The Era of Absolutism (1550 – 1800)• Absolute Monarchs –rulers with complete authority over the government and people. They share power with nobody!• Divine Right – Belief that this power is derived from God.
King Charles V From 1519 to 1556 •Ruling two empires involved Charles in constant warfare. As a devout Catholic, he fought to suppress Protestantism in Germany. •He faced military threats from the French, from German Protestant princes, and from the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman.•Charles V provided five ships toFerdinand Magellan, whose voyagewas the first sail around the world.•New Spain were considerablyextended by conquistadores likeHernán Cortés and FranciscoPizarro.
The Empire of Charles V (Hapsburgs)•In 1556, an exhausted Charles gave up his titles and divided his empire. His brother Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor, and his son Philip ruled Spain, the Netherlands, and the vast Spanish overseas empire.
King Philip II From 1556-1598 •During his 42 years reign, Philip II expanded Spanish influence, strengthened the Catholic Church and made his own power absolute. •Thanks to silver from the Americas, he made Spain the foremost power in Europe.•Philip wanted to control allaspects of government, believingthat he ruled by divine right, that ishe believed that his authority torule came directly from God.•He conducted the Inquisition toeliminate Protestants, Jews andMuslims.
Spain’s Golden Century• The Hapsburgs were patrons of the arts in Spain.• Among the most famous painters of the period was El Greco. His most famous work was the Burial of the Count of Orgaz. Spain’s golden century also produced outstanding writers like Cervantes who wrote Don Quixote, the first modern novel in Europe which makes fun of medieval tales of Chivalry.
Economic DeclineIn the 1600s, Spanish power slowly declined. Costly overseas wars drained Spain of its wealth. Even though it ruled a huge colonial empire in the Americas, its strength slipped away. The British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. By the time the last surviving ships reached Spain, half of the original Armada was lost and some 15,000 men had perished.
THE RISE OFABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE“L’etat, c’est moi(I am the state)” – Louis XIV
THE RISE OF ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE• Louis XIII died in 1643 Punished Nobles •Richelieu’s spies uncovered• Cardinal Richelieu died in 1642 series of planned revolts• Louis XIV crowned in 1643 •Punishments were severe,• reduced power of nobility including death for treason •wanted to reduce power of• restricted local authorities Huguenots, strengthen monarchy Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII
THE RISE OF ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCECan you compare these tactics to other Absolute rulers?
BUILDING ABSOLUTISM Rise of the Sun King Confident in Ability to Rule• Louis XIV becomes king at young • Young king supremely confident in age, with mother as regent ability to rule• Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister • When Mazarin died, 18-year-old after Richelieu, provided advice Louis declared he would run• Louis raised to be king, taught skills government himself – takes reigns of government in 1661 needed from childhood • “I am the state,” he declared Young Louis XIV Cardinal Mazarin
RULE OF LOUIS XIVAbsolute Monarchy• Louis XIV retained absolute power – Declared Divine Right Rule• Began tradition of absolute monarchy to last more than century• Demanded to be in charge of all military, political, economic initiatives
RULE OF LOUIS XIVCentral Government• Drew power to himself, deprived nobles of influence• Built palace outside Paris at Versailles; demanded nobles visit and live there• Nobles gained prestige being servants at Versailles court, not by fighting• Additionally, Louis urged nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing, dining, and gambling• As nobles grew poorer, had to depend on king’s generosity just to survive Versailles
PALACE OF VERSAILLES Film Clip Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly power• Louis XIV’s style, ceremony emphasized political strength• Practically every moment of king’s day required rituals by Versailles bowing courtiers – Eating, dressing, walking in garden, all required a ritual – Louis always knew who had given what he considered proper attention
THE SUN KINGLouis XIV chose the sun as his personal symbol, implying that the world revolved around him. He thus became known as the Sun King. He was God’s representative on Earth!
RULE OF LOUIS XIV Religious unification “One king, one law, one faith”• Louis smashed power of Huguenots• Edict of Nantes had protected Huguenots since reign of Henry IV• Even Richelieu had not be able to eliminate that protection• 1685, Louis revoked Edict of Nantes, outlawed Protestantism in France• Over 200,000 Huguenots fled—prosperous merchants, artisans• Loss of their skills, wealth helped cause financial crisis
RULE OF LOUIS XIV Most Powerful Ruler• Louis needed cash to build up military, expand French territory• Enlarged army to more than 200,000 disciplined soldiers• Spent money on good equipment• Was most powerful ruler in Europe, taking France to war four times Money and the Military• Louis’ finances always a concern• Grand lifestyle cost great deal of money• Limited imports, increased exports• Mercantilist System
ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE Dependant on many advisors &bureaucrats Many old privileges & customscontinued to exist Estates General – Representative lawmaking body – had to be called to meet bythe King •Pinnacle of power, wealth, prestige •Overseas exploration & expansion – New World, Africa, SE Asia •Cultural & intellectual leader – Art, Fashion, Cuisine, Philosophy
THE SUN KINGBase your answer to the followingquestions on the cartoon1. What image did Louis XIV use as asymbol of his power?___________________________________________________________2. Why do you think he used this imageas a symbol of his power?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. What is the overall meaning of thiscartoon?____________________________________________________________