Academic Report Writing - Complete Lesson

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Academic Report Writing - Complete Lesson

  1. 1. ADVANCED ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION Lecturer: En. Hilmi Hamzah
  2. 3. LET’S GET STARTED!
  3. 4. COURSEWORK MARKS <ul><li>Proposal Presentation (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research Instruments (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultations (Individual) (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Draft of Report (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Report Presentation (Ind.) (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Report (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Exam (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL (100%) </li></ul>
  4. 5. 1 ST WEEKEND <ul><li>1 st session </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research planning </li></ul><ul><li>Research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd session </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>(Research instrument) </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing </li></ul><ul><li>Data presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Research Report </li></ul><ul><li>(First 3 chapters) </li></ul>
  5. 6. BEFORE 2 ND WEEKEND <ul><li>COLLECTION OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of 1 st draft via </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail ( [email_address] ) </li></ul>
  6. 7. 2 nd WEEKEND <ul><li>3 rd session </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(Return 1 st draft – First 3 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>Report writing </li></ul><ul><li>(Final 2 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>4 th session </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 3 </li></ul><ul><li>(Check 1 st draft – Final 2 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Presentation & Listening </li></ul>
  7. 8. BEFORE 3 RD WEEKEND <ul><li>Submission of Final Draft </li></ul><ul><li>via e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>( [email_address] ) </li></ul>
  8. 9. 3 RD WEEKEND <ul><li>5 TH session </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ Oral Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of Final Report </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion on Sample Exam Paper </li></ul>
  9. 11. NOW GET INTO YOUR GROUP!
  10. 12. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is research report writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>Factual </li></ul>
  11. 13. Writing a Research Report ISSUES/ PROBLEMS Conducting A Research
  12. 14. <ul><li>HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? </li></ul><ul><li>Follow these </li></ul><ul><li>5 steps! </li></ul>
  13. 15. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>Identify the Issue or Problem </li></ul><ul><li>What do I want to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are involved? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  14. 16. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>2. Determine the Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly do I want to do here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my statement of purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate? To investigate? </li></ul><ul><li>To compare? To describe? </li></ul>
  15. 17. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I collect the data? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the deadlines? </li></ul>
  16. 18. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>4. Search and Collect the Data </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need primary data? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need secondary data? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the instruments to be used to collect the data? </li></ul>
  17. 19. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>5. Analyze Data </li></ul><ul><li>How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I make connections among the data? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I draw conclusions from the data? </li></ul>
  18. 21. RESEARCH PROPOSAL
  19. 22. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL? <ul><li>A Plan of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To seek funding </li></ul><ul><li>To seek commitment </li></ul>
  20. 23. 2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL <ul><li>INTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>SOLICITED </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>UNSOLICITED </li></ul>
  21. 24. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul>
  22. 25. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d) <ul><li>6. Significance of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>7. Scope </li></ul><ul><li>8. Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>9. Work Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>10. Call to Action </li></ul>
  23. 27. DATA COLLECTION
  24. 28. WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION? <ul><li>A process of collecting data (primary & secondary) from different sources </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations & experiments </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works </li></ul>
  25. 29. COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA <ul><li>Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered from various written resources (offline/online) </li></ul><ul><li>Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Must be properly cited </li></ul>
  26. 30. COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA <ul><li>FOUR INSTRUMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>1.QUESTIONNAIRES </li></ul><ul><li>2.INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>3.OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>4.EXPERIMENTS </li></ul>
  27. 32. 1.QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><li>A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Administered through survey, mail, telephone & internet </li></ul>
  28. 33. 2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS <ul><li>1. Open-ended Questions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Close-ended Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Listing/Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Category </li></ul>
  29. 34. 2.INTERVIEW <ul><li>A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Structured </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semi-structured </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unstructured </li></ul>
  30. 35. 3.OBSERVATION <ul><li>To get firsthand information </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen existing data </li></ul>
  31. 36. 4.EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering & agriculture) </li></ul>
  32. 37. SAMPLING & POPULATION <ul><li>SAMPLING – a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION – a target group to which the results of a research are applicable </li></ul>
