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Research report writing


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Research report writing

  1. 1. Thinking ahead to your research report
  2. 2. Working collaboratively online Google Docs ( Scholar Google ( (search for research area to find papers & books) Google Books (
  3. 3. Using Google Docs:
  4. 4. Using Google Docs
  5. 5. Using Google Docs
  6. 6. Using Google Docs
  7. 7. Share your Google Docs with Us Use a Google doc to collaboratively write your research report Add us (with editing rights) to your doc so that we can give you timely feedback on your writing:  
  8. 8. Using Google Scholar
  9. 9. Using Google Scholar
  10. 10. Using Google Scholar
  11. 11. Using Google Scholar NB: Double quotes around a phrase searches for phrase
  12. 12. If you do set up a Google Doc for your report…. … then, share this doc (along with editing rights) with Colin and Michele ( .com) Your group may prefer to work with a Word doc that you share via email, and that’s fine, too. You can send it to us at key points along the way for feedback during our final week.
  13. 13. Writing your report
  14. 14. Academic reportPurpose of this report is to examine yourexperiences in producing a digital media artifact inrelation to 1-2 patterns or concepts associated withlearning to participate in a new literacy practiceYou will be reflecting upon the process of learninga new literacy in ways designed to inform ourwork as teachers, learners, and culturalproducers.
  15. 15. Analysing your group’s dataThere are three broad ways to approach analysing your data.1. Theory-guided; that is, using pre-determined categories(based on key theoretical concepts).2. Emergent; that is, grounded analysis of data thatgenerates categories out of the data itself3. A mix of both.The main thing to begin with is to go through your group’sdata and look at what patterns start to “fall out” or emerge(with an eye to outlier events as well, as well as to keyconcepts). Play good, close attention to all your data(written, spoken and observed).
  16. 16. Theory-guided data analysis: Usingpre-determined categories What pre-determined categories pertaining to learning a new literacy can you identify from close reading of the entire data set? (e.g., collaboration of a certain kind, participatory culture, affinity spaces, performance before competence, distributed expertise, just-in-time learning) To what extent are these patterns, categories or concepts embodied across the different kinds of data we’ve collected? To what extent does the literature fully explain what you observed? Or does your data extend/challenge the concept as currently written about? See the “Krista Group” paper on the course website for an example of theory-guided data analysis
  17. 17. Emergent data analysis: Categoriesarising in a ‘grounded’ way What patterns,regularities, categories (or outliers) emerge from close reading of the entire data set? To what extent are these patterns/categories evinced across the different kinds of data we’ve collected? What—if anything—do you notice happening over time with respect to these patterns/categories (or outliers)? See the “DaraPGroup” and “LooneyTunes” papers on the course website for examples of emergent data analysis
  18. 18. Data analysis: General comments It’s a recursive process—you may (1) start with a concept and examine your data, or (2) examine your data and revisit relevant concepts, adjust things (your understanding of the concept, your definition of a concept, etc.). For example, your data might challenge the concept of “affinity” in Gee’s concept of “affinity space”—such as what constitutes an affinity/shared interest, can it be temporary etc. Think about your data—what things are starting to stand out as being pivotal moments, or key “a-ha” moments that afford you real insights into your learning, in your “coming to be” something, in your understanding of what it means to use theoretical concepts to explain stuff, etc.
  19. 19. Data analysis: Coding data• How you generate codes• When you code data, you code either using pre-determined categories and/or, or you use open coding techniques for grounded, emergent data analysis• Refer to your textbook for more on this
  20. 20. Return to the theory to discuss yourfindings To what extent and in what ways do the patterns you’ve found resonate with concepts to do with learning, new literacies and associated ideas (e.g., affinity spaces, learning to be, social practice, Discourse and literacy, participatory culture, new ethos stuff, appreciative systems, deep learning, collaboration, distributed expertise, participation, just-in-time-learning, and so on)? Make sure that the authors of the additional texts you find and read “fit” with a sociocultural orientation. Don’t be random in your write-up.
  21. 21. Writing your report This is more like a research report rather than an essay Keep in mind assessment criteria in your syllabus Focus on “being an academic” Remember that there are different types of academic literature. These include: research literature, commentaries, analytic papers (that analyse and discuss concepts and ideas), and research methodology literature (how-to-do research).
