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18 th century
SOCIETY
ECONOMY
MAIN EVENTS AND
POLITICS
SPAIN
ART AND CULTURE
 Althoug during the Modern Era, European
society was still based on a feudal system,
many changes happened in the 18th ce...
 It was forbidden to pass from the non-privileged estates to the
privileged ones
The king
The Nobility
The clergy
Bourgeo...
THE PRIVILEGED ESTATES THE NON-PRIVILEGED ESTATES
 The privileges were:
 Not working
 Not paying taxes
 Inheriting and...
 Their original function
was to defend society in
times of war.
 They didn´t have to
work
 They were landowners
 There...
 The high clergy were nobles- archbishops,,
bishops, cardinals) and they were rich
 The «regular clergy» consisted of ab...
The bourgeoisise consisted of
merchants, bankers,( the
richests ones),investors,
functionaries, lawyers…
The high bourgeo...
 It was the most numerous
group in society. There was
high peasantry-land owners-
tenants and land workers.
 During the ...
 In pairs , try to answer the following questions:
 1- Write down some of the nobles´privileges
 2- What was the differ...
 Peasants
 Bourgeoisie
 Privileges
 Estate
 Clergy
 Merchants
 Landowners
 Lawyer
 The economy was based on agriculture but it
was very important the development of
industry and the commerce between Euro...
 Agricultural development :
 Enclosures system
 New technologies and new techniques
 Many peasents were forced to leav...
 In modern era feudal
kings became more
authoritarian, like
Isabella of Castile and
Ferdinand of Aragon
 Their sucessors...
 In France, Louis XIV was the most absolute monarch that Europe had seen.
The success of his monarchy was based on:
 - H...
 Look at the portarit of Louis XIV by Rigaud and then, think of
three adjectives that describe how the kings looks.
 Thr...
The first absolute king in
Spain was Philip V, Louis
XIV´s grandson, the 1st
Bourbon in Spain, who
ascended the throne aft...
 In England since the
Middle Ages the power
was shared between
Parliament and kings but
when James I became
king, he brou...
 The English Paliament at
that time was dominated by
the Protestant bourgeoisie,
led by Oliver Cromell.
 In order to avo...
 The parliamentarians
won.
 The monarchy was
abolished and Charles I
was executed. England
became a Republic
 The Repub...
 The new king James II
tried again to reduce
parlamentary power.
 The Parliament rose up
against him: The
Glorious Revol...
 The Enlightened Despots
were kings of the 18th
century who justified their
authority saying they were
servants of the st...
THE KINGS STIMULATED: REFORM OF ADMINISTRATION
 Health : medicin research,
hospitals
 Education
 Science
 Economic act...
 What does it mean emperor Joseph with this
sentence?:
 The people are not capable of using power
 A king must help his...
 The 18th century was also called the century of
the Light and of Reason, because they wanted
to emphasise reason as the ...
 John Locke- 1623-1704
 A key thinker of the early
Enlightenment. He believed
that human nature is
characterized by reas...
 A. Smith (1723-1790)
The father of modern
economics and
capitalism. He wrote
«The wealth of nations»
 «By pursuing his ...
 Diderot achieved fame
for editing his
Encyclopedia, which
took up over twenty
years of his life. Hetried
to pick up all ...
 1689-1755. He wrote
«The spirit of the laws»
1748,
 Separation of administrative
powers, legislative,
executive and jud...
 1712-1778- He wrote
The Social Contract
which had a big
influence during the
French Revolution..
Rousseau believed that
...
 1694-1778
 He wrote «Candide»
 Probably the most important
thinker of the
Enlightenment. He accused
aristocracy to be ...
 The Rococo was the art
style that reflected the
way of life of the
nobility. It lasted the
first half of the 18th
centur...
 2nd half of 18th century
 It´s the art that
represented the ideals
of the Enlithgteners and
the bourgeoisie.
 They imi...
