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Design Chapter 9 - Curriculum Development


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Design Chapter 9 - Curriculum Development

  1. 1. Course Design Curriculum Development Chapter Nine
  2. 2. Terminal Objective <ul><li>The participant will be able to design and develop a training course and lesson plan upon completion of this chapter. </li></ul>Course number
  3. 3. Enabling Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion, the student shall be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List and describe the five phases of the instructional design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct goals and objectives for a class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how a lesson plan is used </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why? <ul><li>Many excellent courses on the market </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New agency services </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Curriculum Development <ul><li>Five phases of the Instruction System Design (ISD) process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Analyze <ul><li>The system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System may be your department, a portion of your department, or even a task that needs to be taught </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Analyze <ul><li>Compile a Task Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review department organizational chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review positions and their responsibility to perform tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate objectives and materials to meet job performance requirements </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Analyze <ul><li>What is a task? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a beginning and an end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually measured in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of other actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not dependent on components of a procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task statement describes a specific action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse with an objective </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Analyze <ul><li>Job descriptions list duties describing what needs to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, a combination of related or like tasks </li></ul>
  10. 10. Analyze <ul><li>Needs analysis – examination of how people work </li></ul><ul><li>Five step process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine components of competent performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine performance standards </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Analyze <ul><li>Needs Assessment - do we really need this? </li></ul><ul><li>Can be any or all of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key consultation Print media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews Group discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests Records or reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work samples </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Analyze <ul><li>Just what is training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job (Nadler, 1984) . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Analyze <ul><li>Selecting tasks for training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it mandated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would self-study work instead of formal training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you hire those already trained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it needed to ensure legal positions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if we don’t? or do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we don’t, how do people learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it help us achieve our goals? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Analyze <ul><li>Build performance measures – how do we do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation task analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulated task analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview analysis </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Analyze <ul><li>Chose instructional setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom, outside practical, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimate the cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials, travel, facilities, and don’t forget time </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Your turn
  17. 17. Design <ul><li>Key points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Style guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entry behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program structure and sequence outline </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Design <ul><li>Style Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to maintain consistency and provide a guide for writing styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several people have worked on this project. A master slide was established so that it would be the same regardless of the individual author </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Titles = 40 pt. Arial bold centered <ul><li>First level = 32 pt. (body copy is Times New Roman bold) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level = 28 pt. (Bullets ONLY fly from right; acceptable bullets are numbers, dots, check marks, Maltese crosses, five-point stars, medical crosses, as appropriate to content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third level = 24 pt. (vary transitions only as artwork requires, not at random) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level = 20 pt. (seldom go this small; instead open up another slide to show more details) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth level = 20 pt. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Design <ul><li>Entry behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a learner must know before entering into the training program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I think we call them prerequisites </li></ul></ul>Course number
  21. 21. Design <ul><li>Learning goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific instructor points for each subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define what the students are to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish guidelines for testing and evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Design <ul><li>Learning objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal (TLO) – the instructor expectation of student performance at the end of the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember precise, observable, and measurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling (EO) – consider the steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, precise, observable, and measurable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Design <ul><li>Goals and objectives – basic principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifiable and measurable outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The student will understand application of water to a fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The student will demonstrate under simulated conditions safe and proper application of water to a fire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Design <ul><li>Goals may be philosophical in nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t communicate specifics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to accomplish, measure, or perform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed as a mission statement or vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics – often referred to as primary objectives, first level objectives, or expected learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ways to write them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 2 million hits on ‘writing goals and objectives” </li></ul></ul></ul>Google
  25. 25. Design <ul><li>Template example: ABCD </li></ul><ul><li>Audience – who are they </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior – observable and measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Condition – actual, simulated, classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Degree – acceptable performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e.: time, accuracy, quality, or quantity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Design <ul><li>Common characteristics of objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State how behavior is observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State how it is to be measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in plain language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable in quality and quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to look at pages 254 and 255 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Design <ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>A guideline for six levels of the educational process </li></ul>
