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Ottoman empire

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Ottoman empire

  1. 1. The Islamic empire that dominated much of the Mediterranean region from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries
  2. 2. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  The Ottoman Empire was the Turkish Muslim empires. It spread from Asia encompassing most of the Middle East, most of North Africa, and parts of Europe, including modern Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia.  In the, Middle East; Syria, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Arabia and Iraq.  The empire reached around the Black sea and into the Caucasus in Central Asia, including Aremenia. The Ottoman armies reached as far as the gates of Vienna, where they were repulsed for a second time in 1683. The map below shows the extent of the Ottoman Empire in 1683.
  3. 3. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  The Ottoman Empire was founded about 1307 by Osman I, Subsequent rulers continued the expansion. The ruler of the Ottoman Empire after its rise assumed the title of Sultan. The Sultan also assumed the role of the Muslim Caliph.  The progress of the empire was explosive. In 1453, the Sultan Mohamad II conquered Constantinople (renamed Istanbul) putting an end to the Eastern Roman Empire.  The Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered modern Yugoslavia in 1521, and conquered Hungary after his victory at the battle of Mohacs in 1526. However, he failed to take Vienna after winter forced an end to his siege in 1529. The Ottomans went on to take Transylvania and Wallachia as well.
  5. 5. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  The Ottoman Empire was a significant part of European politics. It entered into a military alliance with France, England and the Netherlands against Habsburg Spain, Italy and Habsburg Austria. The Ottoman navy aided Francis the I to take Nice from the Holy Roman Empire.  At the height of its power (1683), the Ottoman Empire controlled territory in the Near East and North Africa, as well as Central and Southeastern Europe.  In 1683, Ottoman power was checked at its final zenith when the siege of Vienna failed. The empire began a decline marked by increasing backwardness relative to Europe.
  6. 6. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  The Eastern Question emerged as the power of the Ottoman Empire began to decline during the 17th century. The Ottomans were at the height of their power in 1683, when they lost the Battle of Vienna to Austria. Peace was made much later, in 1699, with the Treaty of Karlowitz, which forced the Ottoman Empire to cede many of its Central European possessions, including Hungary. Its westward expansion arrested, the Ottoman Empire never again posed a serious threat to Austria, which became the dominant power in its region of Europe.
  7. 7. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  The Eastern Question is normally dated to 1774, when the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) ended in defeat for the Ottomans. As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was believed to be imminent, the European powers engaged in a power struggle to safeguard their military, strategic and commercial interests in the Ottoman domains. Imperial Russia stood to benefit from the decline of the Ottoman Empire; on the other hand, Austria-Hungary and the United Kingdom deemed the preservation of the Empire to be in their best interests. The Eastern Question was put to rest after World War I, one of whose outcomes was the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
  8. 8. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  The Eastern Question did not truly develop until the Russo- Turkish Wars of the 18th century. The first of the wars, which began in 1768, ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji. permitted Russia to act as the protector of Orthodox Christians under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan, and established Russia as a major Black Sea power.  Another Russo-Turkish conflict began in 1787. The Empress of Russia, Catherine II, entered into an alliance with the Austrian ruler, the Emperor Joseph II; the two agreed to partition the Ottoman Empire between their respective nations, thereby alarming many European powers, especially the United Kingdom, France, and Prussia.
  9. 9. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Austria was most directly opposed to the Russian designs on the Ottoman Empire. Though the Austrian House of Habsburg was the foremost opponent of the Ottomans in prior centuries, Austria deemed the Ottoman threat to be much less serious than a Russian advance along the Danube River. Austria also feared that the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire into several nation states would foster the sentiment of nationalism among the many ethnic groups in her own Empire. Thus, Austria made it one of her primary goals to maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.
  10. 10. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Serbian revolution or Revolutionary Serbia refers to the national and social revolution of the Serbian people between 1804 and 1815, during which Serbia managed to fully emancipate from the Ottoman Empire and exist as a sovereign European nation-state, While the first phase of the revolution (1804–1815) was in fact a war of independence, the second phase (1815–1833) resulted in official recognition of a suzerain Serbian state by the Porte, thus bringing the revolution to its end.  The Proclamation (1809) by Karadjordje in the capital Belgrade represented the peak of the revolution. It called for unity of the Serbian nation, emphasising the importance of freedom of religion, Serbian history and rule of law.  The ultimate result of the uprisings was Serbia's suzerainty from the Ottoman Empire.
