Chapter i


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Chapter i

  1. 1. CHAPTER I The Problem and its BackgroundIntroduction Our country suffers from multifarious crisis such as socioeconomic crisis,political crisis, and as well as financial crisis which is greatly affected by globalEconomic crisis. Despite of all these crises, Filipinos are imaginative, creative, andcourageous to surpass these obstacles in everyday life. Even though there are somecompanies affected by these crises which they are force to decrease theiremployees called as “recession”, some of them have job openings that offer new careeropportunities to graduated college students. These job openings also offers a newchallenge into their life – a great responsibility lies to his hand that someday will help hisfamily strive to achieve wealthiest, use his acquired knowledge and skills when heengage into a job, and elatives. He was confused in a sense that he cannot make his owndecision and not yet ready to get into college. According to Tiedeman (2002) career development unfolds within the generalprocess of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevant crises. He furthernoted out that decision-making is a continuous process in which individuals will changetheir courses of career action, generally by leaving a setting or environment. Such aswhen a student is disoriented in his course he have been taken that will result indecreasing eagerness on that particular field. He decides to transfer in another school orto shift another course that really fits his own interest and. When one is unstable inmaking decision, these disoriented strategy may be repeated until achieve different
  2. 2. bachelor’s degree which can be a major distraction of one’s future job. Super3 alsoconsidered indecisiveness as a period of developmental process when interest was notelatives. He was confused in a sense that he cannot make his own decision and not yetready to get into college. According to Tiedeman (2002), career development unfoldswithin the general process of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevantcrises. He further noted out that decision-making is a continuous process in whichindividuals will change their courses of career action, generally by leaving a setting orenvironment. Such as when a student is disoriented in his course he have beentaken that will result in decreasing eagerness on that particular field. He decides totransfer in another school or to shift another course that really fits his own interestand. When one is unstable in making decision, these disoriented strategy may berepeated until achieve different bachelor’s degree which can be a major distractionof one’s future job.Background of the Study According to Howard (2004) and Ill7 stressed out that whenever students are intheir high school experience, they are the center of learning. In a traditional high school,the center of the system is the content or subject, not student learning. Howard and Illpresent a system to promote the shift from traditional content or subject –centered highschools to student-centered high schools which is called as Collaborative CareerPathways – a system of organizing the student learning interests and aptitudes aroundcareer paths. It provides a structure for students to reference their learning and comment
  3. 3. each year of their high school experience. It allows students to plan and practice theirskills while creating a smooth and successful transition to a post-secondary option.Goffredson’s Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations8 describes how peoplebecome attracted to certain occupations. Self-concept in vocational development is thekey factor to career selection and people want jobs that are compatible with theirself-image. The key determinants of self-concept are one’s social class, level ofintelligence, and experiences with sex-typing. Roe’s need approach9 emphasized thatearly childhood experiences play an important role in finding satisfaction in one’s chosenfield. The need structure of the individual, according to Roe, would be greatly influencedby early childhood frustrations and satisfactions. According to John Holland (2010), individuals are attracted to a givencareer by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute theirbackgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personalityinto the world of work followed by subsequent identification with specific occupationalstereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personalorientation. Modal personal orientation is a developmental process established throughheredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If theindividual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in acorresponding occupational environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision,the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.
  4. 4. According to the study conducted by Garcez (2007) 13, it was found out that byIncreasing career development activities, which includes setting career goals, studentshad a higher self-esteem. Maybe even more important, however, is that students weremore satisfied 11 Career Preferences of College Freshmen in the University of Cebu –Lapu-Lapu and Mindoro: A Career Development Program by Jana Gloria F. Almerino,Master’s Thesis. University of San Carlos, Cebu City. 12 Factors influencing HighSchool Senior Career Choices: Implications to Career Counseling by Carmelita P.Pabiton. In Guidance Journal p .1-17, Oct. 2007. 13 about the education they werereceiving. This will, in turn, hopefully lead to students having a deeper desire andcommitment to succeed in their education. Another outcome of a higher self-esteem isthat those students chose more difficult goals than students with low self-esteems. Shenoted that excellent detailed plan for teaching parents and teachers how to teach youngstudents to set career goals. The plan requires a total community effort through educators,parents, and businesses. Students must be given an opportunity to identify and exploretheir desired careers. They can accomplish this through the “School to Work Transition”or “Job Shadowing Program.” Through the cooperative efforts of the entire community,students can identify career choices, set career goals, and have higher self-esteems at anearly age. Ultimately, they will further their education and have a better chance ofsucceeding in the “do or die” world in which we live. According to Elmer (1989)14, career planning is life goal-setting. Without sucha plan, it is like making a journey to an unfamiliar destination without a map. Heproposed a Career Planning Guide that will help the students in choosing their
  5. 5. appropriate course from planning a career, steps in planning career, goal-setting andself-understanding. Also, it reveals that guidance and counseling is intervention ofunderemployment individuals and career preparedness must be initiated.14 Soriano, A.S. and Roces. A Career Guide. Baguio Allied Printers: 420 Magsaysay Ave. Baguio City,p.1. The studies reviewed provide ample evidence that career development programis in need and must have a collaborative efforts made by school administrator,teachers, and mostly guidance counselor in crystallizing student’s career decision.The teaching methodologies or strategies must be improved and concentrate on student’slearning and not by subjects.Statement of the Problem The study aimed to determine the factors affecting career preferences ofsenior high school students of San Pablo City National High School 2010-2011.Specifically, it sought to answer the following problems: 1. What are the profile of the senior high school students in terms of: 1.1 Sex; 1.2 Age; 1.3 Parents’ Educational Attainment; 1.4 Parents’ Occupation; and 1.5 Socio – economic status? 2. What are the top three expressed career choices of the students?
