Human Response To Earthquake


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  • @flowerdaisyrose I think its a natural cause. I agree with you that we can't predict when an earthquake will happen because we don't have the technology to predict the precise moment that it will, we only have equipment that can tell us where its likely to hit and around what month in a year. I don't think it's in Gods hands because if it was then why would he let this happen?
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  • earthquakes are life changing experiences the ruin lives i think nobody can predict earthquakes and its all in gods hands what do you think???
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  • Human Response To Earthquake

    1. 1. Tectonic processes Human response to the earthquake hazard 1. Be able to understand that the level of risk posed to humans depends upon the likelihood of earthquake occurrence and a society’s vulnerability. 2. Describe and explain the responses to earthquakes. This should include earthquake monitoring, prediction, preparedness and short- and long-term reactions. 3. Give a comparative study of two specific earthquake events from countries with contrasting levels of economic development. San Francisco
    2. 2. Responses to hazards <ul><li>Response to a hazard can be made on different levels , both collective and individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses depend on how the hazard is perceived and this depends on factors such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values, personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responses are affected by economic factors and levels of technology. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Classification of ways in which hazards are perceived: <ul><li>Fatalism – acceptance that hazards are natural events. Losses are accepted as inevitable and people remain in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation – people see that they can prepare for and therefore survive a hazard event by prediction, prevention and /or protection depending on the type of hazard and the economical and technological capabilities of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Fear – people feel vulnerable to the event and so move to regions perceived to be unaffected by the hazard. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Management of hazards takes a number of forms: Prediction It is possible to give warnings of some hazards and action can therefore be taken to reduce their impact. Improved monitoring, information and communications technology have made prediction and issuing of warnings more useful. Prevention Unrealistic for most hazards. The best that can be achieved is through control – modifying the environment Protection Aim – to protect people and property from the impact of the hazard Insuring against losses Supply of aid
    5. 5. Effects on people and the built environment <ul><li>Collapsed buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of road and rail transport systems </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of service provision – gas, water, electricity, telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption to the local economy </li></ul><ul><li>Death, injury, disease </li></ul><ul><li>Some effects will be short term , others long term </li></ul><ul><li>Effects depend to a large extent on the ability of the </li></ul><ul><li>area to recover </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The severity of an earthquake and its human impact depend upon the interaction of a number of variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the epicentre </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of the focus </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation material </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul><ul><li>Human factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Building style and land use </li></ul><ul><li>How people react during and just after the earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Community preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency and relief services – efficiency and organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social structures and conditions for preparedness, education and ability to recover </li></ul>Ross p.43
    7. 7. Earthquake management Prediction Prevention Protection Hazard resistant structures education Fire prevention Emergency services Land use planning Insurance / aid Ground water level monitoring Radon gas Monitoring fault lines Magnetic fields Animal behaviour
    8. 8. 1. Prediction <ul><li>Prediction is very difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Regions at risk can be identified through plate tectonics </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to predict earthquakes are unreliable – methods include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring groundwater levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release of radon gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusual animal behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local magnetic fields </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Diagram 2.33 Ross </li></ul>
    10. 10. Task… <ul><li>In pairs - </li></ul><ul><li>Choose four methods of earthquake monitoring shown in the diagram. For each one, discuss what it is measuring. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: complete a table: </li></ul>Ross pg 48 Why? / how? What is being measured
    11. 12. Mapping <ul><li>Areas can be mapped from geological information and studies of ground stability. These can help predict the impact of earthquakes and be used to produce a hazard zone map. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies along fault lines can indicate where the next earthquake might be. </li></ul>
    12. 13. 2. Prevention <ul><li>Trying to prevent an earthquake is impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than plates sticking and then releasing giving rise to an earthquake, studies have considered lubricating the fault using water and oil </li></ul>
    13. 14. 3. Protection <ul><li>Being prepared for an earthquake involves everyone from civil authorities to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Emergency Management Agency’s earthquake programme has the following objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To promote understanding of earthquakes and their effects </li></ul><ul><li>To work better to identify earthquake risk </li></ul><ul><li>To improve earthquake-resistant design and construction techniques </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage the use of earthquake safe policies and planning practices </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Protection means preparing for the event by: </li></ul><ul><li>modifying human and built environments to decrease vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the loss by insurance and aid </li></ul>
    15. 16. 3a.Hazard resistant structures <ul><li>No building is completely earthquake proof but some buildings are very dangerous. Buildings which are top heavy or made of mud, wattle and wood are liable to collapse during minor earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality concrete can also increase the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden buildings withstand earthquakes quite well although they are more vulnerable to secondary hazard of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings can be designed to be earthquake resistant: </li></ul><ul><li>Putting a large concrete weight on the top of a building which will move with the aid of a computer programme in the opposite direction to the force of the earthquake to counteract stress </li></ul><ul><li>Building large rubber shock absorbers into the foundations to allow some movement in the building </li></ul><ul><li>Adding cross bracing to the structure to hold it together when it shakes </li></ul>
    16. 17. How to design buildings to withstand earthquakes Source: Independent 20 January 1995 Bishop pg 48
    17. 19. <ul><li>1989 Loma Prierta earthquake California (7.1 Richter) </li></ul><ul><li>1988 Armenia (6.9 Richter) </li></ul><ul><li>In California with its earthquake proof buildings there were only 63 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>In Armenia more than 25, 000 people died, many inside buildings that collapsed as a result of soft foundations and no earthquake proofing features </li></ul><ul><li>In Leninakan, over 90% of the modern 9 – 12 storey buildings with pre-cast concrete frames were destroyed </li></ul>
    18. 20. 25,000 people killed, 19,000 injured and 500,000 homeless in the Leninakan-Spitak-Kirovakan area of northern Armenia, USSR. More than 20 towns and 342 villages were affected and 58 of them were completely destroyed USGS.