  11. 11. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Greek Revolt  The Eastern Question once again became a major European issue when the Greeks declared independence from the Sultan in 1821. It was at about this time that the phrase "Eastern Question" was coined. Emperor of Russia sought to invade the Ottoman Empire, and the Greek Revolt seemed to make an invasion even more likely. The British foreign minister, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, as well as the Austrian foreign minister, Metternich, counseled the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, not to enter the war.  Alexander's death in 1825 brought Nicholas I to the Imperial Throne of Russia. He chose to intervene in Greece. The United Kingdom also soon became involved, interested in imposing its will on a newly formed Greek state in part to prevent it becoming a wholly Russian vassal. France too aligned itself with the Greeks, but Austria (still worried about Russian expansion) did not. Outraged by the interference of the Great Powers, the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, denounced Russia as an enemy of Islam, prompting Russia to declare war in 1828. An alarmed Austria sought to form an anti-Russian coalition, but its attempts were in vain.
  12. 12. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Greek Revolt  As the war continued into 1829, Russia gained a firm advantage over the Ottoman Empire.  Thus, Russia was able to secure neither a decisive defeat nor a partition of the Ottoman Empire. She chose, however, to adopt the policy of degrading the Ottoman Empire to a mere dependency. In 1829, the Emperor of Russia concluded the Treaty of Adrianople with the Sultan; his empire was granted additional territory along the Black Sea, Russian commercial vessels were granted access to the Dardanelles, and the commercial rights of Russians in the Ottoman Empire were enhanced. The Greek War of Independence was terminated shortly thereafter, as Greece was granted independence by the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832.
  13. 13. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Muhammad Ali (Egypt)  Just after the Greek Revolt a conflict broke out between the Sultan and his nominal viceroy in Egypt, Muhammad Ali. The modern and well trained Egyptians looked as though they could conquer the entire empire.  The Tsar of Russia, in keeping with his policy of reducing the Ottoman Sultan to a petty vassal, offered to form an alliance with the Sultan.  In 1833, the two rulers negotiated the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, in which Russia achieved the aim of securing complete dominance over the Ottomans. The Russians undertook to protect the Empire from external attacks; in turn, the Sultan pledged to close the Dardanelles to warships whenever Russia was at war. This provision of the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi raised a problem known as the "Straits Question."
  17. 17. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Muhammad Ali (Egypt)  The agreement provided for the closure of all warships, but many European statesmen mistakenly believed that the clause failed to restrict Russian vessels. The United Kingdom and France were angered by the misinterpreted clause; they also sought to contain Russian expansion. The two kingdoms, however, differed on the means of achieving their objective; the British wished to uphold the Sultan, but the French preferred to make Muhammad Ali the ruler of the entire Ottoman Empire. Russian intervention led the Sultan to negotiate a peace with Muhammad Ali in 1833, but war broke out once again in 1839.
  18. 18. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Muhammad Ali (Egypt)  Sultan Mahmud II died in the same year, leaving the Ottoman Empire to his son, Abd-ul-Mejid I. The state of affairs at the time of the new Sultan's accession were extremely critical; the Ottoman army had been signally defeated by the forces of Muhammad Ali. Another disaster followed when the entire Turkish fleet was seized by the Egyptian forces.  Great Britain and Russia now intervened to prevent the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, but France still continued to support Muhammad Ali. In 1840, the Great Powers agreed to compromise; Muhammad Ali agreed to make a nominal act of submission to the Sultan, but was granted hereditary control of Egypt.
  19. 19. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Muhammad Ali (Egypt)  The only unresolved issue of the period was the Straits Question. In 1841, Russia consented to the abrogation of the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi by accepting the London Straits Convention. The Great Powers — Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia — agreed to the reestablishment of the "ancient rule" of the Ottoman Empire, which provided that the Turkish straits would be closed to all warships whatsoever, with the exception of the Sultan's allies during wartime. With the Straits Convention, the Russian Emperor Nicholas I abandoned the idea of reducing the Sultan to a state of dependence, and returned to the plan of partitioning Ottoman territories in Europe.
  20. 20. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Eastern Question  Muhammad Ali (Egypt)  Thus, after the resolution of the Egyptian struggle which had begun in 1831, the weak Ottoman Empire was no longer wholly dependent on Russia. It was, however, not a truly independent state, for it relied on the Great Powers of Europe for protection. Attempts were made at internal reform, but they failed to terminate the decline of the once great Empire. By the 1840s, the Ottoman Empire had become the "sick man of Europe," and its eventual dissolution appeared inevitable.
  21. 21. Russian Empire V/S British Empire, France , the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia
  22. 22. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  Cause:  It was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.  Area:  Crimean Peninsula, western Turkey , the Baltic Sea , the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea.  In Russia it is also known as the "Oriental War" , and in Britain it is known as the "Russian War".