  6. 6. 3. What are the perception of the respondents regarding preferences in choosing a career in college in terms of: 3.1 Childhood Aspirations; 3.2 Family/ Relatives; 3.3 Peer influences; and 3.4 In-Demand Jobs? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their career preferences? 5. Is there a significant relationship between career preferences and the following variables: 5.1 Childhood Aspirations; 5.2 Family/ Relatives; 5.3 Peer influence; and 5.4 In – Demand jobs?Theoretical Framework The study is anchored on the theory of Donald Super which focuses on thedevelopment of life roles over the life span with emphasis on inter-role congruence. Hisvocational concept as a part of self-concept is formed; it is the driving force thatestablishes a career pattern one will follow through life. Vocational developmental tasksare derived from vocational stages which provides framework for vocational behaviorand attitudes.
  7. 7. VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES1. Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts;2. Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are.3. Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences;4. Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and5. Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work output, and eventual retirement. The crystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan andconsidering how it might be implemented. Pertinent information is studied with the goalof becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom of preference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individual feels the needto specify the career plan through more specific resources and explicit awareness ofcogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementation task (ages 21-24) is accomplished by the completion oftraining and entry into the career and develops a feeling of security in career position.
  8. 8. The stabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly establishedin a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, the consolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in acareer. Super also identified six dimensions that he thought were relevant and appropriatefor adolescents: 1. Orientation to Vocational Choice (an attitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with the eventual vocational choice to be made); 2. Information and planning; 3. Consistency of Vocational Preferences (individuals’ consistency of preferences); 4. Crystallization of Traits (individual progress toward forming a self-concept); 5. Vocational Independence (independence of work experience); and 6. Wisdom of Vocational Preferences (dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferences consistent with personal tasks.) This theory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms ofdeveloping a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing a career in college.Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent is truly applicable becausesenior high school students are fall under this category. Another theory adopted for theresearch is David Tiedeman’s5 self-development approach to career. He believes thatevolving ego-identity is of central importance in the career development process. He
  9. 9. referred to the evolving self-in-situation from the earliest awareness of self to point atwhich individual becomes capable of evaluating experiences, anticipating, and imaginingfuture goals, and storing experiences in memory for future reference with his context ofErik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises. Self-in-situation, self-in-world and theorientation of work evolve as one resolves the psychosocial crises of life. Hetherefore conceptualized a paradigm for problem-solving as the mechanism of careerdecision making. His paradigm covers four aspects of anticipation or preoccupation(exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification) and three aspects ofimplementation of adjustment (induction, reformation, and integration). Tiedemann (2004) stressed out why individual change their courses of actionbecause of external factors because of external forces (such as the call of the armedforces, an economic crisis, the work setting itself) or by broad psychological drives (suchas unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion). According to the prescribedsequence, a new decision unfolds and must be made, beginning with exploration andeventually reaching integration. If integration is not reached once again, the individualmay adapt to a career environment or may simply withdraw and begin a new search foreventual integration. The rationale between these two theories is one follows a vocational self-conceptwhich is a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life butthere are some factors could might altered this pattern. These factors, such as externalforces (called of armed services, economic crisis, and work setting itself) and
  10. 10. psychological drives (unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion) altered the careerpatterns of individual. Super (2004) said that indecisiveness is a period in developmental process wheninterests have not been fully crystallized. Individuals lead to discriminate 2 or morechoices of two or more occupational objectives when uncertainty about futureoccurs. Tiedemann noted that as individuals become more aware of the developingcharacter of the career process itself, they are more willing to make changes and to alteror redefine a decision.Conceptual Framework Future-tension can be surpassing if individual has a preparation to overcome it.Career preparedness will help the student become more effective and successful in lifewith his chosen job. Childhood aspiration has a major role on individual’s striving force.As they grow older, the more they want, the more they will strive to get it. But externalfactors (environment and society) and internal factors (self-crisis and family)changes their aspirations in life. Such as when a child wants to be a nurse to cure apatient in his illness but because of her interest like drawing and painting changes hisaspirations. His interest got more concentrated so she will take a course which is suitablefor it. Some graduated high-school students gradually stop in pursuing their collegecareer. Financial sustainability plays a major role in alterations of career life. They needto work in order to sustain their studies, as wells as to help their family about expensesand earlier exposure to a company. Career preferences, then can be conceptualized as a
