The Causes of WW1•Militarism•Alliances•Imperialism•Nationalism•Significant individuals
Militarism 1.• Germany was competingwith the UK to buildbattleships.• The British feared anattack on their Empire.
Militarism 2.• Germany wascompeting withRussia and France toexpand their armies1880 1914• Germany 1.3m 5.0m• France 0.73m 4.0m• Russia 0.40m 1.2m
Militarism 3.• In all countries, navies and armies weregrowing a lot very powerful preparing forwhat it was “bound to come”.• Germany made an agreement with Italy,which established that Italy should stayneutral if war broke out between Austria-Hungary and Russia. Germany wouldprotect her.
Alliances 1.• By 1914 two allianceswere formed:1)The Triple Entente.Conformed by Britain,France and Russia.2)The Triple Alliance.Conformed byGermany, Italy andAustria-Hungary.
Alliances 2.• By 1914 all the major powers were linkedby a system of alliances.• The alliances made it more likely that awar would start.• Once started, the alliances made it morelikely to spread.
The Triple Entente• Russia: She was the biggest and mostbackward country. She didn´t have neithera good army nor a good industry. She wasworried about Germany´s power. She los awar against Japan in 1905.• Britain: She had the best navy. She wasworried about the growth of Germany. Shedidn´t want to get involved in anyconflicts, its attitude was known as“Splendid Isolation”
• France: She had been defeated byGermany in 1870 and an industrial areacalled “Alsace-Lorraine was stolen byGermany. She was worried about aGerman attack. They were the best asregards submarines.
The Triple Alliances• Germany: She was a collection of smallstates. She won a war against France inwhich she stole Alsace-Lorraine. She hadan ambitious leader called Kaiser WilhelmII. They were growing a lot as an empire.They were worried about the“Encirclement” which was an attempt toattack her from both sides by France andRussia.
• Italy: She was a very young country andnot so reliable. She was a collection ofsmall states. Its main concern was to haveits goverment established.• Austria-Hungary: She was a sprawlingempire in central Europe. She also was acollection of small states. Her mainconcern was to keep her empire together,because many small countries wanted to beindependent from her.
Imperialism• All the great powers were competing forcolonies / territory.• The British feared Germany in Africa.• The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia inthe Balkans.
Nationalism• This was an age when all nations wanted toassert their power and independence.• In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia andRussia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule.Serbia’snationalflag
Unifications• Unification of Italy in 1861.• Unification o Germany in 1871.International tension was greatly increasedby the division of Europe into two armedcamps.
Significant Individuals 1.• Kaiser Wilhelm II• Built up German army andnavy• Aggressive foreign policy• Determined to makeGermany a top nation.• Distrusted by other powers“Germany must haveits place in the sun”“The world belongs tothe strong.”
Significant Individuals 2• Count Berchtold• Austrian PrimeMinister.• During the JulyCrisis, decided on avery toughultimatum for Serbia“Were the Serbs toagree to all thedemands, this wouldnot be to my liking”
Significant Individuals 3• Bethmann Hollweg• German Prime Minister• Gave very strong supportto Austria during the Julycrisis while Kaiser wascruising on his yacht “The Austrian demandsare moderate. Anyinterference by Britain,France and Russia wouldbe followed byincalculableconsequences”
The Crisis 1.• 28 June 1914• Heir to Austrianthrone FranzFerdinand visitsSarajevo.• Capital of Bosnia,recently grabbed byAustria.• Hotbed of SlavnationalismSeal of theBlack Handgroup
The Crisis 2.• “Black Hand” terroristsattack the Arch Duke• Bomb attempt fails inmorning• Gavrilo Princip shootsArchduke and wife inthe afternoon.• Austrians blame Serbiafor supportingterrorists.
The Crisis 3.• Austrians, supported byGermany, send Serbia atough ultimatum.• Serbia agrees to all but twoterms of the ultimatum.• Russia mobilises her troopsto support Serbia• Germany demands thatRussia stands her armiesdown.• Germany declares war onRussia“Demands must beput to Serbia thatwould be whollyimpossible for themto accept …”
Why did Britain get involved?• Britain had Ententes withFrance and Russia.• Only “friendlyagreements” but Frenchand Russians givenimpression Britain wouldfight.• The Schlieffen PlanSir Edward GreyBritish Foreign Secretary… “There’s some devilrygoing on in Berlin”
The Schlieffen Plan• Germany’s militaryplan to defeat Franceand Russia.• “Knock out blow”aimed at France first.• Avoid Frenchdefences by invasionof Belgium.• Germans thoughtBritain would notintervene.
Britain’s Reaction• 1838- UK had signed aTreaty to protectBelgium.• Britain also scared ofGermany controllingChannel ports.• Did not want Germany todefeat France anddominate Europe.Britain next?• UK issued ultimatum toGermany to withdrawtroops from Belgium.War declared August 41914.