Metternich

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Metternich

  1. 1. THE GROWTH & SUPPRESSION OFDEMOCRACY FROM THE AGE OFMETTERNICH TO WWI (1815-1914)
  2. 2. OVERVIEWWhat is the Age of Metternich? From the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Revolutions of 1848How was the age defined? Conservatism Against liberal nationalist self-determination idealsWho is Metternich? Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) Chancellor/Foreign Minister of Hapsburg Austria, chief participant in the Congress of Vienna
  3. 3. OVERVIEW CONT.2 nations developed bases for democracy: England: stable France: unstable, back & forth between revolution & reaction3 Nations opposing democracy: Germany: Prussian militarists had gained control of the unification process after constitutionalists failed Austria: Germanic Hapsburg rulers suppressed the move toward autonomy of polyglot nationalities Russia: ruling class obsessed with “Autocracy, Orthodoxy, & Nationalism”
  4. 4. THE GROWTH OF DEMOCRACYEngland• Parliament • In 1815 (after Napoleonic Wars) represented aristocrats & wealthy • The Corn Laws of 1815 • Raised grain prices & prohibited import of foreign grain • Benefited landowners who ran Parliament • Riots & unrest • Corn Laws repealed in 1846 (Anti-Corn Law League)• Tories (1820s conservative party): restructured penal code, developed modern police force, legalized labor unions, granted basic civil rights to Catholics• 1830 House of Commons Reform (lower house of Parliament) • Many of the boroughs that had representatives no longer existed, while emerging industrial cities had none at all • The Great Reform Bill of 1832: abolished “rotten boroughs”, expanded the electorate, & empowered the middle class
  5. 5. ENGLAND, CONT.• The Chartist movement (1838-late 1840s) • Radical working-class activists • Advocated reforms such as: universal male suffrage, secret voting ballot, “one man one vote”, abolition of property qualifications for public office, & public education for all classes • Failed at the time, but reforms were eventually implemented• England was able to maintain stability during the Revolutions of 1848• Whig Party (liberals): William E. Gladstone • 1866: attempted to expand voter eligibility (failed) • Tory leader Benjamin Disraeli introduced The Second Reform Bill (1867) • Doubled size of electorate & gave vote to many industrial workers • Disraeli lost general election of 1868  victory for Gladstone • Gladstone’s Reforms • Legalized labor unions, secret ballot introduced, free public education offered to working-class children • Third Reform Bill of 1885: universal male suffrage• The Social Welfare State • Unions gained right to strike • Government insurance provided for those with work-related injuries • Unemployment insurance & old-age pensions enacted • Compulsory school attendance laws
  6. 6. FRANCE• Bourbon Louis XVIII • Brother of Louis XVI (guillotined) • Issued a constitution, but gave power to small class of landowners & rich• Charles X • brother of Louis XVIII • Repressive measures led to Paris riots in 1830 • Soon abdicates  rift between radicals who wanted to establish a republic & bourgeoisie who wanted stability of a monarchy• Louis Phillipe • Came to power with the help of Marquis de Lafayette • Aristocratic “bourgeoisie king” • Honored the Constitution of 1814 • Proletariat had no representation • Abdicated in February 1848• The Chamber of Deputies • Created by Louis XVIII’s 1814 constitution • Pressured by Parisian mobs to proclaim a republic & name a provisional government until elections • Constituent Assembly established single-chambered Legislative Assembly & president elected by universal male suffrage
  7. 7. France, cont.• Louis Napoleon Bonaparte • Second Republic • Eradicated socialism & radicalism • Reelected & proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III • Autocratic, but not absolutist • Napoleon controlled finances & initiated legislation • Immensely popular because of his public works projects & subsidies to industry (stimulated economy) • The Liberal Empire: eased censorship & granted amnesty to political prisoners • Downfall: foreign affairs • Crimean War: prevent Russian dominance in the Black Sea • French backed down in 1860confrontation with US over a French satellite in Mexico • Franco-Prussian War (unify Germany): disaster for France • Resulted in the end of the Second Empire & began the Third Republic • Controlled by monarchists & bourgeoisie • National Assembly suppressed the Paris Commune (radical socialist counter-government)• Chamber of Deputies (1875) • The French government alternated and fell dozens of times until WWI • Governments lacked stability because of the multiparty system • Dreyfus Affair: Jewish army captain falsely accused by antirepublican conservatives • Had universal male suffrage & social welfare system similar to Britain