  23. 23. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  France and Britain declared war on Russia on 27 March and 28 March 1854  Background:  After coup d'état of 1851 in France, Napoleon III sent his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire forced the Ottomans to recognize France as the "sovereign authority" in the Holy Land  Russia did not accept the change in authority, pointing to two more treaties, one in 1757 and the 1774 Treaty of Kuchack Keinarji
  24. 24. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  the Ottomans reversed their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty and insisting that Russia was the protector of the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire.  Napoleon III responded with a show of force;  sending the ship of the line Charlemagne to the Black Sea. France's aggressive diplomacy and money, induced Sultan Abdülmajieed I to accept a new treaty.  France and the Roman Catholic Church became the supreme Christian authority in the Holy Land with control over the Christian holy places and possession of the keys to the Church of the Nativity, previously held by the Greek Orthodox Church.
  25. 25. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  Tsar Nicholas I then deployed his Army along the River     Danube, and had his foreign minister, undertake talks with the Ottomans. Nicholas I and Foreign Minister Nesselrode began a diplomatic offensive Russia Claimed it had an obligation to Christian communities in the Ottoman Empire. Demanded a new treaty with the Ottomans which would allow Russia the same rights of intervention in the affairs of the Orthodox religion as recently allowed France in respect of Catholic churches and churchmen. Such a treaty would allow Russia to control the Orthodox Church's hierarchy in the Ottoman Empire.
  26. 26. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  British Government convinced the Sultan to reject the treaty, which compromised the independence of the Turks  The Tsar marched his armies into the Danubian Principalities ( Moldavia and Wallachia along the Danube, under Ottoman sovereignty, in which Russia was acknowledged as a special guardian of the Orthodox Church)  Britain sent a fleet to the Dardanelles, where it joined another fleet sent by France.  The representatives of the four neutral Great Powers— Britain, France, Austria and Prussia — met in Vienna, where they drafted a note
  27. 27. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  Nicholas I; accepted but rejected by Abdülmajeed I  The Sultan formally declared war on 23 October 1853 and proceeded to the attack  Russia and the Ottoman empire massed forces on two main fronts, the Caucasus and the Danubian front. The Ottoman leader Omar Pasha managed to pull in some victories on the Danubian front. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans were able to stand ground with the help of Chechen Muslims, led by Imam Shamil.
  28. 28. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  The Battle of Sinop on 30 November 1853  Russia destroyed a frigates of Ottomans while they were anchored at the port of Sinop, northern Anatolia  By 28 March 1854, after Russia ignored an AngloFrench ultimatum to withdraw from the Danubian Principalities, Britain and France had formally declared war.  Austria threatened by the Russian forces supported Britain and France  Russia then withdrew its troops from the Danubian principalities, which were then occupied by Austria
  29. 29. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  This removed the original grounds for war, but Britain and      France continued with hostilities. Determined to address the Eastern Question by putting an end to the Russian threat to the Ottoman Empire, the allies proposed several conditions for a peaceful resolution, including: 1. Russia was to give up its protectorate over the Danubian Principalities 2. It was to abandon any claim granting it the right to interfere in Ottoman affairs on behalf of Orthodox Christians 3. The Straits Convention of 1841 was to be revised 4. All nations were to be granted access to the River Danube When the Tsar refused to comply with these Four Points, the Crimean War commenced.
  30. 30. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  One of the aims of the Russian advance was to encourage the Serbs and Bulgars living under Ottoman rule to rebel  In June 1854 the Allied expeditionary force landed in the region and the Crimean campaign opened in September 1854  The peace of Paris in March 1856 put an end to war
  31. 31. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  Significance:  The first "modern war  The weaponry and tactics used had never been seen before and affected all other wars after it  First tactical use of railways and the electric telegraph  The first war covered by press, through photography and journalists  The first war with real field hospitals  Women served as army nurses  The work of Florence Nightingale, Mary Seacole, Frances Margaret Taylor and others led to the introduction of modern nursing methods.
  32. 32. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  The Russian military medicine saw dramatic progress: N. I. Pirogov, known as the father of Russian field surgery, developed the use of anesthetics, plaster casts, and enhanced amputation methods in Crimea.  The war also led to the establishment of the Victoria Cross in 1856 (backdated to 1854), the British Army's first universal award for valour.
  33. 33. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  The Congress of Paris  The Tsar and the Sultan agreed not to establish any naval or military arsenal on the Black Sea coast.  All the Great Powers pledged to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire.  The Treaty of Paris stood until 1871, when France was defeated by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871.
