Developing the curriculum chapter 2

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Developing the curriculum chapter 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2:PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENTDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  2. 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Describe the ten axioms for curriculumdevelopment discussed in this chapter.• Illustrate in what way the curriculum is influencedby changes in society.• Describe limitations affecting curriculum changes ina school system and within which curriculumworkers must function.
  3. 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-3CLARIFICATION OF TERMS• Education is one of the institutions the human racehas created to serve certain needs, and, like allhuman institutions, it responds or should respondto changes in the environment. The institution ofeducation is activated by a curriculum that itselfchanges in response to forces affecting it.
  4. 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-4CLARIFICATION OF TERMS• The curriculum is perceived as a plan for the learningexperiences that young people encounter under thedirection of the school.• This process of keeping the curriculum runningsmoothly is commonly known as curriculumdevelopment.• The preliminary phase, when the curriculum workersmake decisions and take actions to establish theplans that teachers and students will carry out, isknown as curriculum planning.
  5. 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-5CLARIFICATION OF TERMS• Curriculum implementation is defined as thetranslation of plans into action.• Those intermediate and final phases ofdevelopment in which results are assessed andsuccesses of both the learners and the programsare determined is known as curriculum evaluation.
  6. 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-6CLARIFICATION OF TERMS• Curriculum revision is used to refer to the processfor making changes in an existing curriculum or tothe changes themselves and is substituted forcurriculum development or curriculumimprovement.
  7. 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-7CLARIFICATION OF TERMS• Key Point: Through the process of curriculumdevelopment we can discover new ways forproviding more effective pupil learning experiences.The curriculum developer continuously strives tofind newer, better, and more efficient means toaccomplish this task.
  8. 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-8TYPES OF CURRICULUMDEVELOPERS• Some curriculum developers excel in theconceptualizing phase (planning), others incarrying out the curricular plan(implementation), and still others in assessingcurriculum results (evaluation).
  9. 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-9TYPES OF CURRICULUMDEVELOPERS• To the weary professional curriculum worker, itsometimes seems that every federal, state, andlocal legislator is a self-appointed, self-trainedcurriculum consultant who has his or her own petprogram to promulgate.
  10. 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-10• What has led so many people to be dissatisfiedwith so much of what education is all about? Whyis the status quo rarely a satisfactory place to be?And why does it turn out, as will be illustrated, thatyesterday’s status quo is sometimes tomorrow’sinnovation? For answers to these questions somegeneral principles of curriculum developmentshould be considered by teachers and specialistswho participate in efforts to improve thecurriculum.TYPES OF CURRICULUMDEVELOPERS
  11. 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-11• Principles serve as guidelines to direct the activityof persons working in a particular area.• Curriculum principles are derived from manysources:○ Empirical data○ Experimental data○ The folklore of curriculum, composed ofunsubstantiated beliefs and attitudes○ Common senseSOURCES OF CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES
  12. 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-12SOURCES OF CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES• Unless a principle is established that is irrefutableby reason of objective data, some degree ofjudgment must be brought into play. Wheneverjudgment comes into the picture, the potential forcontroversy arises.• Consequently, some of the principles for curriculumdevelopment provoke controversy, while others aregenerally accepted as reasonable guidelines.
  13. 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-13TYPES OF PRINCIPLES• Curriculum principles may be viewed as wholetruths, partial truths, or hypotheses. While allfunction as operating principles, they aredistinguished by their known effectiveness or bydegree of risk.
  14. 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-14• Types of guiding principles for curriculumdevelopment:○ Whole Truths○ Partial Truths○ HypothesesTYPES OF PRINCIPLES
  15. 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-15TEN AXIOMS• Axiom 1. Change is both inevitable and necessary,for it is through change that life forms grow anddevelop.• Axiom 2. A school curriculum not only reflects butalso is a product of its time.• Axiom 3. Curriculum changes made at an earlierperiod of time can exist concurrently with newercurriculum changes at a later period of time.
  16. 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-16TEN AXIOMS• Axiom 4. Curriculum change results from changesin people.• Axiom 5. Curriculum change is effected as a resultof cooperative endeavor on the part of groups.• Axiom 6. Curriculum development is basically adecision-making process.• Axiom 7. Curriculum development is a never-ending process
  17. 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-17TEN AXIOMS• Axiom 8. Curriculum development is acomprehensive process.• Axiom 9. Systematic curriculum development ismore effective than trial and error.• Axiom 10. The curriculum planner starts fromwhere the curriculum is, just as the teacher startsfrom where the students are.
  18. 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-18TEN AXIOMS• Key Point: The investment of thought, time,money, and work by previous planners cannot bethrown out even if such a drastic remedy appearedvalid to a new set of planners since mostcurriculum planners begin with already existingcurricula.
  19. 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved2-19A FINAL THOUGHT:• Curriculum change is a normal, expectedconsequence of changes in the societalenvironment. It is the responsibility of curriculumworkers to seek ways of making continuousimprovement in the curriculum.

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