Disaster Recent


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Disaster Recent

  1. 1. NIT PATNA
  2. 2. DISASTER MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Presented by : </li></ul><ul><li>Uttam Kumar (304/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Pankaj Kumar (305/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Rupasha Rani (306/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Sujeet Kumar (308/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Rahul Kumar (309/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Mukesh Kumar (310/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Ranjeet Rana (311/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Pradeep Kumar (312/08) </li></ul><ul><li>Raman Kumar (313/08) </li></ul>
  3. 3. DISASTER Disaster is a hazard causing heavy loss of life , property and livelihood. Features of disaster 1.Unpredictability 2.Unfamiliarity 3.Speed 4.Urgency 5.Uncertainity 6.Threat
  4. 4. Types of disaster <ul><li>Natural disaster </li></ul><ul><li>1.Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>2.Flood </li></ul><ul><li>3.Cyclone </li></ul><ul><li>4.Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Manmade disaster </li></ul><ul><li>1.Nuclear hazards </li></ul><ul><li>2.Traffic accidents </li></ul><ul><li>3.Biological and chemical warfare </li></ul><ul><li>4.Environmental pollution </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effects of disaster <ul><li>1.Destruction of natural resources life and property </li></ul><ul><li>2.Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>3.Ecosystem disruption </li></ul>
  7. 7. Disaster Management Risk Management Crisis management Preparedness Prevention Mitigation Disaster Relief And response Recovery Reconstruction An rehabilitation Development
  8. 8. Components of disaster management (Components strategies aimed at initiative) Preparedness Relief And Response Recovery And Rehabilitation Prevention And Mitigation Community Initiative
  9. 9. HAZARD- occurrence of an earthquake of sufficient Magnitude (hence: Intensity at the epicenter) capable of causing damage to the man-made structures.  Seismic Risk = f ( Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, Location ). EXPOSURE - Objects and structures built by man which are exposed to the effects of the ` hazard ‘: buildings, bridges, dams, power plant, life-line structure, etc. VULNERABILITY - Damageability of the ` exposure ' under the action of the hazard; weaker ones being more vulnerable and `risky' than the stronger ones. LOCATION - (i) How far the `exposure' is situated from the Hazard location the nearer ones being in greater danger than those far away, and (ii) Local site conditions which can modify the hazard and/or affect the stability of the exposure, such as topography, soil deposit, water table, etc.
  10. 11. Mechanism of Changing Climatic Pattern Leading to Disaster <ul><li>It is believed that the additional warming will change the distribution of heat and thus the flow of energy through the climate system. This will, in turn, alter the circulation patterns of the atmosphere and the oceans, and it will also modify the hydrological cycle by which water is circulated between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. As a result,the position of many of the world’s major storm tracks could shift significantly. Secondly, it is expected that a warmer climate would affect the physical processes that generate different types of extreme weather events. A virtually certain outcome of a rise in global temperature is a widespread increase in the amount of water that is moved through the hydrological cycle. Consequently, more moisture will be available in the atmosphere to fall as rain or snow. General circulation models indicate that a warmer </li></ul>
  11. 12. atmosphere will increase the amount of moisture transported into the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere . These models also suggest that the additional precipitation will likely occur in heavier falls rather than in more snow or rain The main concerns about increased flooding result from the fact that a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture, and precipitation is expected to increase as a result. As well, the precipitation is expected to become more intense over smaller areas , which suggests greater flooding problems especially in smaller catchment areas. Conversely, regarding droughts, the concern is that with an increase in heavier rainfall events, the number of dry days between events may increase and drought will become more severe.
