Research Process– The Research Problem– Formulation of Research Objectives– Review of Related Literature– Delimitation of the Research Problem– Formulation of Testable Hypothesis– Identification of Research Variables– Construction of Research Design– Designing Tools for Data Collection– Designing Plan for Data Analysis– Collection of Data– Data Processing– Data Analysis and Interpretation– Drawing Conclusions and Recommendations– Writing of Research Report– Reporting of Research Findings
Related Literature• Composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related• Materials which are usually printed and found in books, encyclopedias, professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and other publications
IMPORTANCE, PURPOSES, AND FUNCTIONS OF RELATED LITERATURE
1. It helps or guides the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or topic2. It helps the investigator understand his topic or research better.3. It ensures that there will be no duplication of other studies.4. It provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research
5. It gives the researcher a feeling of confidence6. It provides information about the research methods used7. It provides findings and conclusions of past investigations
CHARACTERISTICS OF RELATED LITERATURE MATERIALS
1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable.
HOW TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
• Visit the school library or other libraries in the vicinity. Browse over books, magazines, journals, etc. Be patient.• Do a computer-aided search through an electronic database. – Google Scholar – Website of journals; Botanicus• Ask for reprints from experts
• Take down notes on index card or research notebook. Begin organizing your notes by devising sections and headings such as: a. General Information b. Methods in other studies c. Support for Objectives 1 and 2. d. Results to compare with mine. e. Pros and cons of controversy
• write all bibliographic information, i.e., author(s), complete title, publisher, date and place of publication, and so on• PARAPHRASE!
1. Do the accumulated literature indicate gaps and inconsistencies which you hope to fill?2. Are the variables adequately described?3. What data gathering instruments have been used? Are they reliable and valid tools?4. Are the target and sampling populations presented?5. Were the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted?6. Are the results logical? Are the conclusions and recommendations data-based?
• Use headings arranged in logical order to indicate main points• Avoid too long introduction to your main topic.• Include information that are directly related and relevant to your topic.• A maximum of half-page (double-space) must constitute one paragraph• Do not copy in toto the information from your source. No more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed for direct quotation.
• Give due credit to the real source of your data. Cite the authors at the end of the sentence. How?• Paraphrase using your own words and style the data gathered.• Summarize important points from your sources and relate them to your topic.• Reinforce your data with selected figures or statistics from your course.
A common problem in writing RRL isthat it can turn onto a boring list of ideas in paragraph form.
HOW TO AVOID THE PREVIOUS• Make subheads (not too many), transitional phrases and unifying ideas to make information flow smoothly.
HOW TO AVOID THE PREVIOUS• Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive!• Author A found out• Author B found out• Replace found out with: – Demonstrates – presented evidence for – Supported – Observed – Reported – Examined – Concluded
• Early in the 1980’s, author A According to Author A,
What related literatures should be included in this problem?• To investigate the histological effects of neem seed kernel extract on mouse testis
General Objectives:To investigate the histological effects of neem seed kernel extract on mouse testisSpecific Objectives:1. To identify the changes in testes histology due to neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) exposure.2. To determine the relationship between neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) and occurrence of abnormal sperm morphology.3. To provide a feasible physiological basis for the anti-libido property of neem extract.