CHAPTER 1<br />The Problem and It’s Background<br /><ul><li>Introduction
Our country suffers from multifarious crisis such as socioeconomic crisis, political crisis, and as well as financial crisis which is greatly affected by global economic crisis. Despite of all these crises, Filipinos are imaginative, creative, and courageous to surpass these obstacles in everyday life. Even though there are some companies affected by these crises which they are force to decrease their employees called as “recession”, some of them have job openings that offer new career opportunities to graduated college students. These job openings also offers a new challenge into their life – a great responsibility lies to his hand that someday will help his family strive to achieve wealthiest, use his acquired knowledge and skills when he engage into a job, and acted as one of the reinforcements in industry that would further improved the depleting economy of the country. All of these, comes first from wishes and aspirations that arises during childhood years that someday he or she will become a doctor, an architect, a teacher, a police, or an attorney to help those seek needs and help their family to ascend into poverty. According to Ginzberg and his associates1 , during the fantasy period play gradually becomes work-oriented and reflects initial preferences for certain kind of activities. This stage is the preparation for a child’s highly organized social life they will be required to adjust when they enter the first grade.
Career preferences are free opportunity to select a desired career. It is also a decision-making in a confusing situation which occurs during the senior year of high school level. When one is confused in choosing a career, he relies on his friends and relatives. He was confused in a sense that he cannot make his own decision and not yet ready to get into college. According to Tiedeman2 , career development unfolds within the general process of cognitive development as one resolves ego-relevant crises. He further noted out that decision-making as a continuous process in which individuals will change their courses of career action, generally by leaving a setting or environment. Such as when a student is disoriented in his course he have been taken that will result in decreasing eagerness on that particular field. He decides to transfer in another school or to shift another course that really fits his own interest and. When one is unstable in making decision, these disoriented strategy may be repeated until achieve different bachelor’s degree which can be a major distraction of one’s future job. Super3 also considered indecisiveness as a period of developmental process when interest was not fully crystallized.
Therefore, this study intends to determine the factors affecting career preferences among senior high school students of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Vocational High School of academic year 2009 to 2010. This factors that serve as preferences of student in choosing a career in college includes childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, peer/ friends, interest and specialization, values, in-demand jobs, school guidance counselor; and anticipated problems encountered are presumed to affect the student preferences of their career.
Statement of the Problem</li></ul>The study aimed to determine the factors affecting career preferences of senior high school students of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Vocational High School of the academic year 2009-2010. Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub problems:<br /><ul><li>What are the socio-demographic characteristics of the senior high school students in terms of:
The following hypotheses are formulated for acceptance or rejection of study:
The socio-demographic characteristics (such as sex, age, parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation, size of income, and sibling position) does not affect the career preferences of the senior high school students.
The preference of student in terms of childhood aspirations, family/ relatives, values, in-demand jobs, and school guidance counselor does not affect their career choice.
The anticipated problem encountered by students does not affect their career choice.
The study is anchored on the theory of Donald Super4 which focuses on the development of life roles over the life span with emphasis on interrole congruence. His vocational concept as a part of self-concept is formed, it is the driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life. Vocational developmental tasks are derived from vocational stages which provides framework for vocational behavior and attitudes.
Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts;
Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized;
Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences;
Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and
Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work output, and eventual retirement.</li></ul>The crystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan and considering how it might be implemented. Pertinent information is studied with the goal of becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom of preference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individual feels the need to specify the career plan through more specific resources and explicit awareness of cogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementation task (ages 21-24) is accomplished by the completion of training and entry into the career and develops a feeling of security in career position. The stabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly established in a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, the consolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in a career. Super also identified six dimensions that he thought were relevant and appropriate for adolescents:<br /><ul><li>Orientation to Vocational Choice (an attitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with the eventual vocational choice to be made);
Information and Planning (a competence dimension concerning specificity of information individuals have concerning future career decisions and past planning accomplished);
Consistency of Vocational Preferences (individuals’ consistency of preferences);
Crystallization of Traits (individual progress toward forming a self-concept);
Vocational Independence (independence of work experience);
Wisdom of Vocational Preferences (dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferences consistent with personal tasks.)</li></ul>This theory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms of developing a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing a career in college. Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent is truly applicable because senior high school students are fall under this category.<br />Another theory adopted for the research is David Tiedeman’s5 self-development approach to career. He believes that evolving ego-identity is of central importance in the career development process. He referred to the evolving self-in-situation from the earliest awareness of self to point at which individual becomes capable of evaluating experiences, anticipating, and imagining future goals, and storing experiences in memory for future reference with his context of Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises. Self-in-situation, self-in-world and the orientation of work evolve as one resolves the psychosocial crises of life. He therefore conceptualized a paradigm for problem-solving as the mechanism of career decision making. His paradigm covers four aspects of anticipation or preoccupation (exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification) and three aspects of implementation of adjustment (induction, reformation, and integration).<br />ASPECTS OF ANTICIPATION, PREOCCUPATION, IMPLEMENTATION, AND ADJUSTMENT<br />Aspects of Anticipation CharacteristicsAspects ofCharacteristics<br />Or PreoccupationImplementation<br />Exploration1. Thinking is ratherInduction1. This period begins<br />temporary and evanescent the social interaction experience<br />in nature. with career identification.<br />2. There is consideration2. There is a further <br />and reconsideration ofidentification of self and defense<br />possible courses of action.of self within the career social<br />3. Through imagination,system.<br />one experiences numerous3. As acceptance is experienced<br />activities by relating feelingswithin the career, part of self is <br />of self within certain merged with the accepting<br />structures or premises.group.<br />4. There is searching through4. There is further progression of <br />projection into tentative goalsindividualized goal but within the<br />5. There is a focus on futureframework of the totality of a <br />behavior with alternative coursescareer concerning social purpose.<br />of action.<br />6. There is reflection upon aspirations,<br />abilities, interests, and future societal<br />implications related to career choice.<br />Crystallization1. There is a continued Reformation 1. The career group offers<br />assessment of alternatives.acknowledgement of <br />2. Fewer alternatives are underacceptance as a group<br />consideration.member.<br />3. There is an emergence of 2. There is assertive action<br />tentative choices.on the part of the individual<br />4. Tentative choices may bethe career group and outside<br />reevaluated in the process ofthe career group, spawned by<br />valuing and ordering.the newfound conditions.<br />3. Assertive action takes the<br />form of convincing others to<br />5. Goals become more definite andconform to the self-view held<br />formed but are not irreversible.by the individual and toward<br />6. There is a definite more towardgreater acceptance of<br />stability of thought.modified goals.<br />Choice1. A definite goal is chosenIntegration1. A compromise of <br />2. There is focus on the particularintentions of goals is<br />behavior necessary to reach the achieved by the individuals<br />chosen goal.as he or she interacts with <br />the career group.<br />2. Objectivity of self and the <br /><ul><li>career group is attained.
at least temporarily attained.</li></ul>Clarification1. This period is marked by<br />further clarification of self<br />in the chosen position.<br />2. Further consideration of the<br />anticipated position lessens the<br />doubts of the career decision.<br />3. A stronger conviction about<br />the career decision is developed.<br />4. This ends the anticipatory or<br />preoccupational stage.<br />Tiedeman stressed out why individual change their courses of action because of external factors because of external forces (such as the call of the armed forces, an economic crisis, the work setting itself) or by broad psychological drives (such as unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion). According to the prescribed sequence, a new decision unfolds and must be made, beginning with exploration and eventually reaching integration. If integration is not reached once again, the individual may adapt to a career environment or may simply withdraw and begin a new search for eventual integration.