Enlightened Despotism


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Enlightened Despotism

  1. 1. Enlightened Despotism<br />
  2. 2. What is Enlightened Despotism?<br />is a form of absolutism (or despotism) in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. <br />
  3. 3. Enlightened Despotism (cont.)<br />Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories<br />
  4. 4. Enlightened Despotism (cont.)<br />They tended to allow: <br /><ul><li>religious toleration
  5. 5. freedom of speech and the press
  6. 6. the right to hold private property </li></ul>Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education<br />
  7. 7. What Did the Philosophes Think?<br />Many did not wish to go the political route of Montesquieu’s limited monarchy or Rousseau’s democracy<br />Most were pro-monarchy (Voltaire, Diderot, etc.) and did not wish to limit a monarch’s power<br />
  8. 8. Philosophe’s (cont.)<br />Instead, they sought to redirect that power toward the rationalization of economic and political structures & the liberation of thought<br />
  9. 9. Enlightened Despots<br />
  10. 10. Frederick the Great King of Prussianot the mall…<br />
  11. 11. Frederick II of Prussia<br />r. 1740-1786 <br />AKA Frederick the Great<br />Self-described “first servant of the people”<br />
  12. 12. Economic Policies<br />Silesia as a manufacturing district<br />State-initiated agricultural improvements:<br /><ul><li>Created more farmland (drained swamps)
  13. 13. Successfully introduced new crops: potatoes & turnips
  14. 14. Established the Land-Mortgage Credit Association which helped landowners raise money for agricultural improvements</li></li></ul><li>However…<br />Peasants still burdened by disproportionate taxes<br />
  15. 15. Non-Economic Policies<br />Religious Toleration<br /><ul><li>Catholics & Jews allowed to settle in predominately Lutheran territory
  16. 16. Protected Catholics living in Silesia
  17. 17. State benefited from the economic contributions of more workers</li></li></ul><li>Non-Econ. Policies (cont.)<br />Rationalization of Legal System<br /><ul><li>Efficiency
  18. 18. Unified regional law to match state law (more central authority)
  19. 19. Decreased nobility’s influence</li></li></ul><li>Joseph IIKing of Austria<br />
  20. 20. Joseph II of Austria<br />r. 1780-1790<br />Co-ruled with his mother, Maria-Theresa from 1765 until her death in 1780<br />
  21. 21. Joseph II<br />Not known for his warm personality - was said to be impersonal & humorless<br />However, he wanted to improve life for his people<br />
  22. 22. Centralization of Authority<br />Austria was very diverse<br />Maria-Theresa began some Enlightened policies such as:<br /><ul><li>More efficient tax system in which clergy & nobility were taxed
  23. 23. Brought educational institutions to the service of the crown</li></li></ul><li>Maria-Theresa (cont.)<br />Expanded primary education<br />Limited the amount of labor that landowners could demand from peasants<br />Goal = to create a pool from which to draw military recruits<br />
  24. 24. Joseph II’s Reforms<br />Wanted to extend his borders<br />Wanted to exert his authority over areas where his mother had wisely chosen to stay out (irrational to have more than 1 leader)<br />
  25. 25. Joe’s Reforms (cont.)<br />Tried to establish German as the sole language of the empire (irrational not to all speak the same language)<br />Didn’t work out, and eventually had to rescind these orders<br />
  26. 26. Joseph & the Church<br />Favored toleration<br /><ul><li>October 1781 - Issued a Toleration Decree
  27. 27. Lutherans, Calvinists, & Greek Orthodox permitted to:
  28. 28. Have own places of worship
  29. 29. Sponsor schools
  30. 30. Enter skilled trades
  31. 31. Hold academic appointments
  32. 32. Hold positions in public service</li></li></ul><li>Joseph & Church (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Jews:
  33. 33. Relieved of certain taxes & signs of personal degradation
