Precautions for writing research
Dr . G. NAGARAJAN
Department of ECE
Significance of report writing.
Different steps in report writing.
Mechanisms of report writing.
Section of report writing.
Precautions for report writing.
23/6/2016 2Precations for writing Research Reports.
Mostly, research work is presented in a written form.
The practical utility of research study depends heavily on the way it is
presented to those who are expected to act on the basis of research findings.
Research report is a medium to communicate research work with relevant
It is also a good source of preservation of research work for the future
Many times, only research findings are not followed because of improper
Preparation of research report is not an easy task. It is an art.
It requires a good deal of knowledge, imagination, experience, and expertise.
It demands a considerable time and money.
23/6/2016 3Precations for writing Research Reports.
1. In simple words:
Research report is the systematic, articulate, and
orderly presentation of research work in a written form.
2. We can also define the term as:
Research report is a research document that contains
basic aspects of the research project.
3. In the same way, we can say:
Research report involves relevant information on the
research work carried out. It may be in form of hand-
written, typed, or computerized.
23/6/2016 4Precations for writing Research Reports.
There is no one best format for all reports. Format
depends on several relevant variables.
One must employ a suitable format to create desirable
impression with clarity.
Report must be attractive.
It should be written systematically and bound carefully.
A report must use the format (often called structure) that
best fit the needs and wants of its readers.
Normally, following format is suggested as a basic outline,
which has sufficient flexibly to meet the most situations.
23/6/2016 5Precations for writing Research Reports.
Research report is considered a major component of the research
study for the research task remains incomplete till the report has
been presented and/ or written.
The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are
made known to others.
The task of report writing must be accomplished by the researcher
with utmost care and he may seek the assistance and guidance of
23/6/2016 6Precations for writing Research Reports.
DIFFERENT STEPS IN WRITING REPORT
The usual steps involved in writing report are
1. Logical Analysis of the subject matter
2. Preparation of the final outline
3. Preparation of the rough draft
4. Re- writing and polishing
5. Preparation of the final bibliography
6. Writing the final draft.
23/6/2016 7Precations for writing Research Reports.
1.Logical Analysis of the Subject Matter: It
is the first step which is primarily concerned
with the development of the subject.
2.Preparation of the final outline: The next
step in writing a research report is to outline
or to make a frame upon which long written
works are constructed.
23/6/2016 8Precations for writing Research Reports.
3. Preparation of the rough draft: He will
have to put his work in pen and paper now
so that he can ask his critics to comment
4.Re-writing and polishing: The careful
revision makes the difference between a
mediocre and a good piece of writing. In
this step, the researcher should check the
report for weakness in logical
development or presentation.,
23/6/2016 9Precations for writing Research Reports.
5. Preparation of the final Bibliography: The
bibliography is a list of books which are used
as a reference for the preparation of the
report. It should contain all those works
which the researcher has consulted.
6. Writing the final Draft: The final draft
should be written in a concise and objective
style and in simple language, avoiding vague
expressions. Also the researcher must avoid
abstract terminology and technical words.
23/6/2016 10Precations for writing Research Reports.
Selecting the topic
Planning the paper
Developing the statement of purpose
Gathering the Information
23/6/2016 11Precations for writing Research Reports.
Research report is divided into three parts as:
I. First Part (Formality Part):
(i) Cover page
(ii) Title page
(iii) Certificate or statement
(iv) Index (brief contents)
(v) Table of contents (detailed index)
(vii) List of tables and figures used
(ix) Summary report
23/6/2016 12Precations for writing Research Reports.
II. Main Report (Central Part of Report):
(i) Statement of objectives
(ii) Methodology and research design
(iii) Types of data and its sources
(iv) Sampling decisions
(v) Data collection methods
(vi) Data collection tools
(viii) Analysis and interpretation (including tables, charts, figures, etc.)
(xi) Conclusions and recommendations
(xii) Any other relevant detail
23/6/2016 13Precations for writing Research Reports.
III. Appendix (Additional Details):
(i) Copies of forms used
(ii) Tables not included in findings
(iii) A copy of questionnaire
(iv) Detail of sampling and rate of response
(v) Statement of expenses
(vi) Bibliography – list of books, magazines, journals, and
(vii) Any other relevant information
23/6/2016 14Precations for writing Research Reports.
While preparing research report, following issues must
(ii) Type of problem/subject
(iii) Nature and type of research
(iv) Audience or users of research work
(v) Size of report
(vi) Form of writing – handwritten, typed, or computerized.
(vii) Time and cost
23/6/2016 15Precations for writing Research Reports.
(ix) Contents of report
(x) Order of contents
(xi) Number of copies
(xii) Format – type and size of paper; lengths width, and
depth of report; and pattern of writing including
paragraph, indent, numbering, font size and type,
(xiii) Binding (for soft, and, particularly, for hard copy) –
type, quality of material, colour, etc., related issues.
23/6/2016 16Precations for writing Research Reports.
The research report should be long enough to cover the subjects but
short enough to maintain the interest.
The report should not be dull, it should sustain the reader’s interest.
The report should possess the features of simplicity and avoiding
Readers of the report are more interested in acquiring a quick knowledge
of the main findings and the report should provide a ready availability of
the findings with the help of charts, graphs and statistical tables.
Translate numerical information into visual form so that relationships may
be easily grasped.
Source and footnotes
23/6/2016 17Precations for writing Research Reports.
Using tables effectively
Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or
emphasize a message
Should always be interpreted in the text.
Footnotes and source notes
23/6/2016 18Precations for writing Research Reports.
Abstract terminology and technical language should be
avoided in a research report.
The report must provide a readily availability of the
The layout of the report must be in accordance with the
objectives of the research problem.
The report should be original in nature
23/6/2016 19Precations for writing Research Reports.
The contents of the report should be well thought out
keeping in view the objective of the research problem.
The grammatical mistakes should be avoided and the
report should be prepared strictly in accordance with the
techniques of composition of report. Writing such as the
use of quotations, foot notes, proper punctuations and
the use of abbreviations in the foot notes etc.
Logical analysis should be the very basis of preparing a
The report should also suggest the policy implication
relating to the problem under consideration and should
help us in future forecasting.
All the technical data should be appended in the report.
A list of bibliography of various sources consulted for the
research study should be prepared and be given in the
23/6/2016 20Precations for writing Research Reports.
A good report should also possess an index of subjects
and authors as well. It should be appended at the end of
Report should be attractive in shape, neat and clean
whether typed or printed.
Calculated confidence limits must also be mentioned in
the report and the various limitations experienced by
the researcher in his study should be stated in the
A good report should also mention the objective of the
study the nature of the problem the methods and
analysis techniques used. All these things should be
given in the form of introduction in the report.
23/6/2016 21Precations for writing Research Reports.
Appendices should be properly listed in all respect in
order to avoid any confusions.
Bibliography of sources of consulted is a must and it
should be very carefully and chronologically arranged.
The objective of the study, the nature of the problem,
the methods employed and the analysis techniques
adopted must all be clearly stated in the beginning of
the report in the form of introduction.
The limitations related to the study must also be clearly
indicated in the research report.
23/6/2016 22Precations for writing Research Reports.
In spite of all has been stated above ,one should always
keep in view the fact report-writing is an art which is
learnt by practise and experience , rather than by mere
23/6/2016 23Precations for writing Research Reports.
research methodology :methods and techniques by C.R.Kothari
23/6/2016 24Precations for writing Research Reports.
25Precations for writing Research Reports.