<br />1.4.2. Theoretical Paradigm<br />VocationalEgoInvolvementVocationalSelf-ConceptCareerPreferences<br />The rationale between these two theories is one follows a vocational self-concept which is a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life but there are some factors could might altered this pattern. These factors, such as external forces (called of armed services, economic crisis, work setting itself) and psychological drives (unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion) altered the career patterns of individual.<br />Super said that indecisiveness is a period in developmental process when interests have not been fully crystallized. Individuals lead to discriminate 2 or more choices of two or more occupational objectives when uncertainty about future occurs. Tiedeman noted that as individuals become more aware of the developing character of the career process itself, they are more willing to make changes and to alter or redefine a decision. <br />1.4.3. Conceptual Framework<br />Future-tension can be surpassing if individual has a preparation to overcome it. Career preparedness will help the student become more effective and successful in life with his chosen job.<br />Childhood aspiration has a major role on individual’s striving force. As they grow older, the more they want, the more they will strive to get it. But external factors (environment and society) and internal factors (self-crisis and family) changes their aspirations in life. Such as when a child wants to be a nurse to cure a patient in his illness but because of her interest like drawing and painting changes his aspirations. His interest got more concentrated so she will take a course which is suitable for it. Some graduated high-school students gradually stop in pursuing their college career. Financial sustainability plays a major role in alterations of career life. They need to work in order to sustain their studies, as wells as to help their family about expenses and earlier exposure to a company. Career preferences, then can be conceptualized as a process of decision-making. It also involves a series of prime factors such as the socio-demographic profile (sex, age, parents educational attainment, parents occupation, size of income, and sibling position).<br />Likewise, it will identify the top three expressed career choices, preferences for the career choice such as childhood aspirations, family / relatives, peer /friends, interest and specialization, values, in-demand jobs, and school counselor; their anticipated problems encountered and how these problems affect the students in making their career preferences; and sibling position.<br />1.4.4 Conceptual Paradigm<br /><ul><li>Top Three Career Choices of the StudentsBasis for Preference in Choosing a CareerChildhood AspirationsRelatives / FamilyPeer / FriendsInterest and SpecializationValues“In-Demand” JobsSchool Guidance CounselorAnticipated Problems encountered in making their career choiceSocio-Demographic CharacteristicsOf the Students:SexAgeParent’s Educational AttainmentParent’s OccupationSize of IncomeSibling Position</li></ul>1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Study<br />The 279 respondents were taken from Eulogio “Amang Rodriguez Vocational High School” (EARVHS). The high school was selected on the length of their operation and other commonalities such as geographical location, enrolment size, and availability of the students of EARVHS which is located at Nagtahan, in the district of Sta. Mesa, city of Manila.<br />The school is selected because very few among the city of Manila offer a vocational-related course during high school. It is the first vocational school in Manila named after the former mayor Eulogio Rodriguez Sr., subjected to land disputes between the present Institute (EARIST) but still prevailed and now becoming a center for development and vocational studies in Sta. Mesa6 . Most of the high schools in Manila focuses on major academic field such as English, Math, and Science in a laboratory settings. Each section of second year to fourth levels of EARVHS consist of the following:<br />Section A – Computer Technology and Electricity<br />Section B – Electronics and Journalism<br />Section C – Drafting and Business Technology / Business Distributive Arts<br />Section D – Handicrafts and Dressmaking<br />Section E – Home Management, Food Technology, and Automotive<br />Section F – Cosmetology and Creative Works<br />The first year are not included in the following because they are required to take general education that will prepare them to the next school year.<br />This study focused on their career preferences of senior high school students of EARVHS. It looked into their socio-demographic characteristics in terms of sex, age, parents educational attainment, parents occupation, size of income, and sibling position; top three career choice ; preference of students in choosing a career in terms of childhood aspirations, family / relatives, peer / friends, values, “in-demand” jobs, and school guidance counselor; and anticipated problems encountered in making their career choices.<br />The researcher considered senior high school students as the respondents since some of them are still undecided of course they want to pursue and suffers from difficulties in deciding their course. It is also considered because of their last term in high school excluded lower years since they are not yet capable of making a career decision and still pursuing their target specialization.<br />1.6. Significance of the Study<br />Education is the totality of learning acquired by individual which is inherited from one generation to another, while career is serve as it’s application. The collaboration of these two fields plays a key in improving individual’s competence and professionalism and serve as their personal achievement. <br />Therefore, this study is deemed significant to the following stakeholder for the following reasons:<br /><ul><li>To the Students – The respondents are the center of the research because ultimately they develop the awareness of themselves, strength, and weaknesses for their career development by continually summarizing and reflecting upon what they are learning from home, school, and community. In totality, students are in charge of their own choice.
To the Parents – In this study, parents will realize how important they are as a source of encouragement in which children are free to explore different areas of career preferences. This study will look forward in giving their children an assurance to acquire quality education that would enable them to obtain better job, better income, and brighter future.