  34. 34. The Crimean War October 1853–February 1856  Russia, exploiting nationalist unrest in the Ottoman states in the Balkans and seeking to regain lost prestige, once again declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 24 April 1877.  In this later Russo-Turkish War the states of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro achieved independence and Bulgaria its autonomy.
  35. 35. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Great Eastern Crisis  In 1875, the territory of Herzegovina rebelled against the Sultan,     which led to insurrection in the Province of Bosnia as well as in Bulgaria. The Great Powers believed that their intervention was necessary. War break out in the Balkans. The first to act were the members of the League of the Three Emperors (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia), They urged the Sultan to institute various reforms, including one granting religious liberty to Christians. The Note was submitted to the Sultan, whose agreement was secured on 31 January 1876. The Herzegovinian leaders, however, rejected the proposal, pointing out that the Sultan had already made promises to institute reforms but had failed to fulfill them.
  36. 36. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Great Eastern Crisis  Representatives of the Three Emperors met once again in     Berlin, approved the Berlin Memorandum. To convince the Herzegovinians that the Sultan would indeed keep his promises. In the meantime, Abd-ul-Hamid II came to power. The hardships of the Ottomans had increased; their treasury was empty, and they faced an insurrection not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also in Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria. Still, the Ottoman Empire managed to crush the insurgents in August 1876.
  37. 37. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Great Eastern Crisis  Rumours of Ottoman atrocities against the rebellious population shocked European sensibilities.  Russia intended to enter the war on the side of the rebels.  Delegates of the Great Powers assembled at the Constantinople Conference in 1876.  The Sultan, refused to compromise his independence by allowing international representatives to oversee the institution of reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  Russia declared war on 24 April 1877.  Reichstadt Agreement, under which Ottoman territories captured in the course of the war would be partitioned between the Russian and Austria-Hungarian Empires, with the latter obtaining Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  38. 38. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Great Eastern Crisis  When Russia threatened to secure Constantinople, British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli urged Austria and Germany to ally with him against this tyrannical war aim.  As a result, Russia sued for peace through the Treaty of San Stefano, which imposed harsh terms: the Empire was to grant independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro; to grant autonomy to Bulgaria; to institute reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and to cede the Dobruja and parts of Armenia to Russia  Due to the insistence of the Great Powers (especially the United Kingdom), the treaty was heavily revised at the Congress of Berlin so as to reduce the great advantages acquired by Russia.
  39. 39. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Great Eastern Crisis  The Treaty of Berlin adjusted the boundaries of the newly independent states in the Ottoman Empire's favour.  Ottoman cessions to Russia were largely sustained, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (though still nominally within the Ottoman Empire) were transferred to Austrian control.  In addition, the Ottoman island of Cyprus was given to the United Kingdom via a secret agreement.
  40. 40. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Germany and the Ottoman Empire  In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the positions of some of the Great Powers in relation to each other and to the Ottoman Empire began to shift.  Distressed by the conduct of the Germans in revising the Treaty of San Stefano, Russia left the League of the Three Emperors.  Germany drew closer to Austria-Hungary, with whom she concluded the Dual Alliance in 1879.  Germany also became more friendly towards the Ottoman Empire, which became a close German ally. 
  41. 41. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  The Germans took over the re-organisation of the Ottoman military and financial system; in return, they received several commercial concessions, including permission to build the Baghdad Railway, which secured for them access to several important economic markets.  Germany was driven not only by commercial interests, but also by an imperialistic and militaristic rivalry with the United Kingdom.  The United Kingdom, meanwhile, agreed to the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904, thereby resolving differences between the two countries over international affairs.  The United Kingdom also reconciled with Russia in 1907 with the Anglo-Russian Entente.
  42. 42. OTTOMAN EMPIRE  Bosnian Crisis  In 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress (more commonly called the Young Turks), a political party opposed to the absolute rule of Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid II, led a rebellion against their ruler.  The pro-reform Young Turks deposed the Sultan in 1909, replacing him with the ineffective Mehmed V. In the following years, various constitutional and political reforms were instituted, but the decay of the Ottoman Empire continued.  Austria-Hungary's plans were opposed by Serbia, which sought Russian assistance. Russia, however, could not comply; a defeat in the Russo-Japanese War had devastated her, and Germany threatened to support Austria-Hungary during a war. The United Kingdom and France, who were not directly concerned by the annexation, did not become involved. Thus unaided, Serbia was forced to renounce her opposition to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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