Introduction Types of Disasters Man-made Disasters Natural Disasters Phases in Disaster Management Mitigation Response Recovery International Organizations Red Cross/Red Crescent United Nations Image zone
• Disaster management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, an d communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards.
• Man Made Disasters – Some types of Man- Made disasters• Natural Disasters – Disaster prone areas in India – Some Natural Disasters and how to reduce their intensity
• Man-made hazards are threats having an element of human intent, negligence, er ror or involving a failure of a system. Man-made disasters are a result of inadequately managed resource.
• With the advancement of scientific research in the world, several countries have acquired the technology to produce Nuclear Arms, which are more destructive and harmful than the atom bomb used more than half a century ago.
• Chemical Disasters are caused by industrial accidents, irresponsible handling of hazardous chemicals, or by their deliberate use for destruction. Poisonous gases can cause wide spread devastation because of their nature: • They spread easily • Effect large areas
• A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e.g. tsunami, earthquake) which moves from potential into an active phase, and as a result affects human activities.
• Earthquake – Earthquakes– How to reduce its Effect • Tsunami – Tsunami– How to reduce its Effect • Floods – Floods– How to reduce its Effect • Drought – Drought– How to reduce its Effect • Cyclones – Cyclones– How to reduce its effect
– An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. At the Earths surface, earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes tsunamis.
• Do not Panic any-time• Help Survivors quickly• Retrofitting of Buildings should be done regularly• If in school, hide under desk’s.• Avoid using lift & staircase• Move away from Window• If Outdoor or Driving, move to an open area with no trees, building, electric wires etc.• If in Stadium, Theatre or Auditorium stay inside.• Cover your head with your arms.
– A tsunami is a wave of water caused by the displacement of a body of water. Tsunami can be caused by undersea earthquakes.– Meteotsunamis are caused by meteorological phenomena.– A megatsunami is an informal term used to describe very large tsunamis. They are a highly local effect, either occurring on shores extremely close to the origin of a tsunami, or in deep, narrow inlets.
• Provide for Emergency Housing.• Emergency repairs to homes, drains and water supply and sanitation infrastructure.• Early warning systems to identify health effects.
– Prolonged rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from excess precipitation upstream and cause widespread damage to areas downstream, or less frequently the bursting of man- made dams or levees.
• Provide for Emergency Housing• Emergency repairs to homes, drains and water supply and sanitation infrastructure• Early warning systems to identify health effects
– An abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environmental water needs.– Extended droughts can result in deaths by starvation or disease, and can result
• Create Rain Water Harvesting System• Promote Watershed Programmes• Increasing Forest cover• Using Alternative crops in drought
– Hurricane, tropical cyclone, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon: a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans.– It is caused by evaporated water that comes off of the ocean and becomes a storm. The Coriolis Effect causes the storms to spin, and a hurricane is declared when this spinning mass of storms attains a wind speed greater than 74 mph.
• Create effective Cyclone early warning system linked to weather satellites• Provide rapid evacuation facilities.• Provide Emergency Housing, Medical and Sanitation facilities.
• The nature of Disaster management is highly dependent on economic and social conditions local to the emergency, or disaster. This is particularly important in developing nations• The process of emergency management involves three phases: mitigation, response, and recovery.
• Mitigation is to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur.• The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.• The implementation of mitigation strategies can be considered a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs.
• The response phase includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area.• This is likely to include a first wave of core emergency services, such as firefighters, police and ambulance crews.• They may be supported by a number of secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams.
• The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed.• Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re- employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure.
• National Red Cross/Red Crescent societies often have pivotal roles in responding to emergencies.• Additionally, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC, or "The Federation") may deploy assessment teams to the affected country.• They specialize in the recovery component of the emergency management framework.
United Nations• Within the United Nations system responsibility for emergency response rests with the Resident Coordinator within the affected country. However, in practice international response will be coordinated, if requested by the affected country’s government, by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN- OCHA), by deploying a UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team.