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Research report


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precautions for writing research reports

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Research report

  1. 1. Precautions for writing research reports...!!! Submitted to Dr . G. NAGARAJAN Associate Professor Department of ECE By, Preethi .P (15EC331) Date:12/04/2016
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction.  Definition.  Report format.  Significance of report writing.  Different steps in report writing.  Mechanisms of report writing.  Section of report writing.  Precautions for report writing.  Conclusion.  References. 23/6/2016 2Precations for writing Research Reports.
  3. 3.  Mostly, research work is presented in a written form.  The practical utility of research study depends heavily on the way it is presented to those who are expected to act on the basis of research findings.  Research report is a medium to communicate research work with relevant people.  It is also a good source of preservation of research work for the future reference.  Many times, only research findings are not followed because of improper presentation.  Preparation of research report is not an easy task. It is an art.  It requires a good deal of knowledge, imagination, experience, and expertise.  It demands a considerable time and money. 23/6/2016 3Precations for writing Research Reports.
  4. 4. 1. In simple words:  Research report is the systematic, articulate, and orderly presentation of research work in a written form. 2. We can also define the term as:  Research report is a research document that contains basic aspects of the research project. 3. In the same way, we can say:  Research report involves relevant information on the research work carried out. It may be in form of hand- written, typed, or computerized. 23/6/2016 4Precations for writing Research Reports.
  5. 5. Report Format  There is no one best format for all reports. Format depends on several relevant variables.  One must employ a suitable format to create desirable impression with clarity.  Report must be attractive.  It should be written systematically and bound carefully.  A report must use the format (often called structure) that best fit the needs and wants of its readers.  Normally, following format is suggested as a basic outline, which has sufficient flexibly to meet the most situations. 23/6/2016 5Precations for writing Research Reports.
  6. 6.  Research report is considered a major component of the research study for the research task remains incomplete till the report has been presented and/ or written.  The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others.  The task of report writing must be accomplished by the researcher with utmost care and he may seek the assistance and guidance of the experts. 23/6/2016 6Precations for writing Research Reports.
  7. 7. DIFFERENT STEPS IN WRITING REPORT The usual steps involved in writing report are 1. Logical Analysis of the subject matter 2. Preparation of the final outline 3. Preparation of the rough draft 4. Re- writing and polishing 5. Preparation of the final bibliography 6. Writing the final draft. 23/6/2016 7Precations for writing Research Reports.
  8. 8. 1.Logical Analysis of the Subject Matter: It is the first step which is primarily concerned with the development of the subject. 2.Preparation of the final outline: The next step in writing a research report is to outline or to make a frame upon which long written works are constructed. 23/6/2016 8Precations for writing Research Reports.
  9. 9. 3. Preparation of the rough draft: He will have to put his work in pen and paper now so that he can ask his critics to comment upon it. 4.Re-writing and polishing: The careful revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good piece of writing. In this step, the researcher should check the report for weakness in logical development or presentation., 23/6/2016 9Precations for writing Research Reports.
  10. 10. 5. Preparation of the final Bibliography: The bibliography is a list of books which are used as a reference for the preparation of the report. It should contain all those works which the researcher has consulted. 6. Writing the final Draft: The final draft should be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language, avoiding vague expressions. Also the researcher must avoid abstract terminology and technical words. 23/6/2016 10Precations for writing Research Reports.
  11. 11. Selecting the topic Planning the paper Developing the statement of purpose Gathering the Information Connecting your thoughts 23/6/2016 11Precations for writing Research Reports.
  12. 12. Research report is divided into three parts as: I. First Part (Formality Part): (i) Cover page (ii) Title page (iii) Certificate or statement (iv) Index (brief contents) (v) Table of contents (detailed index) (vi) Acknowledgement (vii) List of tables and figures used (viii) Preface/forwarding/introduction (ix) Summary report 23/6/2016 12Precations for writing Research Reports.