  33. 38. 2 TYPES OF SAMPLING <ul><li>RANDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are selected randomly without criteria </li></ul><ul><li>3 Categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster </li></ul><ul><li>NON-RANDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are selected based on certain criteria </li></ul><ul><li>3 Categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive </li></ul>
  34. 39. DATA PROCESSING & DATA PRESENTATION
  35. 41. WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING? <ul><li>To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for quantitative and </li></ul><ul><li>qualitative data are different </li></ul>
  36. 42. 3 STAGES (QUANTITATIVE DATA) <ul><li>ORGANISING, RECORDING AND CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSING </li></ul>
  37. 43. 1.ORGANISING, RECORDING & CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING <ul><li>Organise manually or using computer </li></ul><ul><li>Record using ‘keyword’ </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise to see the ‘picture’ </li></ul><ul><li>Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS ) </li></ul>
  38. 44. 2.PRESENTING <ul><li>Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through </li></ul><ul><li>1. Table </li></ul><ul><li>2. Graph </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chart </li></ul>
  39. 45. 3.ANALYSING <ul><li>Analyse manually or using computer </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation </li></ul>
  40. 47. 3 STAGES (QUALITATIVE DATA) <ul><li>ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, AND RECORDING </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSING </li></ul>
  41. 48. 1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, <ul><li>Organise by using transcriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise by listing the responses </li></ul><ul><li>Coding by using flexible codes </li></ul>
  42. 49. 2.PRESENTING <ul><li>Usually presented in original forms </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be presented using tables </li></ul>
  43. 50. 3.ANALYSING <ul><li>Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses </li></ul>
  44. 52. WRITING RESEARCH REPORT
  45. 53. 3 SECTIONS <ul><li>PRELIMINARY </li></ul><ul><li>MAIN </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPLEMENTARY </li></ul>
  46. 54. 1.PRELIMINARY <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Content </li></ul><ul><li>List of Figures/ Tables </li></ul><ul><li>List of Abbreviation & Symbols </li></ul>
  47. 55. 2.MAIN <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Findings & Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion & Recommendation </li></ul>
  48. 56. 3.SUPPLEMENTARY <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul>
  49. 58. 1.INTRODUCTION
  50. 59. 7 ELEMENTS <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of the Study </li></ul>
  51. 60. 1.Background of the Study <ul><li>Three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>To state general statements of facts related to the field of study </li></ul><ul><li>To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers </li></ul><ul><li>To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation </li></ul>
  52. 61. 2.Statement of Problem <ul><li>To define the issue or problem investigated in the study </li></ul><ul><li>To refer to problem statement in the proposal </li></ul>
  53. 62. 3.Purpose of the Study <ul><li>To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study </li></ul>
  54. 63. 4.Research Objectives <ul><li>To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms </li></ul>
  55. 64. 5.Research Questions <ul><li>To guide the discussion about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate readers’ interests </li></ul><ul><li>To turn the objectives of the study into research questions </li></ul>
  56. 65. 6.Significance of the Study <ul><li>To justify the reason for conducting the study </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring </li></ul>
  57. 66. 7.Scope of the Study <ul><li>To indicate the direction of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To map out the boundaries of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To outline the method of investigation </li></ul><ul><li>To give a preview of the written report </li></ul>
  58. 68. 2.LITERATURE REVIEW
  59. 69. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW? <ul><li>It is an account of what has been published on a research area </li></ul><ul><li>It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research </li></ul>
  60. 70. WHY? <ul><li>To guide you through others’ works </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare for your own research </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a context for your research </li></ul><ul><li>To justify the research </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate how the subject has been studied before </li></ul><ul><li>To outline gaps in previous research </li></ul>
  61. 71. HOW DO I DO IT? <ul><li>Identify relevant articles and books </li></ul><ul><li>Read and appraise the text critically </li></ul><ul><li>Organise the literature around your research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize relevant information to current study </li></ul>
  62. 72. 5 GENERAL STEPS <ul><li>1. Prepare annotated bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maintain a reference list </li></ul><ul><li>3. Organise materials and make notes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Write individual sections according to themes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Integrate all sections </li></ul>
  63. 74. HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT? <ul><li>THREE WAYS: </li></ul><ul><li>1. SUMMARIZING </li></ul><ul><li>2. DIRECT QUOTATION </li></ul><ul><li>3. PARAPHRASING </li></ul>
  64. 75. 1. SUMMARIZING <ul><li>It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>General ideas are highlighted </li></ul><ul><li>Details & examples are excluded </li></ul>
  65. 76. 2. DIRECT QUOTATION <ul><li>Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources </li></ul><ul><li>It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays </li></ul><ul><li>Sources must be properly cited </li></ul>
  66. 77. 3. PARAPHRASING <ul><li>Authors’ words are rephrased / reworded in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased materials must be properly cited </li></ul>
  67. 79. 3.METHODOLOGY
  68. 80. FIVE PARTS <ul><li>1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents & instruments) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Research Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>3. Respondents of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>4. Research Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>5. Data Analysis </li></ul>
  69. 83. 4.FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
  70. 84. WHAT ARE FINDINGS? <ul><li>Discoveries based on facts , not emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Presented in the form of statistics (percentages, frequency counts & averages) or illustrations (tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.) </li></ul>
  71. 85. ISN’T A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS?