  34. 34. Granted the right to private worship
  35. 35. Still did not have equality with other subjects</li></li></ul><li>More Joseph & Church<br />Sought to bring institutions of the Roman Catholic Church under his control (“Josephinism”)<br /><ul><li>Forbade local bishops to communicate with the Pope
  36. 36. Dissolved over 600 territories and took their land (unless they were schools or hospitals)</li></li></ul><li>Even More Joseph & the Church<br /><ul><li>Dissolved established Roman Catholic Seminaries (too much focus on Pope, not enough on parishners) & replaced with 8 seminaries where parish duties were the focus
  37. 37. Funded w/ money from confiscated monasteries
  38. 38. Roman Catholic priests = employees of the state</li></li></ul><li>Joseph’s Economic Reforms<br />Abolished internal tariffs<br />Encouraged building of new roads<br />Improved river transportation<br />Personally inspected farms & manufacturing districts<br />
  39. 39. Economic Reforms (cont.)<br />Created laws to limit authority of landowners over peasants<br /><ul><li>Abolished serfdom as a legally sanctioned state of servitude
  40. 40. Granted peasants many personal freedoms such as the right to marry and engage in skilled work w/o landowner’s permission
  41. 41. Goal = reduce traditional burdens on peasants</li></li></ul><li>The BIG Economic Reform…<br />Land Taxation (GASP!!)<br /><ul><li>All landowners were to pay taxes regardless of social status
  42. 42. Peasants no longer had to bear burden of taxes alone</li></ul>Died shortly after this decree and it was never implemented (his brother Leopold was forced to repeal it…)<br />
  43. 43. Catherine the GreatEmpress of Russia<br />
  44. 44. Catherine The Great<br />r. 1762-1796<br />Germanic Princess & wife/widow of Peter III<br />Approved (& possibly aided in) the assassination of her husband<br /><ul><li>Gregory Orlov, her lover, organized the coup that murdered Peter III</li></li></ul><li>
  45. 45. Catherine the Great<br />Ideas of the Enlightenment convinced her that Russia was backward<br />Brought everything Western to Russia<br /><ul><li>Ex.: Diderot - paid him & offered to publish his Encyclopedia in Russia when it was banned by the French Gov’t.</li></li></ul><li>1767 Legislative Commission<br />500 Delegates from all walks of life<br />Goal was to suggest reforms (guided by Enlightenment ideals)<br />Result = nothing, but Catherine got a good feel for her country’s problems<br />
  46. 46. CTG’s Legislative Reforms<br />Gave strong support/power to nobility<br /><ul><li>They had the power to oust her, so she made friends with them</li></ul>“Charter of Nobility”<br /><ul><li>Gave nobles complete control over serfs
  47. 47. Local offices given to local nobles (not royal offices, though)</li></li></ul><li>CTG’s Economic Reforms<br />Continued PTG’s mercantile ideas<br />Supported expansion of the small Russian urban middle class (vital for trade)<br />Kept a close tie to philosophes so they would write about her favorably<br />
  48. 48. CTG’s Territorial Reforms<br />Continued the drive for warm water ports (fought Ottoman Empire)<br />1774 Treaty of Kuchuck-Kainardji - gave Russia a direct outlet on the Black Sea<br />Active in the First Partition of Poland (along w/ Austria & Prussia)<br />
  49. 49. CTG’s Social Reforms<br />Limited, but did create hospitals & orphanages<br />Limited religious toleration<br />Slight restriction of the use of torture by the government<br />
  50. 50. Pugachev Rebellion<br />1771-1775<br />Most violent peasant uprising in Russian history<br />1773-1774 - peasants and Cossacks killed 1500 nobles and clergy<br />This rebellion limited the amount of reforms geared toward them<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Who Was Most Enlightened?<br />In your journal section, write 1 paragraph that answers:<br /> Who best exemplifies an “Enlightened Despot” - Frederick the Great, Joseph II, or Catherine the Great? Why?<br />