  13. 13. II. Main Report (Central Part of Report): (i) Statement of objectives (ii) Methodology and research design (iii) Types of data and its sources (iv) Sampling decisions (v) Data collection methods (vi) Data collection tools (vii) Fieldwork (viii) Analysis and interpretation (including tables, charts, figures, etc.) (ix) Findings (x) Limitations (xi) Conclusions and recommendations (xii) Any other relevant detail 23/6/2016 13Precations for writing Research Reports.
  14. 14. III. Appendix (Additional Details): (i) Copies of forms used (ii) Tables not included in findings (iii) A copy of questionnaire (iv) Detail of sampling and rate of response (v) Statement of expenses (vi) Bibliography – list of books, magazines, journals, and other reports (vii) Any other relevant information 23/6/2016 14Precations for writing Research Reports.
  15. 15. Key Considerations/Factors: While preparing research report, following issues must be considered: (i) Objectives (ii) Type of problem/subject (iii) Nature and type of research (iv) Audience or users of research work (v) Size of report (vi) Form of writing – handwritten, typed, or computerized. (vii) Time and cost 23/6/2016 15Precations for writing Research Reports.
  16. 16. (viii) Language (ix) Contents of report (x) Order of contents (xi) Number of copies (xii) Format – type and size of paper; lengths width, and depth of report; and pattern of writing including paragraph, indent, numbering, font size and type, colouring, etc. (xiii) Binding (for soft, and, particularly, for hard copy) – type, quality of material, colour, etc., related issues. 23/6/2016 16Precations for writing Research Reports.
  17. 17.  The research report should be long enough to cover the subjects but short enough to maintain the interest.  The report should not be dull, it should sustain the reader’s interest.  The report should possess the features of simplicity and avoiding vagueness.  Readers of the report are more interested in acquiring a quick knowledge of the main findings and the report should provide a ready availability of the findings with the help of charts, graphs and statistical tables.  Charts  Translate numerical information into visual form so that relationships may be easily grasped.  Chart elements:  Figure number  Title  Explanatory legends  Source and footnotes 23/6/2016 17Precations for writing Research Reports.
  18. 18.  Using tables effectively  Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or emphasize a message  Should always be interpreted in the text. Creating tables  Numerical information  Table number  Title  Footnotes and source notes 23/6/2016 18Precations for writing Research Reports.
  19. 19.  Abstract terminology and technical language should be avoided in a research report.  The report must provide a readily availability of the findings.  The layout of the report must be in accordance with the objectives of the research problem.  The report should be original in nature 23/6/2016 19Precations for writing Research Reports.
  20. 20.  The contents of the report should be well thought out keeping in view the objective of the research problem.  The grammatical mistakes should be avoided and the report should be prepared strictly in accordance with the techniques of composition of report. Writing such as the use of quotations, foot notes, proper punctuations and the use of abbreviations in the foot notes etc.  Logical analysis should be the very basis of preparing a research report.  The report should also suggest the policy implication relating to the problem under consideration and should help us in future forecasting.  All the technical data should be appended in the report.  A list of bibliography of various sources consulted for the research study should be prepared and be given in the report. 23/6/2016 20Precations for writing Research Reports.
  21. 21.  A good report should also possess an index of subjects and authors as well. It should be appended at the end of the report.  Report should be attractive in shape, neat and clean whether typed or printed.  Calculated confidence limits must also be mentioned in the report and the various limitations experienced by the researcher in his study should be stated in the report.  A good report should also mention the objective of the study the nature of the problem the methods and analysis techniques used. All these things should be given in the form of introduction in the report. 23/6/2016 21Precations for writing Research Reports.
  22. 22.  Appendices should be properly listed in all respect in order to avoid any confusions.  Bibliography of sources of consulted is a must and it should be very carefully and chronologically arranged.  The objective of the study, the nature of the problem, the methods employed and the analysis techniques adopted must all be clearly stated in the beginning of the report in the form of introduction.  The limitations related to the study must also be clearly indicated in the research report. 23/6/2016 22Precations for writing Research Reports.
  23. 23.  In spite of all has been stated above ,one should always keep in view the fact report-writing is an art which is learnt by practise and experience , rather than by mere doctrination. 23/6/2016 23Precations for writing Research Reports.
  24. 24. [1]research methodology :methods and techniques by C.R.Kothari [2] [3] [4] Research-Report [5] er_7.pdf 23/6/2016 24Precations for writing Research Reports.
  25. 25. 23/6/201 6 25Precations for writing Research Reports.