To the Teacher – This study will give information to the teachers of EARVHS as to the preferences of students such that they can focus on the skills needed by the students if ever the latter would pursue the career they have chosen.
To the School Administration – The result of this study will help the school administration in putting up an effective, integrated career information and guidance system that plays a very helpful role in guiding students towards making the best possible career decisions.
To the Researcher – The process and outcome of this study will produce a great satisfaction, competence, and professionalism to the field. Although the topic of the study is focused on career which belongs to the field known as Industrial Psychology, the purpose is to have a diversity and idea about the field rather than understanding the abnormalities of human behavior.
The following terms are conceptually or operationally defined to enhance the understanding of the readers of this paper.
Crisis – an unstable or crucial time or state of affairs whose outcome will make a decisive difference for better or worse. In this study, crisis is mentioned into four: socio-economic, political, financial, as well as global economic.
Recession – a period of reduced economic activity or withdrawal. In this study, recession refers to a decrease of employees in a company affected by economic crisis.
Career – a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive achievement especially in public, professional, or business life. In this study, career is the application of education whereby it is the totality of acquired knowledge.
Ego-Relevant Crisis – is derived from Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises such as
5. Disoriented Strategy – displace from normal position or relationship. In the study, this term refers to mechanism of students when he or she is unstable in choosing a career which can be repeated.
6. Socio-Demographic Characteristics – refers to sex, age, parent’s educational attainment, parent’s occupation, size of income, and sibling position.
7. Sibling Position – the position of respondent in his family, whether he or she was a first child, second child, third child, etc. .
8. Preference – other term for recommend ; the power or opportunity of choosing. In the study, the term career preference refers to the basis of student in choosing the course he wants whether it comes from his childhood aspirations, relatives, peer, his values in life, interest and specialization, and school guidance counselor.
9. Childhood Aspirations – the child’s infantile wishes of what he wants when grew up.
10. Interest – to induce or persuade ; to participate or engage.
11. Specialization – to concentrate one’s efforts in a special activity of field.
12. Values – refers to motivated drives the individual is striving to achieve their aspirations in life.
13. “In-Demand” Jobs – refers to the majority of present occupation which many companies are in need for a particular job.
14. School Guidance Counselor – is a type of counseling profession specialized in assisting the students in choosing their career in college and as well as vocational or educational problems.
15. Anticipated Problems – the expected problems of student’s career choice. For example, financial sustainability, poor health, self-conflicts, etc.
16. Self-Concept – the mental image one has of oneself.
17. Vocational Self-Concept – a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life.
18. Vocational Ego-Involvement – a term which describes Tiedeman’s self-development approach to career.
Career preference is the process of decision-making. A great number of studies, researches, and write-ups has been conducted for a period of time and still emerged as one of the top-priority research due to rapid changing and need of time. This chapter is the presentation of literature and studies from foreign to local which may directly or indirectly bearing to study at hand. Relevance to present studies will give a big picture why these literature and studies from foreign to local are used.
According to Howard and Ill7 stressed out that whenever students are in their high school experience, they are the center of learning. In a traditional high school, the center of the system is the content or subject, not student learning. Howard and Ill present a system to promote the shift from traditional content or subject –centered high schools to student-centered high schools which is called as Collaborative Career Pathways – a system of organizing the student learning interests and aptitudes around career paths. It provides a structure for students to reference their learning and comment each year of their high school experience. It allows students to plan and practice their skills while creating a smooth and successful transition to a post-secondary option.
Goffredson’s Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations8 describes how people become attracted to certain occupations. Self-concept in vocational development is the key factor to career selection and people want jobs that are compatible with their self-image. The key determinants of self-concept are one’s social class, level of intelligence, and experiences with sex-typing. Roe’s need approach9 emphasized that early childhood experiences play an important role in finding satisfaction in one’s chosen field. The need structure of the individual, according to Roe, would be greatly influenced by early childhood frustrations and satisfactions.
According to John Holland10 , individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personal orientation. Modal personal orientation is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.</li></ul>6. http://wikimapia.org/4313274/Eulogio-Amang-Rodriguez-Vocational-High-School<br />7 Elaine Markus Howard and Pamela J. Ill. Career Pathways: Preparing Students for Life. Corwin Press: A Sage Thousand Company. Thousand Oaks California, c.2004; p.1.<br />