    19. 21. Identify 2 measures aimed at reducing the direct effect of shockwaves on buildings
    20. 22. <ul><li>Suggest the purpose of the buildings birdcage interlocking steel frame </li></ul><ul><li>Why should heavy objects and panels of marble and glass be firmly anchored to a buildings super structure? </li></ul><ul><li>How can bridges be made to withstand an earthquake more effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of provisions should be available as emergency supplies following an earthquake? </li></ul>Work in pairs to answer the following:
    21. 23. 3b. Education <ul><li>Education is essential to minimise loss of life </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions issued by the authorities explain how to prepare for and earthquake by securing homes, appliances and heavy furniture and producing earthquake kits </li></ul><ul><li>Schools, offices and factories may have earthquake ‘drills’ </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. University of California San Diego </li></ul><ul><li>Government offices and many companies in Japan observe Disaster Prevention Day (1 st September) </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>American Red Cross issued a list of supplies that people should keep at hand in case of an earthquake: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water (3days supply) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A whole range of foodstuffs, particularly canned and high energy foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing and bedding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First aid kit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools and supplies to include radio, torch, batteries, can opener, matches, toilet paper, small fire extinguisher, pliers, aluminium foil </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>‘ smart metres’ have been developed which can cut off the gas f an earthquake of sufficient magnitude occurs </li></ul>3c. Fire prevention Use of emergency services during an earthquake needs careful organisation and planning 3d. Emergency Services
    24. 26. <ul><li>People and buildings are allowed in certain areas but restricted in others. In areas that are known to be at a significant risk from a hazard such as a flood or an earthquake, local authorities may refuse planning permission for the development. </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas are more at risk to damage – e.g. areas of sand and silt are prone to liquefaction </li></ul>3e.Land use zoning
    25. 27. Planning <ul><li>In California – there is a ban on new big buildings within 40m of a known fault </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and hospitals should be built in areas of low risk. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to have sufficient open space as this forms a safe area away from fires and aftershock damage to buildings The importance of public open space was shown as it provides safe areas for people away from fires and aftershock damage to buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Major city service buildings should not be concentrated together in order to reduce the chances of total collapse of these services. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning on a national level: </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990 the Japanese government passed a resolution to transfer some of Tokyo’s political and administrative functions to other areas, such as the less seismically active north of Honshu. Seismologists expect an earthquake to strike Tokyo in next 40 years – if it were a high magnitude event the national economy, administrative and political systems would collapse. This would have major impacts inside Japan and affect the whole global economy. </li></ul>
    26. 28. 3f. Insurance <ul><li>Insurance companies are concerned with hazards especially as increasing numbers of people are living in hazardous areas. </li></ul><ul><li>In MEDCs people are urged to take out insurance to cover their loses which can be expensive for individuals. Only 7% of people affected by Kobe earthquake (1995) were covered by earthquake insurance </li></ul>
    27. 29. 3f. Aid <ul><li>Most aid to LEDCs has been emergency aid in the few days after the event providing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water purification equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and rescue equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aid over the longer term to reconstruct the built environment and redevelop the economy is much less readily available </li></ul>
    28. 30. Give a comparative study of two specific earthquake events from countries with contrasting levels of economic development. <ul><li>MEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>Loma Prieta – Bishop pg 52 – 53 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan – Kobe Bishop pg 55 – 58 </li></ul><ul><li>LEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey 1999 Ross pg 44 – 46 </li></ul><ul><li>Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>Bam </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Sichuan Province China </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul>Compare means similarities and differences
    29. 31. Book references <ul><li>Bishop 43 – 58 </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Geography, Nagle pg 21 – 23 </li></ul><ul><li>AQA Advanced Geography, Barker, Redfern, Skinner pg 281 - 287 </li></ul>
    30. 32. Exam questions
    31. 33. May 05
    32. 34. <ul><ul><li>Study the map which shows areas of seismic potential. May 05 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(i) Identify the distribution pattern of areas with the greatest potential for a major earthquake (highest seismic potential). [2 marks] </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Explain why a major earthquake is more likely in these areas as opposed to other areas on the map. [5 marks] </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Analyse why major earthquakes of similar magnitude may have different effects in terms of property damage. [5 marks] </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Using examples, examine why people live in areas of high seismic potential. [8 marks] </li></ul>
    33. 35. Using examples, examine why people live in areas of high seismic potential. [8 marks] <ul><li>The following factors may be included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• the fact that an earthquake has not happened in living memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• lack of awareness of the earthquake hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• consideration that the benefits outweigh the risks (climate/resources/landscape) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• lack of choice in or the inability to move (financial, health, age reasons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• inertia – lack of will to move due to family ties or investment in property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• fatalism – earthquakes are the will of God. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answers must refer to at least two relevant examples. </li></ul><ul><li>If no examples are used, up to [5 marks] may be awarded. </li></ul><ul><li>No credit may be given for the negative side of living in such an area. </li></ul><ul><li>For the valid inclusion of the advantages of volcanic activity, a link must be made </li></ul><ul><li>between seismic activity and vulcanicity . </li></ul>
