SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 14
TYPES OF REPORTS
Presented by
Remya Sree
Research reports vary greatly in length and
type.
For example
 Business firms prefer reports in the letter form.
 Banks, insurance organizations and financial institutions are
generally fond of the short balance-sheet type of tabulation
for their annual reports to their customers and shareholders.
 Mathematicians prefer to write the results of their
investigations in the form of algebraic notations.
 Chemists report their results in symbols and formulae.
 Students of literature usually write long report related to
their projects.
Continue…
 Clinical psychologists and social pathologists make use of the case-history
form of report.
 News items in the daily papers are also forms of report writing.
 Book-reviews which analyze the content of the book and report on the
author’s intentions, his success or failure in achieving his aims, his
language, his style, scholarship, bias or his point of view
 Similarly, Ph.D. theses and dissertations are also a form of report-writing,
usually completed by students in academic institutions.
Two types of report
Technical Report
A technical report is used whenever a full written
report of the study is required whether for record
keeping or for public dissemination.
Popular Report
A popular report is used if the research results
have policy implications.
Technical Report
In the technical report the main emphasis is on
(i) the methods employed
(ii) assumptions made in the course of the study
(iii) the detailed presentation of the findings including
their limitations and supporting data.
A general outline of a technical
report can be as follows
 Summary of results: A brief review of the main findings.
 Nature of the study: Description of the general objectives
of study, formulation of the problem in operational terms,
the working hypothesis, the type of analysis and data
required, etc.
 Methods employed: Specific methods used in the study and
their limitations. For eg: sample size, sample selection, etc.
in sampling.
 Data: Discussion of data collected, their sources,
characteristics and limitations.
Technical report…
 Analysis of data and presentation of findings: The analysis of
data and presentation of the findings of the study with
supporting data in the form of tables and charts be fully
narrated. This happens to be the main body of the report
usually extending over several chapters.
 Conclusions: A detailed summary of the findings and the
policy implications drawn from the results be explained.
 Bibliography: Bibliography of various sources consulted be
prepared and attached.
 Technical appendices: Appendices be given for all technical
matters relating to questionnaire, mathematical
derivations, elaboration on particular technique of analysis
and the like ones.
 Index: Index must be prepared and be given invariably in
the report at the end.
Technical report…
 Simple presentation and ready availability of the
findings remain an important consideration
 The liberal use of charts and diagrams is considered
desirable.
Popular report
 The popular report is emphasis on simplicity and
attractiveness.
 The simplification should be sought through clear writing,
minimization of technical, particularly mathematical, details
and liberal use of charts and diagrams.
 Attractive layout along with large print, many subheadings,
even an occasional cartoon now and then is another
characteristic feature of the popular report.
 Report emphasis is given on practical aspects and policy
implications.
A general outline of a popular
report can be as follows
 The findings and their implications: Emphasis in the report
is given on the findings of most practical interest and on
the implications of these findings.
 Recommendations for action: Recommendations for action
on the basis of the findings of the study is made in this
section of the report.
 Objective of the study: A general review of how the
problem arise is presented along with the specific
objectives of the project under study.
Popular report...
 Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of
the methods and techniques used, including a short review of
the data based on study.
 Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report
wherein the results of the study are presented in clear and
non-technical terms with liberal use of all sorts of
illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the like ones.
 Technical appendices: More detailed information on
methods used, forms, etc. is presented in the form of
appendices. But the appendices are often not detailed if the
report is entirely meant for general public.
Popular report…
 The only important thing about such a report is that it
gives emphasis on simplicity and policy implications
from the operational point of view, avoiding the
technical details of all sorts to the extent possible.
 It emphasis on
• Simple
• Attractive
• Use of › Charts › Diagrams
• Practical aspect
• Policy implication
Oral presentation
 Oral presentation of the results of the study is effective.
 Provide the opportunities for give and take decision, which lead to
better understanding of the finding and their implementation.
 Oral presentation is effective when supplemented by various
visual devices. Use of slides, wall charts and blackboards is quite
helpful in contributing to clarity and in reducing the boredom
 This very often happens in academic institutions where the
researcher discusses his research findings and policy implications
with others either in a seminar or in a group discussion.
 But the main demerit of this sort of presentation is the lack of
any permanent record concerning the research details and it may
be just possible that the findings may fade away from people’s
memory even before an action is taken. In order to overcome this
difficulty, a written report may be circulated before the oral
presentation and referred to frequently during the discussion.
Thank you…

More Related Content

What's hot

Research Methodology-Data Processing
Research Methodology-Data ProcessingResearch Methodology-Data Processing
Research Methodology-Data ProcessingDrMAlagupriyasafiq
 
Selection of research problem
Selection of research problemSelection of research problem
Selection of research problembiniyapatel
 