  72. 86. PICTURE
  73. 87. HOW TO WRITE IN THE REPORT? <ul><li>Type A </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Type B </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 1: Findings & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Findings & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Findings & Discussion </li></ul>
  74. 88. TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE OF FINDING (page 177)
  75. 89. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS <ul><li>1. Introduce the topic </li></ul><ul><li>2. Point to significant findings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use graphics to support findings </li></ul><ul><li>4. Explain statistics selectively and concisely </li></ul><ul><li>5. Support statistics with qualitative data (if any) </li></ul>
  76. 90. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d) <ul><li>6. Spell out the word ‘percent’ in the text (don’t be confused with ‘percentage’ ) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Spell out the number that begins a sentence, and use figure in the middle of a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>8. Follow correct organisation </li></ul>
  77. 91. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d) <ul><li>9. Use concise, grammatically correct statements </li></ul><ul><li>10. Use correct tenses </li></ul><ul><li>11. Use language expression correctly (page 180-1) </li></ul><ul><li>12. Focus on 4Cs - Clarity, Coherence, Conciseness and Correctness </li></ul>
  78. 92. 4 STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION <ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Infer </li></ul>
  79. 93. 1. Explain Findings <ul><li>Give reasons for findings </li></ul><ul><li>Explain circumstances during data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Explain limitations </li></ul>
  80. 94. 2. Compare Findings <ul><li>Relate the different findings to highlight their significance </li></ul><ul><li>Compare similar findings from related studies </li></ul>
  81. 95. 3. Evaluate Findings <ul><li>Assess findings as: </li></ul><ul><li>unexpected or </li></ul><ul><li>insignificant or </li></ul><ul><li>unsatisfactory </li></ul>
  82. 96. 4. Infer from Findings <ul><li>Make sense of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Develop ideas and viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative and speculate </li></ul>
  83. 97. 2 pictures - interpret
  84. 98. 5.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
  85. 99. 5 ELEMENTS IN A CONCLUSION <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Restatement </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul>
  86. 100. 1.Overview of the study <ul><li>Summarize what the research is all about (do not introduce new ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain briefly why & how you conduct the study </li></ul>
  87. 101. 2. Restatement of the objectives <ul><li>Rephrase the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the most significant one </li></ul>
  88. 102. 3. Review of the findings <ul><li>Draw conclusions for each major issues </li></ul><ul><li>Use discourse markers to connect the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the most important one </li></ul>
  89. 103. 4. Implications of the findings <ul><li>Deduce some ideas based on findings (do not exaggerate) </li></ul><ul><li>Implicate some ideas that can support further actions </li></ul>
  90. 104. 5. Limitations of research (optional) <ul><li>State the weaknesses (do not apologize) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Small sample size, limited time, improper instrument, etc. </li></ul>
  91. 105. Conclusion can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 192-3)
  92. 106. WHAT IS A RECOMMENDATION? <ul><li>It suggests actions to be taken based on findings </li></ul><ul><li>It is related to conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT based on biases or beliefs that are not supported by data </li></ul>
  93. 107. 2 TYPES OF RECOMMENDATION <ul><li>To recommend actions to be taken based on findings </li></ul><ul><li>To recommend actions to other researchers for further research </li></ul>
  94. 108. Recommendation can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 196)
  95. 109. LANGUAGE INPUT: Modal Auxiliary Verbs <ul><li>Use appropriate modals when making recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. May/Could/Might – mild suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Should/Ought to – strong suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>3. Must/Have to – extreme suggestion </li></ul>
  96. 110. picture
  97. 111. ORAL PRESENTATION
  98. 112. SALES! 50%! SALES! 70%! SALES!! 120%!
  99. 113. I HATE PUBLIC SPEAKING!