THE ENLIGHTENMENT  AND THE ANCIENT REGIME
THE ENLIGHTENMENT  AND THE ANCIENT REGIME
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THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ANCIENT REGIME

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Old order or Ancien Regime and The Enlightenment

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THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ANCIENT REGIME

  1. 1. 18 th century
  2. 2. SOCIETY ECONOMY MAIN EVENTS AND POLITICS SPAIN ART AND CULTURE
  3. 3.  Althoug during the Modern Era, European society was still based on a feudal system, many changes happened in the 18th century, changes which were reflected in the composition of society too. Nevertheless, society was still divided into privileged and non- privileged estates.
  4. 4.  It was forbidden to pass from the non-privileged estates to the privileged ones The king The Nobility The clergy Bourgeoisie Peasantry
  5. 5. THE PRIVILEGED ESTATES THE NON-PRIVILEGED ESTATES  The privileges were:  Not working  Not paying taxes  Inheriting and owning title and land  Receiving rent  Occupying important govermmental positions  Special laws  They worked  They payed taxes  They could´t arrive to the govermment  They were judged by the nobility
  6. 6.  Their original function was to defend society in times of war.  They didn´t have to work  They were landowners  There were high and low nobility  The peasents payed taxes in the nobles lands
  7. 7.  The high clergy were nobles- archbishops,, bishops, cardinals) and they were rich  The «regular clergy» consisted of abbots and abbesses who were in chrge of monasteries and convents and had big properties  The lower clergy depended for their salaries on the landowners  They were all educated and literate  They also collected church taxes
  8. 8. The bourgeoisise consisted of merchants, bankers,( the richests ones),investors, functionaries, lawyers… The high bourgeoisie often obtained more power than the nobility but they could´t obtain privileges, so they became noblse by marrying into noble families or buying titles to the king.
  9. 9.  It was the most numerous group in society. There was high peasantry-land owners- tenants and land workers.  During the 18th century because of the plagues, bad harvests, droughts and famine and the increase of taxes, the minor landowners sere obligued to sell their lands to nobles and bourgeoisie
  10. 10.  In pairs , try to answer the following questions:  1- Write down some of the nobles´privileges  2- What was the difference between the high and the low clergy?  3- How could a person pass through a non- privilege estate to a privilege one?
  11. 11.  Peasants  Bourgeoisie  Privileges  Estate  Clergy  Merchants  Landowners  Lawyer
  12. 12.  The economy was based on agriculture but it was very important the development of industry and the commerce between Europe and America.  In industry it was important the Domestic System but the Industrial Revolution and transoceanic trade began to take effect.  England and Netherlands were the most powerful countries in commerce.
  13. 13.  Agricultural development :  Enclosures system  New technologies and new techniques  Many peasents were forced to leave their lands and moved to towns.  But food production was increased and new crops were cultivated for industrial needs.
  14. 14.  In modern era feudal kings became more authoritarian, like Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon  Their sucessors were absotut monarchs.  Absotutism means the absolute power of the kings
  15. 15.  In France, Louis XIV was the most absolute monarch that Europe had seen. The success of his monarchy was based on:  - He ruled the country personally  - He had many ministers but he taked all the decisions. He controled everybody and everything.  He stopped the meetings of the Estates General (like the Cortes)  The nobles received money and titles but they had to obey him and be grateful to him.  He moved his court to Versailles (20000 people)  He formed a personality cult around his image  He created a professional royal army, loyal to him  He expelled all religious dissidents: calvinists (hugonotes)  He said ´I ´m the State»
  16. 16.  Look at the portarit of Louis XIV by Rigaud and then, think of three adjectives that describe how the kings looks.  Three symbols are used in the painting. Find them, according to the following descriptions and try to name them.:  - It is the symbol of a royal power  It was worn at the investiture of French kings,and represanted contiuity or Royal lineage  It was the royal symbol of control, of dominance, of the king as master  What did Louis mean with the famous sentence «I am the State»
  17. 17. The first absolute king in Spain was Philip V, Louis XIV´s grandson, the 1st Bourbon in Spain, who ascended the throne after the War of Succession (France against Austria, Netherlands and England The war ended in 1714 with the Treat of Utrech)
  18. 18.  In England since the Middle Ages the power was shared between Parliament and kings but when James I became king, he brought absolutist ideas, and his son Charles I,king in 1625 , limited parliamentary power.  Charles I, by Van Eycck
  19. 19.  The English Paliament at that time was dominated by the Protestant bourgeoisie, led by Oliver Cromell.  In order to avoid irregular detentions, the Parliament ask for the Bill of Rights.  The king executed the parliamentaries opposed to him. The confrontation became a Civil War, 1642- 48.