Contents of research report
Contents of research reportContents of research report
Contents of research reportAbhinav Kp
 
Research design and types of research design final ppt
Research design and types of research design final pptResearch design and types of research design final ppt
Research design and types of research design final pptPrahlada G Bhakta
 
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample design
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample designCharacteristics of a good sample design & types of sample design
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample designDr.Sangeetha R
 
Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection PRIYAN SAKTHI
 
Steps in formulating research problem
Steps in formulating research problem   Steps in formulating research problem
Steps in formulating research problem Rijitha R
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of researchAshish Sahu
 
Research Report Writing
Research Report WritingResearch Report Writing
Research Report WritingMeghana Sudhir
 
objectives of research
objectives of researchobjectives of research
objectives of researchRishad Rish
 
Measurement and scaling techniques
Measurement  and  scaling  techniquesMeasurement  and  scaling  techniques
Measurement and scaling techniquesUjjwal 'Shanu'
 
Significance of research
Significance of researchSignificance of research
Significance of researchAzizur Rahman
 

What's hot (20)

Research Methodology-Data Processing
Research Methodology-Data ProcessingResearch Methodology-Data Processing
Research Methodology-Data Processing
 
Selection of research problem
Selection of research problemSelection of research problem
Selection of research problem
 
Sampling design ppt
Sampling design pptSampling design ppt
Sampling design ppt
 
Research design
Research designResearch design
Research design
 
Types of Research
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
Types of Research
 
Contents of research report
Contents of research reportContents of research report
Contents of research report
 
Research Design
Research Design Research Design
Research Design
 
Researchproblem
ResearchproblemResearchproblem
Researchproblem
 
Research design and types of research design final ppt
Research design and types of research design final pptResearch design and types of research design final ppt
Research design and types of research design final ppt
 
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample design
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample designCharacteristics of a good sample design & types of sample design
Characteristics of a good sample design & types of sample design
 
Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection
 
Steps in formulating research problem
Steps in formulating research problem   Steps in formulating research problem
Steps in formulating research problem
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
Research Report Writing
Research Report WritingResearch Report Writing
Research Report Writing
 
Research Design and Types of Research Design Arun Joseph MPhil ppt
Research Design and Types of Research Design Arun Joseph MPhil pptResearch Design and Types of Research Design Arun Joseph MPhil ppt
Research Design and Types of Research Design Arun Joseph MPhil ppt
 
Sample design
Sample designSample design
Sample design
 
objectives of research
objectives of researchobjectives of research
objectives of research
 
Research methodology notes
Research methodology notesResearch methodology notes
Research methodology notes
 
Measurement and scaling techniques
Measurement  and  scaling  techniquesMeasurement  and  scaling  techniques
Measurement and scaling techniques
 
Significance of research
Significance of researchSignificance of research
Significance of research
 

Viewers also liked

Types of technical reports
Types of technical reportsTypes of technical reports
Types of technical reportsNeyo Adasko
 
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCE
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCEREPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCE
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCETulika Paul
 
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay Writing
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay WritingSample on Operations Management By Instant Essay Writing
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay WritingInstant Essay Writing
 
Formal reports and proposals WTW11e
Formal reports and proposals WTW11eFormal reports and proposals WTW11e
Formal reports and proposals WTW11esblarge
 
Formal report components
Formal  report componentsFormal  report components
Formal report componentsDavid Omodara
 
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAW
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAWSingapore National NGO Report to CEDAW
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAWbhavnarr
 
Types of report writing
Types of report writingTypes of report writing
Types of report writingVenkatesh D
 
Writing a research report
Writing a research reportWriting a research report
Writing a research reportcassiacain
 
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...FaHaD .H. NooR
 
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)Sheryl Mehra
 
Interpretative (interpretive) reporting
Interpretative (interpretive) reportingInterpretative (interpretive) reporting
Interpretative (interpretive) reportingJimi Kayode
 
Proposal And Formal Reports
Proposal And Formal ReportsProposal And Formal Reports
Proposal And Formal Reportsrosaejonasz
 
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTS
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTSTYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTS
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTSfarwa jafar
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Types of technical reports
Types of technical reportsTypes of technical reports
Types of technical reports
 
Repot writing ppt
Repot writing pptRepot writing ppt
Repot writing ppt
 
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCE
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCEREPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCE
REPORT WRITING:TYPES, FORMAT, STRUCTURE AND RELEVANCE
 
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay Writing
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay WritingSample on Operations Management By Instant Essay Writing
Sample on Operations Management By Instant Essay Writing
 
Developing physical character
Developing physical characterDeveloping physical character
Developing physical character
 
