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  3. 3.  DEFINITION: A TSUNAMI is a series of water waves caused by thedisplacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a largelake. GENERATION MECHANISM (CAUSE) OFTSUNAMI.• The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of asubstantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. SEISMICITY LANDSLIDES. METEOTSUNAMI6/17/20133
  4. 4.  Travel at speeds of up to 400-500 miles per hour In deep waters, tsunamis are low and wide, often less than three feet high As much as 95 miles between the crest of one wave and the next. Can reach up to heights of 100 feet or more and crash inland. When the wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases. While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres(330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has awavelength of about 200 kilometres (120 mi).6/17/20134CHARACTERISTICS OF A TSUNAMI.
  5. 5. IMPACTS OF TSUNAMI HUMANITARIAN: It has been reported that severedamage has been inflicted on ecosystems suchas mangroves, coral reefs, forests, coastal wetlands,vegetation, sand dunes and rock formations, animal andplant biodiversity and groundwater. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: It has been reportedthat severe damage has been inflicted on ecosystems suchas mangroves, coral reefs, forests, coastal wetlands,vegetation, sand dunes and rock formations, animal andplant biodiversity and groundwater. ECONOMICAL IMPACT: The two main occupationsaffected by the tsunami were fishing and tourism. Theimpact on coastal fishing communities and the people livingthere, some of the poorest in the region6/17/20135
  7. 7. 6/17/20137
  9. 9. TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIA The earthquake and resulting tsunami in the Indian Oceanon December 26th, 2004 had a devastating effect on India.According to the Indian government, almost 11,000 peopledied in the tsunami and over 5,000 are missing and feareddead (Ministry of Home Affairs). Along Indias southeastern coast, several villages wereswept away, and thousands of fishermen at sea weremissing. India mainland, hardest hit was the state of Tamil Nadu.The southern peninsular region comprising Kerala and partof Tamil Nadu on the west coast and the rest of TamilNadu. The 9.0 magnitude (for 5 minutes) quake created a seriesof tsunamis that caused great destruction and loss of lifethroughout the Indian Ocean basin, within several hours ofthe initial event.6/17/20139
  10. 10. AREAS EFFECTED BY TSUNAMI 2004 IN INDIA ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS:The tsunami hit hard the Andaman andNicobar group which comprises of a total of 572 islands of which 38 were significantlyinhabited.The waves literally washed away some of these islands. KERALA:The tsunami killed many people (official toll 168) and caused extensivedestruction particularly at Kollam (131 dead), Alappuzha (32) and Ernakulam (5) were alsoaffected. PONDICHERRY:In the Union territory of Pondicherry, the affected districts werePondicherry (107 dead), Karaikal (453 dead). The latest official toll was 560. An estimated30,000 people were rendered homeless . TAMIL NADU:The overall death toll in the state was 7,793. The Nagapattinam district had5,525 casualties. The latest reported death toll at Velankanni was 1,500. Kanyakumari districthas had 808 deaths, Cuddalore district 599, the state capital Chennai 206 and Kancheepuramdistrict 124. ANDHRA PRADESH:There was significant loss of life and destruction. The affecteddistricts were Krishna, Prakasam, Nellore, Guntur, West Godavari and East Godavari.6/17/201310
  11. 11. SOURCE:map of india.com6/17/201311
  12. 12. DETAILS OF IMPACT OF THE TSUNAMIS OF 26TH DECEMBER, 2004 -ON THE MAIN LAND ST ATESDetails Andhra Pradesh Kerala Tamil Nadu Pondicherry TotalCoastal lengthaffected in km985 250 1000 25 2260Percentage ofwater into mainland0.50-2.0 1-2 1-1.5 0.30-3.0 -Average heightof the tidal wave5 Mtrs 3-5 Mtrs 7-10 Mtrs 10 Mtrs -No. of villagesaffected301 187 373 33 894Populationaffected(in lakh)2.11 24.70 8.85 0.43 36.09Dwelling units 1557 17381 124227 10061 153226Cattle lost 195 NR 5477 506 6178Cropped area(Ha)790 NR 2589 792 4171 Tsunami impact is more on tamil nadu state when compared toother states.6/17/201312
  13. 13. LOCAL BODIES AND AGENCIES ARE SEEKINGPUBLIC HELPAND CONTRIBUTIONS Indian Prime Ministers National Relief Fund The Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has issued an appeal for contributions. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies donation International Committee of the Red Cross donation page The Hindu Relief Fund Tamil Nadu Chief Ministers Public Relief Fund NDTVs trust fund A listing of News and information about resources, aid, donations and volunteer efforts bya volunteer team of bloggers. Fresh information can be posted here. A blog of India-related relief efforts Volunteers for India Development and Empowerment requests on-line donations to providefor immediate relief to disaster victims Site run by the South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies (SIFFS)6/17/201313
  14. 14. RESPONSE AND RECOVERYEx GratiaS .no Government Ex Gratia1 Government of India *The prime minister has announced an ex-gratia payment ofRS.100000 to the next of kin of each deceased.*The ex-gratia payment will be made from the primeminister’s national relief fund.2 State Government of Tamil Nadu The chief minister has announced an ex-gratia payment ofRS.100000 to the families of each of the victims.3 State Government of kerala Ex-gratia of RS.50000 to the next kin of those killed.Assistance of RS.10000 for the families of the deceased, tomeet the funeral expenses.4 Union territory of pondicherry *The chief minister N Rangasamy has announced an ex gratiaof RS.100000 to the next of kin of the dead.*The administration would also pay an ex gratia of RS.5000towards funeral expenditure.*For those injured in the disaster, the administration wouldprovide RS.5000.*A sum of RS.10000 to enable the homeless to reconstructhouses.