  8. 8. THE SUPPRESSION OF DEMOCRACYGermany• Congress of Vienna established the German Confederation (39 states)• Burschenschafts: radical student groups dedicated to the unification of Germany under a single constitution • Organized a convention in 1817 & 1819; attempted assassination of reactionary politicians• Carlsbad Decrees: Metternich’s anti-subversive laws designed to get the liberals out of Austria, its press, & the universities • Secret police controlled publishing & university discussions • Carlsbad Diet drove liberalism & nationalism underground• The Zollverein • Economic union of seventeen German states established in response to the Revolutions of 1830• Prussian King Frederick William IV • Called nominal legislative assembly instead of military after revolutions of 1848 • Granted a constitution & established a House of Representatives elected by universal male suffrage • Controlled by wealthiest classes • Frankfurt Assembly established nature of the future union of Germany • Supporters of Greater Germany wanted to include Austria and to have a Hapsburg emperor rule over the Union • Supporters of Lesser Germany wanted to exclude Austria and to have Prussia lead the union • Austria backed away from the union • Frankfurt Assembly failed • German unification was left to Prussian militarism & Bismarck’s policy of “Blood & Iron”
  9. 9. AUSTRIA• Reactionary government left untouched in the Revolution of 1830• Parisian rebellions in 1848  Louis Kossuth, a Hungarian nationalist, aroused separatist sentiment in the Hungarian Diet • National assembly legal in the empire • Riots in Vienna & Metternich fled the country • Hungarians, Czechs, & 3 Northern Italian provinces of the empire declared autonomy• The Prague Conference • Czech response to the all-German Frankfurt Conference • Austroslavism: Slavic groups within the empire would remain part of the empire & set up autonomous national governments • Austrian armies restored Hapsburg authorities before this idea could be adopted• Franz Joseph • Replaced Emmperor Ferdinand I • Conservative forces within the government centralized power & suppressed opposition• Austro-Prussian War (1866) • Austria was defeated • The Compromise of 1867: set up constitutional government with limited suffrage, granted Hungarians autonomy, & created a dual monarchy (Austria-Hungary) • Exclusion of Slavic minorities encouraged the Pan-Slavic movement to seek independence for ethnic minorities  WWI
  10. 10. REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 FranceCauses Length of Protagonist Events Results Time• Economic changes 1847-1848 Louis Blanc, • Louis Philippe • Napoleon III in England fled to England• Social pressures in Pierre • Guizot resigned reigned France Proudhon, as barricades after• Political Louis emerged winning demonstrations Cavaignac, across Paris landslide outlawed (political • 2nd Republic banquets held – later Sophonse de formed in 1848 election outlawed Lamartine, based on • Dismissed• Louis Napoleon & Napoleon III universal male National Guizot when 52 suffrage protestors were • Class struggle: Assembly killed during anti- rich vs. poor & • Ruled with censorship rural vs. urban complete demonstrations • Urban workers power attempted Marxist takeover & failed
  11. 11. REVOLUTIONS, CONT. German StatesCauses Length of Protagonists Events Results Time• 39 February • French • Germans in • King maintained Baden leadership Germanic 1848- May leaders demanded a Bill • Bismarck states 1848 • Bourgeoisie of Rights in comes to power began to of Germany February under Wilhelm I demand • Richard • crowd • Bismarck unites threatened western rights after Wagner palace in Berlin German states word of after into modern French demonstrators Germany were killed through revolutions • William dictatorial rule spread Frederick IV supports revolutionaries • King Ludwig abdicated in Bavaria • Saxony heard calls for reforms