Formal reports and proposals WTW11e
Formal reports and proposals WTW11eFormal reports and proposals WTW11e
Formal reports and proposals WTW11e
 
Formal report components
Formal  report componentsFormal  report components
Formal report components
 
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAW
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAWSingapore National NGO Report to CEDAW
Singapore National NGO Report to CEDAW
 
Types of report writing
Types of report writingTypes of report writing
Types of report writing
 
Formal reports
Formal reportsFormal reports
Formal reports
 
Reports
ReportsReports
Reports
 
Writing a research report
Writing a research reportWriting a research report
Writing a research report
 
Week 4 - Informal Reports and Email
Week 4 - Informal Reports and EmailWeek 4 - Informal Reports and Email
Week 4 - Informal Reports and Email
 
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...
Informal Reports - Progress Report - Information Reports - Feasibility Report...
 
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
 
report.ppt
report.pptreport.ppt
report.ppt
 
Interpretative (interpretive) reporting
Interpretative (interpretive) reportingInterpretative (interpretive) reporting
Interpretative (interpretive) reporting
 
Proposal And Formal Reports
Proposal And Formal ReportsProposal And Formal Reports
Proposal And Formal Reports
 
Writing a research report
Writing a research reportWriting a research report
Writing a research report
 
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTS
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTSTYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTS
TYPES OF TECHNICAL REPORTS
 

Similar to Type of Reports

Research Methodology - Research Report
Research Methodology - Research ReportResearch Methodology - Research Report
Research Methodology - Research ReportDrMAlagupriyasafiq
 
Unit5_Report writing.ppt
Unit5_Report writing.pptUnit5_Report writing.ppt
Unit5_Report writing.pptPraveen Kumar
 
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.ppt
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.pptprof Elective Technical Report Writing.ppt
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.pptRaviKiranVarma4
 
Topic6
Topic6Topic6
Topic6AGOi
 
Research report.pptx
Research report.pptxResearch report.pptx
Research report.pptxletbestrong
 
Research Methodology report writing
Research Methodology report writingResearch Methodology report writing
Research Methodology report writingBilal Al-samaee
 
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.ppt
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.pptBRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.ppt
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.pptAbdifatahAhmedHurre
 
Research project report
Research project reportResearch project report
Research project reportshweta saxena
 
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptx
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptxReport Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptx
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptxAkhtarHussain141
 
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptx
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptxPrecautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptx
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptxnikitagoel52
 
Structure of a report
Structure of a reportStructure of a report
Structure of a reportDanish saifi
 
Reports danish.bad
Reports danish.badReports danish.bad
Reports danish.bad03062679929
 
TECHNICAL REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORTTECHNICAL REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORTswarna2912
 

Similar to Type of Reports (20)

Research Methodology - Research Report
Research Methodology - Research ReportResearch Methodology - Research Report
Research Methodology - Research Report
 
Research Report ppt (marketing)
Research Report ppt (marketing)Research Report ppt (marketing)
Research Report ppt (marketing)
 
Unit5_Report writing.ppt
Unit5_Report writing.pptUnit5_Report writing.ppt
Unit5_Report writing.ppt
 
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.ppt
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.pptprof Elective Technical Report Writing.ppt
prof Elective Technical Report Writing.ppt
 
Topic6
Topic6Topic6
Topic6
 
Research report.pptx
Research report.pptxResearch report.pptx
Research report.pptx
 
Report
ReportReport
Report
 
Reports.pptx
Reports.pptxReports.pptx
Reports.pptx
 
Aaa
AaaAaa
Aaa
 
REPORT WRITING
REPORT WRITINGREPORT WRITING
REPORT WRITING
 
Research Methodology report writing
Research Methodology report writingResearch Methodology report writing
Research Methodology report writing
 
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.ppt
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.pptBRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.ppt
BRM_Data Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting Part III.ppt
 
Research project report
Research project reportResearch project report
Research project report
 
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptx
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptxReport Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptx
Report Writing Presentation Mahrukh Fatima 5304.pptx
 
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptx
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptxPrecautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptx
Precautions in writing Research Report- RM.pptx
 
Structure of a report
Structure of a reportStructure of a report
Structure of a report
 
Chap 9
Chap 9Chap 9
Chap 9
 
Reports danish.bad
Reports danish.badReports danish.bad
Reports danish.bad
 
TECHNICAL REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORTTECHNICAL REPORT
TECHNICAL REPORT
 
Reports and it's Types of Reports, Technical Reports and Progress Report
Reports and it's Types of Reports, Technical Reports and Progress ReportReports and it's Types of Reports, Technical Reports and Progress Report
Reports and it's Types of Reports, Technical Reports and Progress Report
 