  15. 15. RECONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE BY AGENCY / INSTITUTIONAGENCY /INSTITUTIONANDHRA PRADESH KERELA TAMIL NADU PONDI CHERRYGovernment Housing and boats Land acquisition, housing, boatsNGOs Housing Housing and boats HousingADB Reconstruction ofports, rural andmunicipalinfrastructure (exceptrural water supply),roads, microenterprisesReconstruction of ports,rural and municipalinfrastructure, micro -enterpriseUN Hazard risk management, health services and primary educationIFAD Livelihoodrehabilitation in affectedcoastal fisheriesWorld Bank Revitalizing affectedfisheries and micro –enterprises,reconstruction of rural& municipalinfrastructureRural Water Supply Reconstruction ofhousing, publicbuildings and highways,and limited support inrestoration ofagriculture, horticulture,animal husbandry andfisheries infrastructureReconstruction ofhousing, fisheriesinfrastructure andrestoration ofagriculture
  16. 16. POLICIES IN INDIANATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT (NPDM) The National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) has been prepared in tune withand in pursuance of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 with a vision to build a safe anddisaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster oriented andtechnology driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness andresponse. The NPDM aims to bring in transparency and accountability in all aspects of disastermanagement through involvement of community, community basedorganizations, Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), local bodies and civil society.THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, 2005 The Act provides for the legal and institutional framework for the effective managementof disasters. The Act mandates creation of new institutions and assignment of specific roles forCentral, State and Local Governments. Under the provisions of the Act, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)has been established under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister and NationalExecutive Committee (NEC) of Secretaries has been created to assist the NDMA in theperformance of its functions6/17/201316
  17. 17. DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR TSUNAMI IN INDIADISASTER:A disaster is any event, natural or man-caused, which creates an intensenegative impact on people, goods and services, and/or the environment, and exceeds theaffected community’s internal capability to respond, prompting the need to seek outsideassistance.DISASTER MANAGEMENT :it can be defined as the organization and management ofresources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, inparticular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. THE COMPRHENESIVE DISASTER MANAGEMENT(CDM) CYCLE6/17/201317
  18. 18. DIASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE6/17/201318ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED PREVENTION Research Institutions (Sponsored Research)Ministry of Earth Science (IMD, DOD, DST)Ministry of Water ResourcesMinistry of Agriculture MITIGATION Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF andother related ministries and departments)State Govt. (Various Departments)District/Local Administration and NGO’s PREPAREDNESS Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF)State Govt.District/Local Administration and NGO’s
  19. 19. DIASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE6/17/201319ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED RESPONSE Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA)State Govt.District/Local Administration and NGO’s RELIEF Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA)State Govt.District/Local Administration and NGO’s REHABILITATION Central Govt. (Integrated efforts ofvarious ministries and departments)State Govt.District/Local Administration and NGO’s RECONSTRUCTION Central Govt. (Integrated efforts ofvarious ministries and departments)State Govt.District/Local Administration and NGO’s LONG TERM RECOVERY Central, State, Local Govt. and NGO’s
  20. 20.  MITIGATION: During the mitigation phase structural and non-structuralmeasures are undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmentaldegradation and technological hazards.STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES Permanent structures strictly according to BIS codes Retrofitting of vulnerable structures for tsunami/cyclone resistance Retrofitting of important buildingsI. Fire stations / police stations/ army structures/ hospitalsII. VIP residences / offices/ railways, airport, etc.III. Schools/collegesIV. Hazardous industriesV. Other critical structures (i.e. power stations, warehouses, oil andother storage tanks etc)6/17/201320MITIGATION MEASURES