  12. 12. REVOLUTIONS, CONT. Hapsburg EmpireCauses Length of Protagonists Events Results Time• Multiethnic February  • Empire burst • Hapsburg empire held Empire returned together by 1848-August • Conservativ to former state force 1849 e Russian of multiethnic• Empire was in Tsar empire (Croats, decline & not Nicholas I Slovaks, united Germans,• All ethnic reassemble Austrians, groups d the empire Poles, Huns, attempted to Serbs, gain autonomy Ruthenians, as nationalism Italians, spread Czechs)• The Communist • Central Manifesto was authority published in weakened German • Empire would only last to 1918
  13. 13. REVOLUTIONS, CONT. HungaryCauses Length of Protagonists Events Results Time• Ethnic March 1848 • Louis • Took advantage • Returned to oppression by of general Kossuth revolutions former Austrian • Louis multiethnic throughout the Hapsburgs Bathyany empire state• Hungarian • Austria grants Parliament had • Practiced autonomy been called in • After Austria passive 1825 to address crushes smaller resistance financial matters revolutions, against the• Bloodless new emperor Franz Josef I Hapsburgs revolution in returns to crush March led by Hungary governor & • Austria gains Prime Minister support from Russia • Hungarians defeated
  14. 14. REVOLUTIONS, CONT. Italian StatesCauses Length of Protagonists Events Results Time• Guiseppe March – • Giuseppe • Revolutions 1000 people Mazzini & May 1848 Mazzini = Venetian & killed by others write • Giuseppe Roman Austrians, who about Italian republics regained power Garibaldi nationalism • Austrians throughout the & greatness marched peninsula of Roman through Empire Piedmont &• Citizens of conquered Milan most of Italy revolted in by May 1849 March• Revolution spreads
  15. 15. REVOLUTIONS, CONT. PolandCauses Length of Protagonists Events Results TimePrussians March-June • Jerry • Prussians • Poles learnarmed Polish 1848 Zdrada arm Poles they can’tprisoners & • Frederick to weaken bargainencouraged William IV Russians withthem to lead a • Natalis • Poles & Germanicrevolution Sulerzyski Prussians statesagainst Russia • Sereryn ended up in • Focused on Elzanowski armed economic conflict  growth Prussian rather than victory political
  16. 16. RUSSIA FROM NAPOLEONIC WARS TO WWI (1815-1914)• Alexander I • Extends the reforms of Catherine the Great • Modernized government function & offered greater freedom to Jews • Held back by Napoleon’s invasion from 1812-1820 • Ordered statewide censorship & adherence of all subjects to the Russian Orthodox Church• Constantine vs. Nicholas • Decemberist Revolt • Army officers supported Constantine, but were crushed by Nicholas• Nicholas • Continued Alexander’s autocratic policies • Created the “Third Section”: secret police who prevented the spread of Western or revolutionary ideas • “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality” • Russian intellectual response: • Slavophiles: upheld Slavic/Russian culture & wanted an agrarian society (the mir) • Westernizers: “extend the genius of Russian culture” by industrializing & establishing constitutional government• Alexander II • Emancipation Proclamation of 1861: ended serfdom • Murdered by the Narodniks (radical Slavophiles)
  17. 17. RUSSIA, CONT.• Industrialization • By the beginning of WWI, 25 of 140 million were urban • Trans-Siberian Railroad • Growing proletariat was largely employed in state-owned factories that exploited and abused them
  18. 18. SAMPLE ESSAYS“Adam Smith’s enormous authority resides, in the end, in the same property that we discover in Marx: not in ideology, but in an effort to see the bottom of things. In both cases their greatness rests on an unflinching confrontation with the human condition as they could best make out.” Assess the above quote. What ideas did both men draw upon in order to formulate their ideas? What were their conclusions & why were they so different?“Attempts at reform & modernization in 19th-century Russia were inevitably diluted by the habit of reaction.” Assess the validity of this statement by offering factual evidence.“Austria’s suppression of Slavic autonomy wihtin the empire created more dissolution than unity.” Defend or refute this statement. Evaluate the achievements of Napoleon III. Compare & contrast the growth and suppression of democracy in 19 th-centuray Europe.
