/hour) 2 Disposal cost 3 Electrical & mechanical equipment 2 Power (Electricity-KWH) & cost per 3 Method of flow measurement at final day outlet cost 3 Manpower cost per day 4 Scheme descriptions with flow chart 4 Total treatment cost. 5 Characteristics of treated effluent Selecting appropriate treatment technologies: The Ÿ Insoluble substances that Ÿ Substances separable by degassing or environmental impact of the textile industries is associated can be separated physically stripping with its high water consumption as well as by the color, with or without flocculation. Ÿ Substances requiring a redox reaction variety and amount of chemicals which are released in the Ÿ Organic substances Ÿ Substances that can be concentrated wastewater. Waste waters from dyeing and finishing separable by adsorption by ion exchange or reverse osmosis Ÿ Substances separable by Ÿ Substances that can be precipitated as operations in the textile industry are generally high in both precipitation insoluble iron salts or that can be chelated. color and organic content. The waste water from the textile Ÿ Acids and bases industry is known to be strongly coloured with presence of large amount of suspended solids, broadly fluctuating pH, Substances treatable by Biological methods: Effluents require high temperature, besides high chemical oxygen demand. some form of treatment prior to disposal to sewer, river or Colour is the first contamination to be recognized in this sea. Prior to the installation of any end-of-pipe treatment waste water. There are several methods for colour removal method, it is essential to carry out segregation of the effluent like Adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, streams to separate the contaminated streams from the polyelectrolyte, biological process, ionizing/ gamma relatively clean streams for treatment. This results in a more radiation. Although there are many options, each one of the effective treatment system as a smaller volume of waste technologies has its limitations, hence combination of water is treated (resulting in lower capital and operating technologies is generally preferred for cost effective colour costs) and it allows for the use of specific treatment methods removal. Before implementing any in plant controls or pre- rather than trying to find one method to treat a mixture of treatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways waste with different characteristics. The segregated clean to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine streams can then be reused with little, or no, treatment the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater elsewhere in the factory. There are two possible locations generated during production. For example, the for treating the effluents, namely, at site or at common concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can effluent treatment plant. The advantage of treatment at the be recycled as part of starting materials for the next factory is that it could allow for partial or full re-use of water. production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater The following technologies can be used. requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices, Zero Discharge Concept: In the past few decades plenty of spill control measures such as spill containment enclosures progress has been made in the area of waste treatment. and eliminating wet floor areas. The principal pollutants Chemical engineers are focusing on environmental concerns affected by modifying industrial manufacturing processes and in the textile plant, mostly on monitoring the chemical in plant treatment methods are as follows: content of waste water. Today, most waste water treatment Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 17
  20. 20. COVER STORY Classification of treatments followed in textile effluent: Primary Screening and sedimenting:Equalization Neutralization Coagulation Secondary Aerated lagoon: Trickling filtration Activation of sludge Oxidation Anaerobic digestion Tertiary Oxidation: Electrolytic precipitation Membrane separation Electrochemical process Ion exchange Treatments Sequence Adsorption Thermal evaporation plants work well and the focus is shifting towards additionally 6. The feasibility of establishing suitable collection and conveyance system in minimizing the energy needed to run. The aim is to prevent the case of a common treatment facility. the treatment of local emissions from causing damaging the Regardless of the treatment technology to be adopted, greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to looming following parameters are necessary to achieve zero discharge. global warming. In safety and environmental technology 1. Removal of grits and suspended limits solids 5. Complete removal of colour research, the focus of attention has shifted from local to 2. Removal of oil & grease, scum 6. Recovery of reusable water global concerns over the years. Water losses which need to and other suspended matters 7. Treatment of reject (from reverse osmosis be considered are disposals coming from the clean drains 3. Equalization and adjustment of pH system/blow out from evaporator). system of the water/steam cycle. The Zero Discharge 4. BOD/COD levels are in control 8. Solid waste disposal and management. Concept is designed to collect all kinds of clean drains and Conclusion: Fresh water is fast becoming scarce, forcing us to blow down routing it to the condenser respectively the plan for recycling of treated waste water. Most industries are condensate polishing plant. The regenerated condensate is generating wastewaters that are difficult to treat and are staring fed back to the water/steam cycle. The result is a plant with at stringent discharge norms which are difficult to meet with minimum water consumption. The concept of zero conventional technologies. Conventional effluent treatment discharge signifies that the process water utilized in dyeing plant (ETP) has an array of equipments and chemical treatment and bleaching operations are recovered for reuse to an process. Latest technologies ensure that all the effluent extent that there is no discharge of effluent into the treatment processes like equalization, aeration, settling and environment. decanting are carried out in a single tank. The final treated A zero discharge treatment system design in textile effluents need stringent discharge norms with respect to carbon processing should consider the following things: oxidation, nitrification, de- nitrification and bio-phosphorous 1. Quantity of the effluent to be solids (TSS), reduction in biological removal in line with European standards. Our biosphere is treated. oxygen demand (BOD) for a given 2. Variability in time of the quantity effluent. under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. as well as quality of the effluent. 4. The upper and lower limits of Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by 3. Unit processes suitable for performance of each unit process. anthropogenic activities on water, air and land have negative achieving desired purposes (such as 5. The durability of the system to be influence over biotic and abiotic components on different removal of total suspended adopted. natural eco-systems. We need to act before it is too late. News: Tirupur first to adopt Zero Liquid Discharge Technology Source: Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) via www.fibre2fashion.com Dr. A Sakthivel, Chairman of AEPC, recently announced to this ZLD technology, some marginal percentage was that Tirupur is the first textiles cluster in India to arrive at the being used after colour processing - in the form of salt water Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Technology. He further as concentrated salt solution - called BRINE Solution re-use.” proudly added on behalf of Dyers Association of Tirupur, “I He further informed that, on the energy front, we are facing also declare that we created and generated more than 2000 problem in running the units. “We are incurring more MW in Wind Mill Energy. That way too we are helping to operational cost due to heavy load shedding and due to achieve Green Field Technology in power sector.” usage of diesel gensets,” he added. It is to be noted that due to the High Court order, the On the Tirupur business acumen, Chairman AEPC said Dyeing & Processing Industry in Tirupur had appalling that, “People here are very determined. They are very problems and many units had to be shut. More than 50% of strong in continuing their established business. They will total units are running. Approximately 494 Dyeing units and explore various ways and means to live-up to the 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to expectations of their sourcing people both domestic and court order. There are 16 CETPs under operation out of 18 international, even if they have to do business with minor now. Now both Common Effluent Treatment Plants losses / minor margins, since this is a temporary phase and (CETPs) and Individual units are following this ZLD we have to continue with textile business to go a long way. technology and are successfully meeting the requirements of Tirupur traders are well bent people to achieve their goals in the trade and servicing the requirements. spite of all the bottlenecks - like sudden increase in yarn On the problem of water shortage, Dr. Sakthivel said: prices, sudden close-down of the Dyeing & Processing units “As far as water is concerned, we are not facing any problem and to add to that economic slowdown in our traditional since we are re-using the water up to 90%. Moreover, due markets i.e., USA & Europe. 18 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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