  28. 28. Design <ul><li>First Level – knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific facts and terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to deal with the specifics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles, theories, and generalizations </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Design <ul><li>Second Level – Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrapolation of information </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Design <ul><li>Third level – application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstractions for particular situations </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Design <ul><li>Fourth level – analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives that break the whole into parts and distinguish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational principles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Design <ul><li>Fifth level – synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the parts together in a new form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan of operation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Design <ul><li>Sixth level – evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses making judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal evidence or logical consistency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External evidence with facts developed elsewhere </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Design <ul><li>Cognitive domain – remembering or reproducing something already known about a subject </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 – Knowledge, comprehension, and application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 – Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 – Synthesis and evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note all six levels of the educational process </li></ul>
  35. 35. Design <ul><li>Psychomotor domain – emphasizes motor skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 – imitation and manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 – precision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 – articulation and naturalization </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Design <ul><li>Affective Domain – attitudes and values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 – receiving and responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 – valuing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 – organizing and characterizing </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Design <ul><li>Learning (performance) steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each department or educational facility will be, at least, slightly different. Look at page 258 & 259. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to Chapter 7 </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Design <ul><li>Structure and sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure it meets learning objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a pattern so each activity will have purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful content is easier to learn and easier to teach </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Guess What!!!! Your turn
  40. 40. Develop <ul><li>List activities that will help students learn </li></ul><ul><li>Select instructional delivery method </li></ul><ul><li>Review existing material </li></ul><ul><li>Develop courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize courseware into viable training program </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm you met the goals </li></ul>
  41. 41. Develop <ul><li>List activities that help the student learn the task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they? Cognitive, psychomotor or affective ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember retention rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of what we read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40% of what we see and hear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% of what we can say and do </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Develop <ul><li>Select Delivery method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Develop <ul><li>Review existing material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You may not need to come up with something new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may already be there and be just what you need </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Develop <ul><li>ARCS – John Keller, Florida State University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Develop <ul><li>Attention – Get it and keep it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story telling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How not to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain importance </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Develop <ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it will improve the student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers WIIFM (what’s in it for me?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about tomorrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching needs (Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to use learning method they like best </li></ul></ul>Relavance
  47. 47. Develop <ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the learner succeed; but, with a degree of challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and prerequisites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t put students into information overload </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners feel in control </li></ul></ul></ul>Confidence
  48. 48. Develop <ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback and reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling good is a motivation to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic or extrinsic </li></ul></ul></ul>Satisfaction
  49. 49. Develop <ul><li>Synthesize into viable training program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate training material and media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a sequence and build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build in strategies and don’t forget breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine time blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure it meets your objectives </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Do I need to say it? Your turn
  51. 51. Implement <ul><li>Develop a management plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clear and complete course description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions for guidance, assistance, and evaluation of learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of tasks to be taught </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Develop a management plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Course map or sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the course is to be taught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A copy of all training materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor and staff training requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other administrative documents for the course </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Implement <ul><li>You may need train-the-trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor role begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot classes are a good idea if you have the opportunity </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. And next? Ah ha fooled you; not yet.
  55. 55. Evaluation <ul><li>Review and evaluate each phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure it meets objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External evaluations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure what they are learning can be actually applied to the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you need to, make corrections </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. And? Your turn
  57. 57. Lesson Plans <ul><li>An effective way to organize </li></ul><ul><li>A guide to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in the evaluation process </li></ul><ul><li>Along with objectives, define what is to be covered in class </li></ul><ul><li>Does not take the place of preparation </li></ul>
  58. 58. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Similar to what you use in curriculum development </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Needs Assessment <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel distances and traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks and lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation – “have to be vs. want to be” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work schedules or other commitments </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Have a list of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure you have it all </li></ul><ul><li>Most important – Be sure it works and you know how to use it </li></ul>
  61. 61. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Schedule has so many variables </li></ul><ul><li>Remember – “the mind will only absorb what the bottom will tolerate”. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Determine content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is awareness or mastery required? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may want to review your final exam </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Student tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage note taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy computer generated plans and hand out </li></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Evaluate plan and presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare goals, objectives and content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should build on previous goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational and practical should support each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of instruction, lesson objectives, and the actual content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO THEY AGREE? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Lesson Plan <ul><li>Summative Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How effective was your teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tests and quizzes – don’t forget student feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student participation in designing improvement plans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  66. 68. Summary <ul><li>Established course </li></ul><ul><li>Creating course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to understand objectives and lesson plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First question normally asked “how long will class last?” </li></ul><ul><li>A good lesson plan will allow you to finish in the time allotted </li></ul>
  67. 69. Your turn