  19. 19. SAMPLE MULTIPLE-CHOICE1) The period from the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Revolutions of 1848 is often referred to as the Age of Metternich for all the following reasons EXCEPT:A) The reactionary policies of Prince Metternich of Austria dominated continental politicsB) Republicanism was suppressed & nationalistic urges of most ethnic groups were deniedC) Support of the Old Order was widespread among the political eliteD) The industrial middle class was increasingly denied representation in governmentE) The liberal ideas of the French Revolution were suppressed
  20. 20. 1) The period from the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Revolutions of 1848 is often referred to as the Age of Metternich for all the following reasons EXCEPT:A) The reactionary policies of Prince Metternich of Austria dominated continental politicsB) Republicanism was suppressed & nationalistic urges of most ethnic groups were deniedC) Support of the Old Order was widespread among the political eliteD) The industrial middle class was increasingly denied representation in governmentE) The liberal ideas of the French Revolution were suppressedThe wealth of the industrial middle class gave it leverage with the government
  21. 21. 2) All of the following policies reflect the conservative nature of the British government from 1815-1825 EXCEPT:A) The Corn LawsB) The Peterloo MassacreC) The “Rotten Borough system”D) The Six Acts of 1819E) The establishment of a modern police force
  22. 22. 2) All of the following policies reflect the conservative nature of the British government from 1815-1825 EXCEPT:A) The Corn LawsB) The Peterloo MassacreC) The “Rotten Borough system”D) The Six Acts of 1819E) The establishment of a modern police forceThis was a reform since crime was on the rise in the rapidly expanded cities
  23. 23. 3) Metternich and other diplomats were able to accomplish all of the following as a result of the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) EXCEPT:A) Switzerland was recognized as a neutral nationB) Metternich gained status internationally as a minster of EuropeC) The balance of power between nations and alliances was restoredD) Italy was unified under Sardinian leadershipE) The Netherlands were reunited with Belgium politically
  24. 24. 3) Metternich and other diplomats were able to accomplish all of the following as a result of the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) EXCEPT:A) Switzerland was recognized as a neutral nationB) Metternich gained status internationally as a minster of EuropeC) The balance of power between nations and alliances was restoredD) Italy was unified under Sardinian leadershipE) The Netherlands were reunited with Belgium politicallyItaly was not unified by the Congress of Vienna
  25. 25. 4) Which would be the best description of the political situation in France from 1815 to the start of WWI?A) A series of contrasting types of governments were established and removedB) There was a gradual but continual move toward reform & greater representation for all classesC) There was a disintegration of republicanismD) Imperialism replaced Bourbon despotismE) Ceaseless despotism was relieved by brief periods of revolution
  26. 26. 4) Which would be the best description of the political situation in France from 1815 to the start of WWI?A) A series of contrasting types of governments were established and removedB) There was a gradual but continual move toward reform & greater representation for all classesC) There was a disintegration of republicanismD) Imperialism replaced Bourbon despotismE) Ceaseless despotism was relieved by brief periods of revolutionInstability of individual governments & change of types of government prevailed
  27. 27. 5) Elected by a landslide after the failed Revolution of 1848, he founded the Second French Empire:A) Louis XVIIIB) Louis PhilippeC) Louis NapoleonD) Louis BlancE) Louis Quatorze
