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Writing report


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Writing report

  1. 1. Presentation on ‘Writing a Research Report’ Prepaired By: Nirmal Singh Kaserla M.A,M.LIB.SC,M.ED,M.PHIL (UGC NET) Dept of Library & Information science Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
  2. 2. Writing a Research Report A article, paper, or report about research generally takes a structure or form that seems difficult but is intended to help make reading it or using it for research quick and efficient. A research report has seven components: I. Abstract or Summary II. Introduction III. Review of Literature IV. Methods V. Results VI. Conclusions and Discussion VII. References
  3. 3. I. Abstract or Summary The abstract or summary tells the reader very briefly what the main points and findings of the paper are.  This allows the reader to decide whether the paper is useful to them.  Get into the habit of reading only abstracts while searching for papers that are relevant to your research.  Read the body of a paper only when you think it will be useful to you.
  4. 4. Abstract or Summary—an example
  5. 5. II. Introduction i. The introduction tells the reader: • what the topic of the paper is in general terms. • why the topic is important. • what to expect in the paper. ii. Introductions should: • funnel from general ideas to the specific topic of the paper. • justify the research that will be presented later iii. Introductions are sometimes folded into literature reviews.
  6. 6. Introduction—an example
  7. 7. III. Review of Literature The literature review tells the reader what other researchers have discovered about the paper’s topic or tells the reader about other research that is relevant to the topic. Often what students call a “research paper” is merely a literature review.  A literature review should shape the way readers think about a topic—it educates readers about what the community of scholars says about a topic and its surrounding issues.  Along the way it states facts and ideas about the social world and supports those facts and ideas with evidence for from where they came .
  8. 8. Review of Literature—examples of citing
  9. 9. IV. Methods A METHODS SECTION MUST CONTAIN: 1. Descriptions of Data (Think in terms of: “Who, What, When, Where, Why and How?”) Report: A. The Target Population B. The Ways Data were Collected: 1. Sampling 2. Delivery Methods C. Response Rates D. Sample sizes resulting from various decisions .
  10. 10. A METHODS SECTION MUST CONTAIN: 2. Descriptions of Variables First for dependent, then for independent variables, report: A. Names for the variables—make them intuitive! B. Word for word description of the questions. C. Final coding scheme—the numbers you assigned to responses. 3. Manipulations of the variables or data. 4. Reflection on ability of data to generalize to the target population. 5. Statistical techniques that will be used to test your hypotheses and the statistics program used.
  11. 11. Methods-an example
  12. 12. V. Results The results section chronicles the outcome of the statistical analyses, assessing whether your hypotheses were correct and why or why not.
  13. 13. The results section includes: a. Narrative describing most relevant findings b. Professional tables showing descriptive and inferential statistics • Tables must be numbered and have a descriptive title. • There are conventions for formatting. For example: – Asterisks are used to highlight results that are statistically important – All numbers in a column are aligned on decimals
  14. 14. Results-an example
  15. 15. VI. Conclusions and Discussion This section assesses how one’s research findings relate to what the community have accepted as facts. Things that should be done: 1. Summarize the most salient points of your research (tell the reader what you found out about your topic). 2. Discuss the general significance of your topic and findings. 3. Discuss the shortcomings of your study and how these might affect your findings.
  16. 16. The Conclusions and Discussion section includes: 4. Discuss things future researchers should investigate about your topic to advance knowledge about it. 5. Help the reader gain the knowledge that you think he or she ought to have about the topic. You spent a lot of time exploring the, you should share your expertise.
  17. 17. VII.References The references are just as important as any other part of your paper.  References are the empirical support for claims in a paper that are not directly observed in the research. They are needed for researchers to remain empirical in their descriptions of topics.  Link the paper to the community of scholars, permitting readers to assess the worthiness claims in a paper.  Make the research process much more efficient because they make it very easy to look up sources of facts and ideas.
  18. 18. References—an example
  19. 19. Conclusion A research report is an eye-opener to others to judge the work done by the researcher in the field of given research. The research report consists of research that one does on the topic as well as interpretation of the information, including applicability to the teaching assignment. It explains how one will use the information that comes to the focus, how it will impact on teaching pedagogy, discipline methods, curriculum development, assessment, etc.