Chapter ii


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Chapter ii

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and StudiesCareer preference is the process of decision-making. A great number of studies,Researches, and write-ups has been conducted for a period of time and still emerged asone of the top-priority researches due to rapid changing and need of time. This chapter isthe presentation of literature and studies from foreign to local which may directly orindirectly bearing to study at hand. Relevance to present studies will give a big picturewhy these literature and studies from foreign to local are used.According to Howard and Ill7 stressed out that whenever students are in their high schoolexperience, they are the center of learning. In a traditional high school, the center of thesystem is the content or subject, not student learning. Howard and Ill present a system topromote the shift from traditional content or subject –centered high schools to student-centered high schools which is called as Collaborative Career Pathways – a system oforganizing the student learning interests and aptitudes around career paths. It provides astructure for students to reference their learning and comment each year of their highschool experience. It allows students to plan and practice their skills while creating asmooth and successful transition to a post-secondary option.Goffredson’s Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations8 describes how peoplebecome attracted to certain occupations. Self-concept in vocational development is thekey factor to career selection and people want jobs that are compatible with their
  2. 2. self-image. The key determinants of self-concept are one’s social class, level ofintelligence, and experiences with sex-typing. Roe’s need approach9 emphasized thatearly childhood experiences play an important role in finding satisfaction in one’s chosenfield. The need structure of the individual, according to Roe, would be greatly influencedby early childhood frustrations and satisfactions.According to John Holland (2010), individuals are attracted to a given career bytheir particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute theirbackgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personalityinto the world of work followed by subsequent identification with specific occupationalstereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personalorientation. Modal personal orientation is a developmental process established throughheredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If theindividual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in acorresponding occupational environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision,the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.According to the study conducted by Garcez (2007) 13, it was found out that byIncreasing career development activities, which includes setting career goals, studentshad a higher self-esteem. Maybe even more important, however, is that students weremore satisfied 11 Career Preferences of College Freshmen in the University of Cebu –Lapu-Lapu and Mindoro: A Career Development Program by Jana Gloria F. Almerino,Master’s Thesis. University of San Carlos, Cebu City. 12 Factors influencing HighSchool Senior Career Choices: Implications to Career Counseling by Carmelita P.
  3. 3. Pabiton. In Guidance Journal p .1-17, Oct. 2007. 13 about the education they werereceiving. This will, in turn, hopefully lead to students having a deeper desire andcommitment to succeed in their education. Another outcome of a higher self-esteem isthat those students chose more difficult goals than students with low self-esteems. Shenoted that excellent detailed plan for teaching parents and teachers how to teach youngstudents to set career goals. The plan requires a total community effort through educators,parents, and businesses. Students must be given an opportunity to identify and exploretheir desired careers. They can accomplish this through the “School to Work Transition”or “Job Shadowing Program.” Through the cooperative efforts of the entire community,students can identify career choices, set career goals, and have higher self-esteems at anearly age. Ultimately, they will further their education and have a better chance ofsucceeding in the “do or die” world in which we live. According to Elmer (1989)14, career planning is life goal-setting. Without such a plan,it is like making a journey to an unfamiliar destination without a map. He proposed aCareer Planning Guide that will help the students in choosing their appropriate coursefrom planning a career, steps in planning career, goal-setting and self-understanding.Also, it reveals that guidance and counseling is intervention of underemploymentindividuals and career preparedness must be initiated.14 Soriano, A. S. and Roces. A Career Guide. Baguio Allied Printers: 420 MagsaysayAve. Baguio City, p.1
  4. 4. The studies reviewed provide ample evidence that career development program is inneed and must have a collaborative efforts made by school administrator, teachers,and mostly guidance counselor in crystallizing student’s career decision. Theteaching methodologies or strategies must be improved and concentrate on student’slearning and not by subjects.