Study Guide + Revolution-Napoleon-Congress of Vienna
1. Philosopher-king should rule; critical of dir. dem.
2. Use reason to solve problems; scientiﬁc method
3. Absolute monarch; powerful English queen prior to
4. Absolute monarch; Powerful French King- built
5. Human nature is evil; Commoners incapable of ruling
themselves democratically- Need strong monarch
6. Born with natural rights (life, liberty, property)
Inﬂuenced American Revolution
7. Reformed criminal justice system (no torture, no
capital punishment & speedy trial set)
8. Man is born good but corrupted by society- They
CAN rule (direct democracy)- Social contract= individual
sovereignty (gov by the people)
9. Freedom of Religion- Critical of church’s role in
government. Separation church & state (gov)
10. Enlightened Despot- Empress of Russia
11. Enlightened despot of Prussia
12. Enlightened despot of Austria-Hungarian Empire
13. Separation/ division of powers (exec., legisl, judicial)
and limit monarch’s powers.
14. Revolutionary general in South America- Liberated
Peru, Argentina, Colombia, and Bolivia from Spain
(independence!)- Wanted United States of S. Amer.
15. Revolutionary general of American Continental
Army- 1st Pres/ member of Continental Congress
16. Men and women born with equal capacity to
lead. Equal rights in ed, family, and gov.
17. Founding father of US/ Continental Congress-
Writer of Declaration of Independence.
1. English Physiocrat (economic thinker
advocating little gov. intervention)/ FREE
2. Free Market- Let the private (indep.)
businesses run themselves with no/ little
interference from gov. = CAPITALISM
Let the Markets run themselves- It will be in
their best interest to make them as proﬁtable as
possible. Competition is necessary for a free
Examples of Private/Public
Publically Owned: Privately Owned:
Schools- State/ All businesses (goods
community colleges and services) who
Transport- bus work for proﬁt
Roads/ sidewalks Casinos
Parks Energy companies
Library Phone companies
Fire/ Police Dept. Health Care
Water District companies/insurance
“Public” vs. “Private”
What organizations does the government provide
for or help with (public)?
Federal agencies (FDA- regulates
pharmacudicals, FAA- regulates aviation
companies, Post Ofﬁce)
What organizations are private?
Starbucks, Nike, almost all stores, (since
deregulation) energy companies, farmers (but
they get gov. subsidies, Federal Express)
3. Tea house- gathering place/ clubs for philosophers
and visionaries to discuss new ideas
4. Art that is dramatic and emotional. Use of dark
and light- strong colors
5. Art that is artisocratic, emphasizing leisure time-
superﬁcial content- delicate and light
6. Glorious Revolution- Peaceful change of monarch
in England- William II agrees to completely share
power w/ parliament houses.
7. Established w/ Glor. Rev. limits royal power.
8. Monarch role very limited with Glor. Rev. b/c
parliament and monarch share- divides power
9. Parliament- English legislature- House of
Lords and House of Commons. PRIME
10. Act of Union- Scotland, North Ireland,
Wales unite with England- forming United
11. 1. Colonists want to expand west, taxes
imposed with no representation (2. stamp, 3.tea), 4.
quartering law, 5. enlightenment ideas...democ.?
12. Ended the American Rev. (Brit/Fr. /Am agree to
13. Adams, Washington, Franklin, Jefferson meet
to draft the new constitution
14. Inﬂuenced by Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire and
british documents- Inspired many other
15. Declaration of Independence- Written by
Jefferson, inspired the French Declaration of
the Rights of Man.
16. 1. Monarchy in Debt (from court spending
and Am. rev.) 2. Over-taxing peasants, 3. Weak
king 4. Church corruption, 5. Poor harvest
STUDY GUIDE FR. REV
17. Women peasants and merchants (many of them
from the ﬁsh markets) take up arms and storm
Versailles, taking the king and queen to Paris.
18. Clergy, Nobility, Commoners (peasant and
merchants)- RISING NOBILITY = “BOURGEOISIE”
19. Old regime of Louis XVI, National Assembly,
Committee of Public Safety/ Reign of Terror, The
Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte
20. Based on Dec. of Indep (Am.)- All equal, self-gov.,
no king mentioned!
21. King of France during revolution. Weak
leader, accused of being a traitor, beheaded as
war looms with Austria/ Prussia
22. Wife of Louis XVI, Queen of Fr. - Gambled,
high court spending, devoted mother, unaware of
politics of governing, beheaded as traitor after
23. Robespierre- Jacobin leader of Republican
National Convention. Radical revolutionary
24. Marat- Reactionary journalist, ranted
against anyone who was not “with the
revolution”. Published lists of “traitors”
who where executed.
25. More moderate revolutionary leader
(perhaps more like Franklin in his
motives...) Argues against the Jacobins and
26. Napoleon (along with Adam Smith) will
of France Text
Austian by Marie
Day One of
storm prison for
all guards and
loyalists to the
Locked out of
Tennis Court Oath Estates
moves to the
and pledge to
meet until they
have a new
• Louis XVI shouted:
‘I die innocent of all the crimes
with which I am charged. I
forgive those that are guilty of
my death, and I pray God that
the blood you are about to shed
will never be required of France.’
What were the differences between the three
Why was the third estate discontent?
Who were the leaders of the revolution and what
was their role?
Why did they kill their king?
What are the differences between the French
revolution and the American revolution?
Reforms- Yes! He learned from
the enlightenment and the
Frenchdespot”…??? He was authoritarian/ autocratic
*Government overhauled, made more efﬁcient
*Equality before the law- NAPOLEONIC CODE
*Government jobs open to all, based upon skills not
*Granted non-Catholics full citizenship
*Excellent military tactics
Turn to map on page 666.
Read the legend at the top of the page.
All the purple is Napoleon control.
Notice British Blockade (Great Britain is now
very strong since Act of Union with Scotland
and Ireland- huge, skilled NAVY)
Conquers much of Europe and moves east into
Russia. Not prepared for cold, harsh Russian
Czar of Russia uses SLASH AND BURN against
them- no grass for cavalry, no food from villages,
everything destroyed as they arrive.
Upon return, in battle with Britain, Napoleon’s
army and exiled (imprisoned on an island)
Congress of Vienna
*Concerned about the tide of nationalism
and Rights of Man spread by the French
Revolution and Napoleon, the victor
nations met to discuss future of Europe.
*Monarchs wished to keep hold on power!
How to ensure lasting peace
European heads of state and monarchs
A) Contain France
B) Balance the Power
C) Keep monarchs in place legitimately!
Look at page 674!
Study the two maps.
What changes do you see?
Congress of Vienna-
Austrian Prince Clemens von Metternich
advocated European powers:
•Suppress any future revolutionary
•Ensure power lies with legitimate and
•Control the population through the press
and strict laws.
(In France, the monarchy was restored and King
LouisXVIII was installed! So much for democracy for
What did Napoleon achieve?
What were his accomplishments?
What did the Congress of Vienna accomplish?
What were the goals of the European monarchs?
What is Napoleon’s legacy?