  21. 21. MITIGATION MEASURES6/17/201321NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION MEASURES Education Public Awareness Information Risk Communication Training to all concerned(Govt. officials, search and rescueworkers, volunteers, women, children, elderly, local community as a whole) Coastal regulations Zone Act – Strict implementation (nodevelopment within 500 m of the high tide line with elevation of less than 10 mabove m.s.l) Land use Zoning in accordance with CRZ
  22. 22. MITIGATION MEASURES6/17/201322 Natural Bioshields (Mangroves) and shelterbelt plantations (Casuarina) Maintaining Natural Sand dunes Maintaining and promoting beach development
  23. 23. PREPAREDNESS6/17/201323 PREPAREDNESS: Preparedness activities are geared towards minimizingdisaster damage, enhancing disaster response operations and preparing organizations andindividuals to respond. They also involve planning, organizing, training, interaction withother organizations and related agencies, resource inventory, allocation andplacement, and plan testing. TSUNAMI PREPAREDNESS FOR FAR-FIELD AND LOCAL TSUNAMIS MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS.RESPONSE RESPONSE: Actions carried out in a disaster situation with the objective to savelife, alleviate suffering and reduce economic losses. Emergency Tsunami Response. Emergency Search and Rescue. Emergency Relief. Incident Response System. Community-Based Disaster Response.
  24. 24. RESPONSE6/17/201324 Involvement of Corporate Sector. Improving Tsunami Response. Emergency Medical Response. RECOVERY: In the recovery phase, also referred to as therecovery and rehabilitation phase, activities aregeared towards the restoration of basic services andthe beginning of the repair of physical, social andeconomic damage e.g. lifelines, health andcommunication facilities, as well as utility systems.
  25. 25. SPECIFIC MEASURES FOR SAFETY FROMTSUNAMISEFFECT DESIGN SOLUTIONHydrodynamic forces (pushing forces on thefront face building and drag caused by flowaround the building elevate building to avoid design for dynamic water forces on walls&building elements. anchor building to foundation.Debris impact  elevate building to avoid design for impact loadsscour  use deeper foundation. protect against scour and erosion aroundfoundation6/17/201325
  26. 26. SPECIFIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR TSUNAMI Know the Tsunami Risk at the site. Avoid new developments in Tsunami Run-up Areas Site Planning Strategies to reduce Tsunami Risk Tsunami Resistant Buildings – New Developments Protection of existing buildings and infrastructure – Assessment,Retrofit, Protection measures. Special Precautions in locating and designing infrastructure andcritical facilities Planning for Evacuation6/17/201326
  27. 27. TAMIL NADU6/17/201327
  28. 28. YEAR 2004 TSUNAMI AND THE TAMIL NADUCOAST OF INDIA Around 13 coastal districts were affected by the tsunami in the state of TamilNadu. Most, severely were affected Nagapattinam, Cuddalore, Chennai,Kancheepuram and Kanakumari districts (Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 2005). Many casualties were detected in 80 places where pilgrims and tourists flock,such as Velankanni and Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India, and onMarina Beach in Chennai . The damage to the fishing community who inhabit the land closest to the thesefishing communities face the long-term consequences of lost homes, destroyedvillage infrastructure and total loss of livelihood when boats and fishingequipment were lost.6/17/201328
  30. 30. AREAS AFFECTED IN TAMIL NADU COAST The places covered in the map of Tamil Nadu areCoimbatore, Udagamangalam, Nilgiris, Erode, Namakkal, Ariyalur, Nagappattinam, CuddalorePondicherry,Viluppuram, Tiruvannamalai, Dharampuri, Kanchipuram, Vellore, Chennai, Tiruvallur. The massive waves from the December 2004 tsunami crossed the Bay of Bengal atthe speed of up to 500 miles per hour and wreaked havoc on India‘s southern coast.The state of Tamil Nadu was worst hit; Kerala also saw extensive damage. Other statessuch as Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal were affected to a lesser degree. The total number of affected people in Tamil Nadu (including those who died andwere displaced by the disaster) was 52,190 (Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 2005). InKerala, the tsunami killed or displaced 25,149 people6/17/201330
  31. 31. CASE STUDY:NAGAPATTINAM(TAMIL NADU)6/17/201331Nagapattinam district alone accounted for 76 percent ofthe deaths of entire state and was the worst affecteddistrict in India.