  28. 28. 5) Elected by a landslide after the failed Revolution of 1848, he founded the Second French Empire:A) Louis XVIIIB) Louis PhilippeC) Louis NapoleonD) Louis BlancE) Louis QuatorzeA nephew of the great & first Napoleon, he capitalized on his uncle’s fame to get elected and to establish and empire
  29. 29. 6) The Revolutions of 1848A) Overthrew the governments of France, Germany, & RussiaB) Erupted in England as well as on the continentC) Marked the decline of political influence of the proletariatD) Gave rise to Communism & realpolitikE) Dissipated the nationalistic urges of the peoples of Eastern Europe
  30. 30. 6) The Revolutions of 1848A) Overthrew the governments of France, Germany, & RussiaB) Erupted in England as well as on the continentC) Marked the decline of political influence of the proletariatD) Gave rise to Communism & realpolitikE) Dissipated the nationalistic urges of the peoples of Eastern EuropeThe failure of the revolutions inspired new methods of getting power for the “have-nots”
  31. 31. 7) The original goal of the Frankfurt Assembly (1848-1849) was toA) Design and implement a constitutional government for a unified GermanyB) Consolidate Germany under Austrian Hapsburg leadershipC) Unify the northern states of Germany under PrussiaD) Create a united Germany for Germans onlyE) Convince Prussia to unite Germany by force
  32. 32. 7) The original goal of the Frankfurt Assembly (1848-1849) was toA) Design and implement a constitutional government for a unified GermanyB) Consolidate Germany under Austrian Hapsburg leadershipC) Unify the northern states of Germany under PrussiaD) Create a united Germany for Germans onlyE) Convince Prussia to unite Germany by forceThe other issues came up during the conference and helped wreck the chances for a democratic Germany
  33. 33. 8) Which is the best characterization of the status of reform in Russia from 1815-1914?A) “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality” was the slogan of allB) Repeated attempts to Westernize & reform resulted in reactionC) Gradual democratization was effected by the “Westernized” intelligentsiaD) A purge of all Western influences was effected by the “Slavophiles”E) There was a total suppression of all attempts to reform & modernize
  34. 34. 8) Which is the best characterization of the status of reform in Russia from 1815-1914?A) “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality” was the slogan of allB) Repeated attempts to Westernize & reform resulted in reactionC) Gradual democratization was effected by the “Westernized” intelligentsiaD) A purge of all Western influences was effected by the “Slavophiles”E) There was a total suppression of all attempts to reform & modernizeFor every step forward, a step back
  35. 35. 9) All of the following represent a change in the democratic movement in Europe in the last three decades of the 19th century EXCEPT:A) Liberals sought to limit government authority in social & economic affairsB) Suffrage had expanded to include most of the male populationC) Liberals argued for government regulation of industryD) Governments became increasingly involved in alleviating povertyE) Industrial workers demanded a higher standard of living
  36. 36. 9) All of the following represent a change in the democratic movement in Europe in the last three decades of the 19th century EXCEPT:A) Liberals sought to limit government authority in social & economic affairsB) Suffrage had expanded to include most of the male populationC) Liberals argued for government regulation of industryD) Governments became increasingly involved in alleviating povertyE) Industrial workers demanded a higher standard of livingThis was the liberal program in the earlier part of the century. Abuses of industrialization changed it.