  100. 114. WHAT IS AN ORAL PRESENTATION? <ul><li>A type of communication that involves speaking & listening </li></ul><ul><li>Can be formal/ informal </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for professionals </li></ul><ul><li>A requirement for students </li></ul>
  101. 115. 3 PURPOSES OF ORAL PRESENTATION <ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul>
  102. 116. 4 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION <ul><li>Impromptu </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Memorised </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous </li></ul>
  103. 117. picture
  104. 118. 7 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS
  105. 119. 1. Planning Your Oral Presentation Well <ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the topic? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul>
  106. 120. 2. Knowing Your Content Well <ul><li>What is the content? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I included all the relevant information? </li></ul>
  107. 121. 3. Analysing Your Audience <ul><li>What is the background of audience? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they educated? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the reason for attending? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of them? </li></ul>
  108. 122. 4. Knowing the Presentation Room <ul><li>What is the size of the room? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the seating arrangement? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the facilities provided? </li></ul>
  109. 123. 5. Knowing the Time Allotted <ul><li>How long do I have to present? </li></ul>
  110. 124. 6. Writing the Outline of Your Delivery <ul><li>What are the main ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>(Prepare short notes, either linear or non-linear - do not outline them word by word) </li></ul>
  111. 125. 7. Deciding on the Appropriate Style of Delivery <ul><li>Do I have to be casual? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a large audience that requires a formal presentation? </li></ul>
  112. 126. picture
  113. 127. ORGANISING YOUR ORAL PRESENTATION <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  114. 128. 1.Introduction <ul><li>Start with attention grabbers (Question, humour, quotation, statistics, stories, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct language expressions (examples - page 209) </li></ul>
  115. 129. 2.Body <ul><li>For report presentation, follow the pattern in the report </li></ul><ul><li>Support with details and evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure clarity by keeping message simple </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure cohesion by using linking words (examples – page 216) </li></ul>
  116. 130. 3.Conclusion <ul><li>End it by using: </li></ul><ul><li>>> a summary of key points </li></ul><ul><li>>> a recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>>> an “umphh” final thought </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct expressions </li></ul><ul><li>(examples – page 221) </li></ul>
  117. 131. Prepare the outline (linear/non-linear) for the introduction , body & conclusion of your presentation. (refer to Tables 7.1 – 7.8)
  118. 132. picture
  119. 133. WHY VISUAL AIDS? <ul><li>To believe (seeing is believing) </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance understanding </li></ul><ul><li>To enable better retention </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure continuity </li></ul><ul><li>To build presenter’s credibility </li></ul><ul><li>To have more fun! </li></ul>
  120. 134. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
  121. 135. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS <ul><li>Arrange accordingly to the content </li></ul><ul><li>Points form (using key words) is advisable – don’t punctuate! </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate points in parallel forms (content, grammar, numbering) </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate major & minor headings appropriately </li></ul>
  122. 136. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d) <ul><li>Avoid irrelevant words </li></ul><ul><li>Words must be clearly readable </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid too much info on a single slide (remember to KISS !) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid too many colours </li></ul>
  123. 137. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d) <ul><li>Use animation sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a visual before showing it </li></ul><ul><li>Stand to the side of your computer </li></ul><ul><li>Face audience as much as possible </li></ul>
  124. 138. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d) <ul><li>Use a pointer to direct audience focus (not your finger) </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals should tally with what you say </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid reading your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate language expressions (examples – page 230) </li></ul>
  125. 139. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d) <ul><li>Use visual aids as support only (you are the spotlight!) </li></ul><ul><li>If you have handouts, tell your audience in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Practise, practise, practise! </li></ul>
  126. 140. PREPARE THE SLIDES!
  127. 141. Which is more important? WHAT you say or HOW you say?
  128. 142. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
  129. 143. Picture – non verbal communication
  130. 144. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY <ul><li>Visualise a successful presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Emulate excellent speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Channel your nervousness accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Do not apologise </li></ul><ul><li>Be well-versed with technology </li></ul>
  131. 145. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d) <ul><li>Always have Plan B </li></ul><ul><li>Dress appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Stand still (don’t slouch!) </li></ul><ul><li>Show your confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to audience (not your notes) </li></ul>
  132. 146. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d) <ul><li>Refer to notes sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>Pronounce words correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Use linkers for content traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Use spoken English (not text-book English) </li></ul><ul><li>Be interactive </li></ul>
  133. 147. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d) <ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your volume, tone & pace </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise crutches </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures naturally </li></ul>
  134. 148. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d) <ul><li>Place your hands appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Use facial expression effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Move around </li></ul><ul><li>End your presentation in time </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse! </li></ul>
  135. 149. pic
  136. 150. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
  137. 151. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION <ul><li>Invite questions </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat questions from audience </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the questioner </li></ul><ul><li>Answer in short </li></ul>
  138. 152. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION (cont’d) <ul><li>Be straightforward </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest (just admit that you don’t have the answer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to thank the questioner </li></ul>
  139. 153. ARE YOU A GOOD LISTENER?
  140. 154. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
  141. 155. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE <ul><li>Listen actively & selfishly (don’t just hear) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the message, not style </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for major ideas (look for cues) </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to body language (they do speak!) </li></ul>
  142. 156. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE (cont’d) <ul><li>Be objective (don’t easily get angry) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jumping to conclusion (don’t pre-judge) </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline your thoughts! </li></ul>
  143. 157. REMEMBER, A GOOD SPEAKER IS A GOOD LISTENER
  144. 158. You tube

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