  12. 13. Fig 1:Storms per winter Fig 2:Indicator of ENSO intensity (El Nino Southern Oscillation )
  13. 14. Earthquake <ul><li>Energetic condition of our planet </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden onset hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Typical effect </li></ul><ul><li>1.Panic </li></ul><ul><li>2.Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>3.Public health </li></ul><ul><li>4.Civic services and conveyances </li></ul><ul><li>5.Disruption of economic activities </li></ul><ul><li>6.Fire </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Hazard assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic evaluation of various mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Development of coordinated and integrated approach </li></ul><ul><li>Desirability and applicability of such strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory of mitigation measure </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude assessment of earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness and education </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of various lifelines </li></ul><ul><li>Building by laws and codes </li></ul>
  15. 17. Floods <ul><li>Typical effect </li></ul><ul><li>1.Panic </li></ul><ul><li>2.Disease </li></ul><ul><li>3.Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>4.Soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard assessment </li></ul><ul><li>1.Damage </li></ul><ul><li>2.Loss of lives </li></ul><ul><li>3.Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Straightening of channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dikes and levees </li></ul><ul><li>Flood proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing platforms and elevations </li></ul>
  16. 19. Cyclones <ul><li>Cyclone is an atmospheric condition generally called storms </li></ul><ul><li>An environmental hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Typical effects </li></ul><ul><li>1.Shipping hazards </li></ul><ul><li>2.Life and property </li></ul><ul><li>3.Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>4.Public health </li></ul><ul><li>5.essential services </li></ul><ul><li>6.Transport and communication </li></ul><ul><li>7.Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclone proof structures </li></ul><ul><li>Plant shelter belts </li></ul><ul><li>Other strategies </li></ul>
  17. 21. DROUGHT <ul><li>Drought is a weather hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Slow onset disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Typical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Famine condition </li></ul><ul><li>Acute drinking water crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation cover </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply augmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood planning </li></ul>
  18. 23. MAN-MADE DISASTER <ul><li>FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>EPIDEMICS </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEAR HAZARDS </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION BOMB </li></ul><ul><li>TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS </li></ul>
  19. 24. FIRE <ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Protective clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Basic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Safety precaution </li></ul>
  20. 25. UPHAAR TRAGEDY <ul><li>13 JUNE 1997 – MATINEE SHOW </li></ul><ul><li>59 PEOPLE DIED </li></ul>
  21. 26. CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS <ul><li>Typical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to building </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Legal liability framework </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Land use planning </li></ul><ul><li>Community preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation of industries </li></ul>
  22. 27. Nuclear Disaster <ul><li>Worst man made disaster because of uncontrolled nuclear reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Hiroshima and nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>Was worst affected </li></ul>
  23. 28. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY <ul><li>2-3 December 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Cause by methyl isocyanate </li></ul><ul><li>2000 people died </li></ul>
  24. 30. EPIDEMICS <ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Safe use principles </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination between health personnel , civic officials , administrative units an hospital staffs </li></ul><ul><li>Control system </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel protection training </li></ul>
  25. 31. SWINE FLU <ul><li>Caused by H1N1 virus </li></ul><ul><li>Tamiflu is choice of drug which is variably effective </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine is under production </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples died till date 3205 </li></ul>
  26. 32. POPULATION BOMB <ul><li>Typical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem disruption </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Social class and education improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples change behaviour towards marriage and families </li></ul>
  28. 34. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS <ul><ul><ul><li>Main mitigation strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcing legal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Legal speed limits </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic rules </li></ul>
  29. 35. Pre Disaster Preventive Measures Long-term measures • Re-framing buildings' codes, guidelines, manuals and byelaws and their strict implementation. Tougher legislation for highly seismic areas. • Incorporating earthquake resistant features in all buildings at high-risk areas. • Making all public utilities like water supply systems, communication networks , electricity lines etc. earthquake-proof. Creating alternative arrangements to reduce damages to infrastructure facilities. • Constructing earthquake-resistant community buildings and buildings (used to gather large groups during or after an earthquake) like schools, dharamshalas , hospitals, prayer halls, etc., especially in seismic zones of moderate to higher intensities. . • Evolving educational curricula in architecture and engineering institutions and technical training in polytechnics and schools to include disaster related topics. Medium term measures • Retrofitting of weak structures in highly seismic zones. • Preparation of disaster related literature in local languages with dos and don'ts for construction. • Getting communities involved in the process of disaster mitigation through education and awareness. • Networking of local NGOs working in the area of disaster management .
  30. 36. POST-DISASTER PREVENTIVE MEASURES <ul><li>• Maintenance of law and order, prevention of trespassing, looting etc. </li></ul><ul><li>• Evacuation of people. </li></ul><ul><li>• Recovery of dead bodies and their disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>• Medical care for the injured. </li></ul><ul><li>• Supply of food and drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>• Temporary shelters like tents, metal sheds etc. </li></ul><ul><li>• Repairing lines of communication and information. </li></ul><ul><li>• Restoring transport routes. </li></ul><ul><li>• Quick assessment of destruction and demarcation of destroyed areas, according to the grade of damage. </li></ul><ul><li>• Cordoning off severely damaged structures that are liable to collapse during aftershocks. </li></ul><ul><li>* The following efforts will be useful for preparedness : </li></ul><ul><li>• Train communities in high-risk areas in post-disaster search, rescue and relief. </li></ul><ul><li>• Practice an extensive programme of mass drills in high-risk areas for earthquake damage reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>• Train local NGOs and strengthen their capacity and capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>• Inculcate basic know-how amongst school kids on earthquake dos and donts along with safety drills. </li></ul><ul><li>• Train field personnel in the science and art of carrying out post disaster damage surveys, for (a) urgent relief purposes and (b) for repair, reconstruction and retrofitting </li></ul>
  31. 37. THANK YOU