  32. 32. 6/17/201332
  33. 33. CASE STUDY: NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT (TAMILNADU) It is one of the coastal districts in TamilNadu. Located between 10 15‘ to 1130‘ N and 79 30‘ to 79 55‘ E, Nagapattinam was carved out of theThanjavur district in 1997. It is bounded by the Bay of Bengal on theeast, the Palk Strait on the South, theTiruvarur and Thanjavur District on theWest, and Northwest and CuddaloreDistrict on the North . This district forms a part of the Cauveryriver basin and delta. The district has acoastline stretching up to 190 km. The total geographical area of the districtis around 3536.38 Sq. km and it stillcontinues to contribute its major share inthe production of rice in Tamil Nadu.6/17/201333
  36. 36. 6/17/201336HISTORICAL PAST OF NAGAPATTINAMDISTRICT A Coastal District having a large coast line of 141 kilometres. This District has anumerous places of historical importance. Nagapattinam is an old Port Town. Nagapattinam is a multi-hazard prone district with heavy winds, cyclones, floods being aregular feature. It has varied experience in handling these disasters but what happened on26th December, 2004 was something beyond expectations. This District is having an area of 2715.83 Sq. Kms in its fold. The District Headquaters isNagapattinam. This district is enveloping 11 Panchayat Unions, 4 Municipalties, 8 TownPanchayats on its Development Side. On the Revenue Side,it is housing 2 Revenuedivisions with 4 and 3 Taluks respectively and 523 revenueVillages.
  37. 37. HISTORY OF NATURAL DISASTERS IN THE PAST FIVE DECADESDate ofoccurrenceCalamity Damages caused30.11.1952 Storm surge in landupto 5 miles400 lives08.12.1967 Cyclone 7 lives lost and 15,000 rendered homeless12.11.1977 Cyclone 560 lives lost and 196 missing. Damages to port, irrigation systems, road, powersupply and communication including large number of houses01.12.1984 Floods due to heavyrainCrops damaged in large scale and normal life affected due to heavy floods15.11.1991 Heavy rainfall Crops damaged04.12.1993 Cyclone speed 188kmph1100 people lost their lives, severe damage to crops29.10.2004 /Nov 2004Floods due to heavyrainCrops damaged, around 12,000 houses damaged26.12.2004 Tsunami (IndianOcean)6065 dead and 1922 injured. 12,821 cattle lost, large number of houses, boats andinfrastructure damaged When compared to other calamites the loss due to tsunami is more.6/17/201337
  38. 38. DISTRICT PROFILERevenue Divisions 2Taluks 8Municipalities 4Panchayat Unions 11Town Panchayats 8Panchayats 434Habitations 2508Coastline 187 KilometersOCCUPATION AND POPULATION OF NAGAPATTINAM TOWN: It is surrounded by a number of ice factories for preserving the fish caught in the sea. The marine catchmainly comprises of leognathics, sharks, flying fish, chank, catfish, prawns, silver bellies, crabs, rays andother varieties. Mechanized boats, catamarans and country canoes are used for fishing. This majorfishing hub was severely destroyed during the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004.POPULATIONArea TotalHouseholdsTotalPopulationMale Female Sex Area PopulationDensityRural 271827 1158557 576010 582547 1011 225.03 520.69Urban 71786 330282 163064 167218 1025 191.97 1720.49Total 343613 1488839 739064 749765 1014 2417.00 615.99
  39. 39. NAGAPATTINAMTHE BLACK SUNDAY In Tamil Nadu, the coastline is 1076 km long, which is twelve percent of entire Indiancoastline and has 13 coastal districts. All these districts were affected due to theTsunami.SCALE OF DAMAGE The tsunami left around 6065 people dead and the entire coastline devastated in thedistrict. Around 73 habitations in 38 Revenue Villages and 5 Taluks were affected. Outof these, 1776 were children (887 male, 889 females) which is approximately6/17/201339
  40. 40.  one-third of the total dead and 2406 were women. The high death toll of childrenand women highlighted the fact that Tsunami had caught people unawares. A possible explanation for the high number of deaths among women was that thetsunami struck at a time when most of them were in the shore receiving their menfolk returning from the sea. Added to this was the fact that it was a day after theChristmas and a Sunday morning, which had a large number of people, enjoyingthe morning breeze.Total Area 2.7 lakh hectaresTotal Population 14.88 lakhsUrban Population 3.3 lakhsRural Population 11.58 lakhsAffected Population 1.96 lakhsFishermen 87 %Agricultural Laborers 5 %Traders 5%Tourists/Pilgrims 3 %6/17/201340