  20. 20.  The parliamentarians won.  The monarchy was abolished and Charles I was executed. England became a Republic  The Republic was led by Cromwell as Lord protector . He was a dictator.  After Cromwell´s death, the Estuardo and the absolutism returned to England.(restoration)  But the parliament wrote the Habeas Corpus Act, a law which gave an arrested person the right of trial- 1679
  21. 21.  The new king James II tried again to reduce parlamentary power.  The Parliament rose up against him: The Glorious Revolution  The parliament invited Wiliam of Orange to be the new king but he had to accept:  The Parliamentary monarchy, written in the Bill of Rights of 1689, wich limited his power  In that year John Locke wrote his book «Two Treates of government»
  22. 22.  The Enlightened Despots were kings of the 18th century who justified their authority saying they were servants of the state, based on the Enlightement ideas: the had absolut power but they care about the well- being of their subjects. «Everything for the people but nothing by the people» (Joseph I of AustriaI)  Carlos III
  23. 23. THE KINGS STIMULATED: REFORM OF ADMINISTRATION  Health : medicin research, hospitals  Education  Science  Economic activity  Territorial organisation : in Spain he created provinces  Creation of provincial governors  Creation of Royal Advisory Commitee: nobleand enlightened ministers
  24. 24.  What does it mean emperor Joseph with this sentence?:  The people are not capable of using power  A king must help his people but without their participation  Enlighttened Despotism is democratic  Ordinary people must participate in government.
  25. 25.  The 18th century was also called the century of the Light and of Reason, because they wanted to emphasise reason as the main factor in life, reason based on scientific methods. This idea caused doubts about religion because the religion could not explain everything.  Some of the Enlightenment thinkers were Adam Smith, John Locke,J.J. Rosseau, Voltaire, Diderot, d¨Alambert and Montesquieu
  26. 26.  John Locke- 1623-1704  A key thinker of the early Enlightenment. He believed that human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance. People established a civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government. Locke also advocated governmental separation of powers. He wrote «Two treatises of Government»
  27. 27.  A. Smith (1723-1790) The father of modern economics and capitalism. He wrote «The wealth of nations»  «By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it»
  28. 28.  Diderot achieved fame for editing his Encyclopedia, which took up over twenty years of his life. Hetried to pick up all the human knowledge at his time
  29. 29.  1689-1755. He wrote «The spirit of the laws» 1748,  Separation of administrative powers, legislative, executive and judicial . They must be depend upon each other so that the influence of any power would not be able to exceed that of the other two
  30. 30.  1712-1778- He wrote The Social Contract which had a big influence during the French Revolution.. Rousseau believed that people were born equal. He argued that sovereingnty should be in hands of the people
  31. 31.  1694-1778  He wrote «Candide»  Probably the most important thinker of the Enlightenment. He accused aristocracy to be parasitic and the church to be an oppresive force. He attacked intolerance and religious persecutions
  32. 32.  The Rococo was the art style that reflected the way of life of the nobility. It lasted the first half of the 18th century.  Caracteristichs:  - exuberant  - use of curves  - Over-elabotation
  33. 33.  2nd half of 18th century  It´s the art that represented the ideals of the Enlithgteners and the bourgeoisie.  They imitated the art of ancient Greece and Rome.

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