  11. 11. process of decision-making. It also involves a series of prime factors such as the socio-demographic profile(sex, age, parents educational attainment, parents occupation, socio – economicstatus). Likewise, it will identify the top three expressed career choices, preferences forthe career choice such as childhood aspirations, family, peer /friends, interest andspecialization, in-demand jobs, and their anticipated problems encountered and how theseproblems affect the students in making their career preferences; and sibling position. Independent Variables Dependent Variable I. Profile of the Respondents Sex Age Parents’ Educational Attainment Parents’ Occupation Socio – economic status CAREER PREFERENCES II. Preferences – related variables Childhood aspirations Family and Relatives Peer influence In – Demand jobsFigure 1. Research Paradigm of the studyScope and Limitation of the Study The 60 respondents were taken from San Pablo City National High School(SPCNHS). The high school was selected on the length of their operation and other
  12. 12. commonalities such as geographical location, enrolment size, and availability of thestudents of SPCNHS which is located at Lakeside Park Subdivision, San Pablo City. Thisstudy focused on their career preferences of senior high school students ofSPCNHS. It looked into their socio-demographic profile in terms of sex, age, parents,educational attainment, parents occupation, size of income,; top three career choice;preference of students in choosing a career in terms of childhood aspirations, family,friends, “in-demand” jobs, and Anticipated problems encountered in making theircareer choices. The researcher considered senior high school students as the respondents sincesome of them are still undecided of course they want to pursue and suffers fromdifficulties in deciding their course. It is also considered because of their last term in highschool excluded lower years since they are not yet capable of making a careerdecision and still pursuing their target specialization.Significance of the Study Therefore, this study is deemed significant to the following stakeholder for thefollowing reasons:To the Students – The respondents are the center of the research because ultimately theydevelop the awareness of themselves, strength, and weaknesses for their careerdevelopment by continually summarizing and reflecting upon what they are learningfrom home, school, and community. In totality, students are in charge of their ownchoice.
  13. 13. To the Parents – In this study, parents will realize how important they are as asource of encouragement in which children are free to explore different areas of careerpreferences. This study will look forward in giving their children an assurance toacquire quality education that would enable them to obtain better job, better income, andbrighter future.To the Teacher – This study will give information to the teachers of SPCNHS as to thePreferences of students such that they can focus on the skills needed by the students ifever the latter would pursue the career they have chosen.To the Researcher – The process and outcome of this study will produce a greatsatisfaction, competence, and professionalism to the field. Although the topic of the studyis focused on career which belongs to the field known as Industrial Psychology, thepurpose is to have a diversity and idea about the field rather than understanding theabnormalities of human behavior.Hypotheses- There is no significant relationship between the Profile of the Respondents and their Career Preferences.- There is no significant relationship between Career Preferences and the Preferences – related variables.
  14. 14. Definition of TermsThe following terms are operationally defined to enhance the understanding of thereaders of this paper.1. Crisis – an unstable or crucial time or state of affairs whose outcome will make adecisive difference for better or worse. In this study, crisis is mentioned into four: socio-economic, political, financial, as well as global economic.2. Recession – a period of reduced economic activity or withdrawal. In this study,recession refers to a decrease of employees in a company affected by economic crisis.3. Career – a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive achievement especially inpublic, professional, or business life. In this study, career is the application of educationwhereby it is the totality of acquired knowledge.4. Ego-Relevant Crisis – is derived from Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises such as1) Trust, 2) Autonomy, 3) Initiative, 4) Industry, 5) Identity, 6) Intimacy, 7) Generatively,and 8) Ego-Integrity.5. Disoriented Strategy – displace from normal position or relationship. In the study, thisterm refers to mechanism of students when he or she is unstable in choosing a careerwhich can be repeated.6. Socio-Demographic Profile – refers to sex, age, parent’s educational attainment,Parent’s occupation, size of income, and sibling position.8. Preference – other term for recommend; the power or opportunity of choosing. In thestudy, the term career preference refers to the basis of student in choosing the course hewants whether it comes from his childhood aspirations, relatives, friends, interestand specialization.
  15. 15. 9. Childhood Aspirations – the child’s infantile wishes of what he wants when grew up.10. Interest – to induce or persuade; to participate or engage.11. Specialization – to concentrate one’s efforts in a special activity of field.13. “In-Demand” Jobs – refers to the majority of present occupation which manycompanies are in need for a particular job.15. Anticipated Problems – the expected problems of student’s career choice. Forexample, financial sustainability, poor health, self-conflicts, etc.16. Self-Concept – the mental image one has of oneself.17. Vocational Self-Concept – a driving force that establishes a career pattern one willfollow-through life.18. Vocational Ego-Involvement – a term which describes Tiedemann’s self-development approach to career.