  41. 41. Of 19,736 houses, the construction of 19,019 have been completed & handed over to thebeneficiaries and 717 houses are under various stages of construction.Construction 19,736 permanent houses have been planned for Tsunami victims who losttheir houses in Tsunami. 15,038 houses have been relocated site and 4,698 houses are beingconstructed on in-situ sites.Of 19,736 houses, the constructions of 17,701 houses have been taken up by the 58 NGOsand 2,035 houses have been constructed by Government.2,035 houses have been undertaken by the Government 1,143 houses are built by TsunamiDistrict Implementation Unit in rural areas and 892 houses by Tamil Nadu Slum ClearanceBoard in urban areas.Of 717 houses which are under various stages 409 houses by NGOs will be completedbefore December 2009 and remaining 276 houses by Government will be completed byNovember 2009.CONSTRUCTION OF PERMANENT HOUSES6/17/201341
  42. 42. RELIEF ASSISTANCE TO LOSS OF LIFEEx-gratia relief assistance paid to the legal heirs of 4,987 deceased in Tsunami at the rate of Rs.1.00 lakh from theChief Minister’s Relief Fund and Rs.1.00 lakh from the Prime Minister’s Public Relief Fund. Rs.99.74 croressanctioned to the victims of which 4,230 belong to Nagapattinam District, 517 from other Districts and 240 fromother StatesRs.138.25 crores spent on relief assistance to 2,611 injured persons in Tsunami.Rs.7.00 lakhs spent on recanalisation to 40 women lost their children in Tsunami.Rs.14.00 crores have been paid as a premium under Universal Health Insurance Scheme covering 68 lakhs Tsunamivictims under Insurance coverageRs.170.60 crores have been spent against the sanctioned amount of Rs.170.60 crores on basic amenities on theconstruction sites like internal road, approach road, land filling, electricity connection, streetlights and livelihood.Rs.11.50 crores sanctioned for execution of common sewerage system in urban areas by Tamil Nadu Water Supply& Drainage Board (TWAD). Work is under progress.All the houses in rural areas are built with toilet attached with individual septic tank with leach pit except 1,733houses which were taken up by Government at the cost of Rs.150.41 lakhsAll the houses are insured for 10 years for the sum insured of Rs.69,07,600/-6/17/201342
  43. 43. RECONSTRUCTION OF VULNERABLE HOUSESReconstruction of 87 vulnerable houses within 200 mtrs from HTL in rural areas have been taken upunder Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package for Tsunami Affected Areas. All the houses are handed overto the beneficiaries.Reconstruction of 269 vulnerable houses within 200 mtrs from HTL in urban areas have been taken upunder Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package for Tsunami Affected Areas 255 houses were handed over tothe beneficiaries. 11 houses under progress. 3 houses to be dropped.1985 vulnerable houses have been identified from 200 mtrs to 1000 mtrs of HTL in rural areas which areto be constructed under the assistance of World Bank by Rural Development and Panchayat RajDepartment.THE NUTSHELL OF TSUNAMI RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ACTIVITIES INNAGAPATTINAM:The Office of Prime Minister sanctioned Rs.111.39 crores for Tsunami victims of which Rs.107.19crores have been utilized.Rs.81.13 crores sanctioned from Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package for Tsunami Affected Areas forconstruction of houses and basic amenities of which Rs.78.98 crores have been spent.BSNL sanctioned Rs.26.02 crores for construction of 1,020 permanent houses for Tsunami victims andRs.26.02 crores have been spent.6/17/201343
  44. 44. Rs.148.46 crores have been spent from the Chief Minister’s Public Relief Fund for ex-gratiapayment to Loss of life and injured.Rs.160.70 crores spent against Rs.119.20 crores from the Calamity Relief Fund.Rs.46.67 crores have been spent for immediate restoration like debris clearance, approach road, etc.,by the Government of Tamil Nadu.Rs.6.17 crores have been utilized against Rs.6.25 crores under MPLADS for creation infrastructureslike old age home, school buildings, etc.Rs.133.47 crores sanctioned by Asian Development Bank under TEAP for creation of infrastructuresand livelihood in Tsunami affected areas. Rs.110.80 crores have been spent out of Rs.133.47 crores.The World Bank sanctioned Rs.112.49 crores under ETRP of which Rs.77.24 crores have been spent.IFAD sanctioned Rs.49.83 crores for livelihood assistance in Tsunami affected areas through SelfHelp Groups.Apart from this the NGOs contributed around Rs.300 crores on various schemes for Tsunami Relief& Rehabilitation activities.6/17/201344
  45. 45. 6/17/201345