  22. 22. Possible structure for your report Introduction—summary of the categories at the heart of your paper; what you hoped to learn; context and rationale for media artifact; rationale for making the artifact Overview of who you are and what you did—qualitative study of X (including who you are, the context in which you’re in this course etc.) An overview of the type/genre artifact you produced (e.g., what is stop motion animation is and a little about its history,etc.) Review of the literature pertaining to key concepts in the literature to frame your report Summary of how you collected your data (referencing academic texts, too) Summary of howyou analysedyour data(this will include citations to research methodology literature, too) Identify briefly all the main patterns/categories you found, and identify which ones you will focus on Discuss each pattern/category (including a definition of the pattern/category based on your readings; this may be tweaked based on your data)—this includes reference to theory stuff (this is likely to be the largest section of your paper) Implications for your own teaching (don’t over-generalise) Conclusion—summary of what you did and found and of your learning
  23. 23. Writing tips Don’t just slot quotes in—weave them into your discussion so that they support your analysis and don’t stand in for your own discussion Direct quotes should not start or end a paragraph Pay attention to dates of publication Make sure that direct quotes are relevant (just because two authors use the term “collaboration” doesn’t mean they mean it in the same way) Remember to use cohesive ties (e.g., moreover, in contrast, in addition, furthermore, on the one hand + on the other hand, however, therefore, otherwise) If you get stuck, just write down what you want to say in everyday language as a starting point, then work from there Keep your bibliography (APA style) going as you work Don’t use a dictionary to define theoretical concepts APA referencing conventions
  24. 24. “Bad” use of quotes“There is a real need for reflection on teachers’conceptions of textuality and literacy as they exist “forspecific social purposes inside and outside schooling andin the intermediary spaces and places between them”(Nixon, 2003, p. 409). As Kelly (2000) wrote, “to movebeyond romantic notions of English is, often, to retreatfrom and to reconfigure once familiar and highly investeddesires embedded in our personal and social histories” (p.86). It is no wonder then that, as Merchant (2008)writes, “it is hard for us [ELA educators] to know whichdispositions, values and practices will remain importantand which new ones may be required” (p. 751).”
  25. 25. Writing tips (cont.) Aimat sounding plausible by using a bunch of academic discourse moves:“The weight of spoken data suggests that over the course of five days our ways of speaking about photoshopping changed in a subtle but interesting manner that signalled at least some shift from being novices towards being more proficient users of photoshopping tools and techniques. These changes included a growing use of key technical terms associated with photoshopping: “hue”—which means ….; “saturation”, which means …; “blur”, which means….”
  26. 26. Writing tips (cont.)What was perhaps most significant in this study, however, was thedegree to which being immersed in creating a series ofphotoshopped images and documenting this immersion nowmakes it possible to discern elements of the “new ethos”dimension of new literacies as described by Lankshear and Knobel(2006, p. x). To recapitulate, the “new ethos” dimension of newliteracies is concerned with …… In our data, identifiable elementsof this dimension of new literacies elements include X, Y, and Z. Inour data, X typically…. For example, A glanced over at B’s screen and said, “Oh that looks marvellous! Do you think he needs some shadow under his feet to ‘ground’ him a little, though?” (C’s fieldnotes, 13/07/10, p. 14)In this example it is possible to see how A is demonstrating some ofthe shared values of what constitutes effective photoshopping andits goal of realism and authenticity. A talks about “grounding” thefigure in the image; this, it can be argued, demonstrates that Aunderstands the importance of……
  27. 27. Writing tips (cont.)It is also possible to argue that A also understands the cultureof constructive criticism that is valued within the online DIYphotoshopping community (cf., Merchant, 2010; Potter, 2010).A begins with a supportive evaluation, then couches hersuggestion as a question--leaving any subsequent changes tothe discretion of B. …. This pattern—supportiveevaluation, then constructive suggestion—re-appearedthroughout our records of spoken data (out of 173 documentedutterances, 102 utterances took this form). Interestingly, thispattern resonates with reviewer feedback patterns found inRebecca Black’s research into fan fiction writing (Black, 2009).Black found …. For us, this pattern in our own data suggests…(and then link to, say, Jenkins’ concept of participatoryculture, of Gee and Black’s take on participating effectively inan affinity space etc.).
  28. 28. Examples of final reports… report examples are archived here.