    34. 36. <ul><li>One mark for identifying that almost all areas of highest potential lie along destructive plate margins (California is an exception). </li></ul><ul><li>One mark is awarded for any other relevant statement that describes the pattern such as location around the Pacific Rim (Ring of Fire), or the fact that all areas have coastal locations or exceptions to the general pattern such as locations outside the Pacific Rim (Sumatra and the Caribbean) </li></ul>Identify the distribution pattern of areas with the greatest potential for a major earthquake (highest seismic potential). [2 marks]
    35. 37. Explain why a major earthquake is more likely in these areas as opposed to other areas on the map. [5 marks] <ul><li>Answers should explain why earthquakes are more likely near major plate boundaries and less likely away from plate boundaries (intra-plate areas). </li></ul><ul><li>An explanation should be given as to why earthquakes are especially likely where plates are colliding along destructive margins or at conservative boundaries such as in California. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons should be given for high seismic potential in areas that have not experienced an earthquake for a long period due to the build up of tension and lower potential in areas that have had more recent earthquakes (due to release of tension). </li></ul>
    36. 38. (iii) Analyse why major earthquakes of similar magnitude may have different effects in terms of property damage. [5 marks] <ul><li>The following factors could be included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• occurrence in an area where no property exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• the solid geology of the area in terms of the stability of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• susceptibility to liquefaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• value of structures and material possessions (Compare LEDC and MEDC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• type of building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• the matching of seismic wave and building resonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• the duration of the shaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• the provision of emergency services in limiting damage from secondary hazards e.g. fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• investment in aseismic structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• the awareness of the population in terms of protecting possessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answers should not just list these factors but also analyse them. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of the above need to be included for full marks. Answers may analyse a small </li></ul><ul><li>range of factors in detail or a wider range of factors in less depth. </li></ul>
    37. 39. Essay questions <ul><li>May 08 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Volcanic eruptions are easier to predict but more difficult to respond to than earthquakes”. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss this statement, with reference to examples. [20 marks] </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 05 </li></ul><ul><li>Using examples, examine the long-term socio-economic and environmental consequences of earthquake and volcanic activity. [20 marks] </li></ul>
    38. 40. <ul><li>Nov 05 </li></ul><ul><li>The best responses will acknowledge the key terms in the title. </li></ul><ul><li>These include “long-term” meaning several weeks to several years after the event, and “socioeconomic and environmental consequences”, which should be clearly differentiated. Long-term negative consequences can be common to both hazards and include: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal / socio-economic – loss of livelihood, home, possessions, bereavement. </li></ul><ul><li>National / economic – loss of revenue, cost of reconstruction and mitigation strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental – loss of wild-life and habitats and atmospheric cooling by volcanic dust. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term positive consequences are limited to volcanic activity and include: </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soil, building materials (ignimbrite and granite), minerals, geothermal energy and tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive consequences of earthquakes are insignificant. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates accessing the top markbands should present a logical sequence of ideas covering a range of consequences including positive and negative, socio-economic and environmental. They should refer to consequences on a range of scales in space (local to global) and time (weeks to years). They should also support their answers with clearly located and relevant case studies. At best, they should draw conclusions, which might focus on the relative severity </li></ul><ul><li>of earthquake and volcanic impacts or the relative vulnerability of societies who experience the effects. Responses that omit examples may not move beyond band E and responses that generalize or simply describe the consequences with limited examination may not move beyond band F. No credit should be given for immediate effects such as ground shaking and building collapse or lava flows. </li></ul>
    39. 41. <ul><li>May 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates may choose to agree or disagree with this statement. Answers should examine the relative predictability of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and should include some of the techniques used to monitor both hazards. Distinctions should be drawn between the more reliable and more easily measurable precursors such as volcanic earthquakes, changes in gas emissions, swelling of the sides of the volcano, changes to the magma chamber and minor eruptions and the much less reliable and more difficult to understand precursors of earthquakes, such as animal behaviour, radon emissions, low frequency radio waves, electromagnetic abnormalities. Answers should also examine the different human responses to each hazard and draw conclusions regarding the relative effectiveness of measures taken to mitigate the effects of earthquakes and volcanoes through strategies such as monitoring, engineering solutions, warnings, evacuation and preparedness. Answers that only cover either prediction or response should not move above band D. Answers that offer explicit discussion are likely to be credited at bands E/F. </li></ul>
    40. 42. Other websites of interest.. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami warning: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard alert </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>