Recently uploaded

會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文中 央社
 
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING IIII BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING IIagpharmacy11
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...Krashi Coaching
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatmentsaipooja36
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhleson0603
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Denish Jangid
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppCeline George
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024CapitolTechU
 
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomImplanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifeNitinDeodare
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 

Recently uploaded (20)

會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING IIII BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
Word Stress rules esl               .pptxWord Stress rules esl               .pptx
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading RoomImplanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
Implanted Devices - VP Shunts: EMGuidewire's Radiology Reading Room
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 

Type of Reports

  • 2. Research reports vary greatly in length and type. For example  Business firms prefer reports in the letter form.  Banks, insurance organizations and financial institutions are generally fond of the short balance-sheet type of tabulation for their annual reports to their customers and shareholders.  Mathematicians prefer to write the results of their investigations in the form of algebraic notations.  Chemists report their results in symbols and formulae.  Students of literature usually write long report related to their projects.
  • 3. Continue…  Clinical psychologists and social pathologists make use of the case-history form of report.  News items in the daily papers are also forms of report writing.  Book-reviews which analyze the content of the book and report on the author’s intentions, his success or failure in achieving his aims, his language, his style, scholarship, bias or his point of view  Similarly, Ph.D. theses and dissertations are also a form of report-writing, usually completed by students in academic institutions.
  • 4. Two types of report Technical Report A technical report is used whenever a full written report of the study is required whether for record keeping or for public dissemination. Popular Report A popular report is used if the research results have policy implications.
  • 5. Technical Report In the technical report the main emphasis is on (i) the methods employed (ii) assumptions made in the course of the study (iii) the detailed presentation of the findings including their limitations and supporting data.
  • 6. A general outline of a technical report can be as follows  Summary of results: A brief review of the main findings.  Nature of the study: Description of the general objectives of study, formulation of the problem in operational terms, the working hypothesis, the type of analysis and data required, etc.  Methods employed: Specific methods used in the study and their limitations. For eg: sample size, sample selection, etc. in sampling.  Data: Discussion of data collected, their sources, characteristics and limitations.
  • 7. Technical report…  Analysis of data and presentation of findings: The analysis of data and presentation of the findings of the study with supporting data in the form of tables and charts be fully narrated. This happens to be the main body of the report usually extending over several chapters.  Conclusions: A detailed summary of the findings and the policy implications drawn from the results be explained.  Bibliography: Bibliography of various sources consulted be prepared and attached.  Technical appendices: Appendices be given for all technical matters relating to questionnaire, mathematical derivations, elaboration on particular technique of analysis and the like ones.  Index: Index must be prepared and be given invariably in the report at the end.
  • 8. Technical report…  Simple presentation and ready availability of the findings remain an important consideration  The liberal use of charts and diagrams is considered desirable.
  • 9. Popular report  The popular report is emphasis on simplicity and attractiveness.  The simplification should be sought through clear writing, minimization of technical, particularly mathematical, details and liberal use of charts and diagrams.  Attractive layout along with large print, many subheadings, even an occasional cartoon now and then is another characteristic feature of the popular report.  Report emphasis is given on practical aspects and policy implications.
  • 10. A general outline of a popular report can be as follows  The findings and their implications: Emphasis in the report is given on the findings of most practical interest and on the implications of these findings.  Recommendations for action: Recommendations for action on the basis of the findings of the study is made in this section of the report.  Objective of the study: A general review of how the problem arise is presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study.
  • 11. Popular report...  Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of the methods and techniques used, including a short review of the data based on study.  Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the results of the study are presented in clear and non-technical terms with liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and the like ones.  Technical appendices: More detailed information on methods used, forms, etc. is presented in the form of appendices. But the appendices are often not detailed if the report is entirely meant for general public.
  • 12. Popular report…  The only important thing about such a report is that it gives emphasis on simplicity and policy implications from the operational point of view, avoiding the technical details of all sorts to the extent possible.  It emphasis on • Simple • Attractive • Use of › Charts › Diagrams • Practical aspect • Policy implication
  • 13. Oral presentation  Oral presentation of the results of the study is effective.  Provide the opportunities for give and take decision, which lead to better understanding of the finding and their implementation.  Oral presentation is effective when supplemented by various visual devices. Use of slides, wall charts and blackboards is quite helpful in contributing to clarity and in reducing the boredom  This very often happens in academic institutions where the researcher discusses his research findings and policy implications with others either in a seminar or in a group discussion.  But the main demerit of this sort of presentation is the lack of any permanent record concerning the research details and it may be just possible that the findings may fade away from people’s memory even before an action is taken. In order to overcome this difficulty, a written report may be circulated before the oral presentation and referred to frequently during the discussion.