  37. 37. 10) Between the end of the Second Empire in 1871 and the start of WWI, FranceA) Had one stable governmentB) Had developed a two-party systemC) Suffered a single-party dictatorshipD) Had dozens of separate and unstable governmentsE) Was ruled by socialist radicals
  38. 38. 10) Between the end of the Second Empire in 1871 and the start of WWI, FranceA) Had one stable governmentB) Had developed a two-party systemC) Suffered a single-party dictatorshipD) Had dozens of separate and unstable governmentsE) Was ruled by socialist radicalsThe coalition governments often fell at the hint of a major crisis
  39. 39. 11) All of the following are features of the social welfare systems that had developed in France & England before WWI EXCEPT:A) The right of workers to strikeB) Government insurance for job injuriesC) Old-age pensionsD) Compulsory school attendanceE) Universal suffrage
  40. 40. 11) All of the following are features of the social welfare systems that had developed in France & England before WWI EXCEPT:A) The right of workers to strikeB) Government insurance for job injuriesC) Old-age pensionsD) Compulsory school attendanceE) Universal suffrageWomen did not get the vote until after WWI in Britain, after WWI in France
  41. 41. 12) “He is guilty! Damn that Jewish officer and his rabble-rousing novelist friend! Republicans and their spies will be the ruin of us. That cursed officer has become a symbol. Let him not blind us to the truth that we need a king. May he rot on Devil’s Island.”To whom is the speaker referring?A) Leon GambettaB) Marshal MacMahonC) Alfred DreyfusD) Major EsterhazyE) Georges Boulanger
  42. 42. 12) “He is guilty! Damn that Jewish officer and his rabble-rousing novelist friend! Republicans and their spies will be the ruin of us. That cursed officer has become a symbol. Let him not blind us to the truth that we need a king. May he rot on Devil’s Island.”To whom is the speaker referring?A) Leon GambettaB) Marshal MacMahonC) Alfred DreyfusD) Major EsterhazyE) Georges BoulangerThe infamous Dreyfus Case pitted supporters of a republican government against theconservative classes. Strong evidence indicates that Major Esterhazy was the guiltyparty who passed military secrets to the Germans
  43. 43. 13) The accused in the above passage was exonerated, party through the efforts of Emile Zola, the writer. The conflict involved an attempt by a rival political faction to embarrass the government with trumped-up charges of espionage. Which faction was responsible for the false imprisonment of the man referred to above?A) MonarchistsB) LiberalsC) RepublicansD) Radical workersE) Socialists
  44. 44. 13) The accused in the above passage was exonerated, party through the efforts of Emile Zola, the writer. The conflict involved an attempt by a rival political faction to embarrass the government with trumped-up charges of espionage. Which faction was responsible for the false imprisonment of the man referred to above?A) MonarchistsB) LiberalsC) RepublicansD) Radical workersE) SocialistsAlthough a court-martial never found him innocent, the president of Francepardoned him and public opinion turned against the monarchists & otherconservative factions.
  45. 45. 14) The man whose reestablishment of a French Empire brought in the mid- 1800s temporary prosperity then ruinous defeat to the nation wasA) CavourB) Louis NapoleonC) Louis KossuthD) Leon GambettaE) Georges Boulanger
  46. 46. 14) The man whose reestablishment of a French Empire brought in the mid- 1800s temporary prosperity then ruinous defeat to the nation wasA) CavourB) Louis NapoleonC) Louis KossuthD) Leon GambettaE) Georges BoulangerCavour was the unifer of Italy; Gambetta and Boulager were French politicians;Louis Kossuth was the Hungarian nationalist hero
  47. 47. 15) The uprisings of the Revolutions of 1848 occurred in most of Europe with the exception ofA) Russia and England because Russia was too backward and unindustrialized and England was too advanced politically, economically, and industriallyB) Russia and England because both were controlled by a merciless government – the tsar in Russia & Parliament in EnglandC) Russia & Austria because both were controlled by long-established monarchies and punished serfs harshlyD) Austria & Switzerland because Austria was controlled by a long established monarchy & punished serfs harshly, and Switzerland was too isolatedE) England and France because England had the most stable government & France had the least stable
  48. 48. 15) The uprisings of the Revolutions of 1848 occurred in most of Europe with the exception ofA) Russia and England because Russia was too backward and unindustrialized and England was too advanced politically, economically, and industriallyB) Russia and England because both were controlled by a merciless government – the tsar in Russia & Parliament in EnglandC) Russia & Austria because both were controlled by long-established monarchies and punished serfs harshlyD) Austria & Switzerland because Austria was controlled by a long established monarchy & punished serfs harshly, and Switzerland was too isolatedE) England and France because England had the most stable government & France had the least stableRussia & England were the only two major nations to escape revolution in 1848;England was the most advanced & Russia was the least

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