Developing the curriculum chapter 7

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Developing the curriculum chapter 7

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7:DATA-DRIVEN DECISION MAKING Developing the Curriculum Eighth Edition Peter F. Oliva William R. Gordon II
  2. 2. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: • Identify and describe major sources of curriculum content. • Outline levels and types of needs of students. • Outline levels and types of needs of society. • Show how needs are derived from the structure of a discipline. • Describe the steps in conducting a needs assessment. • Construct an instrument for conducting a curriculum needs assessment.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-2 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. OUR EVER-CHANGING WORLD • While our nation continues to compete for market share in the global economy the debate on a world- class educational system continues to be shaped. • Understanding how to develop curriculum that addresses the challenges students will face in our ever-changing global community is an important role of the educator.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-3 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. QUESTIONS RAISED • As we study our nation’s recent efforts to reform education we could raise a number of questions: ○ How do we develop our curriculum, based on the needs of our society, to allow its members to compete in the 21st century? ○ What needs are there to which curriculum planners must pay attention? ○ What should be included in developing the curriculum? ○ How do we know if the needs are being met satisfactorily and how do we allow for changes in the curriculum if they are not?Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-4 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. 21ST CENTURY SKILLS • In order for schools to provide a learning environment that promotes 21st century skills, classrooms will need to evolve to meet the needs of the modern learner and of our global society. • The curriculum developer has a plethora of decisions to make when designing content that will positively impact learning. By understanding the needs of society and by using data to make informed instructional decisions, educators can systematically approach these opportunities and challenges.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-5 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. CATEGORIES OF NEEDS • By carrying out a process through data-collection and analysis, curriculum planners study the needs of learners, society, and subject matter.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-6 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. CATEGORIES OF NEEDS • In Chapter 6 we learned that the statements of educational aims and philosophy are based on needs of students in general and needs of society. • Statements of aims and philosophy point to common needs of students and society and set a general framework within which a school or school system will function.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-7 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. CATEGORIES OF NEEDS • Some examples of both student and society needs are: ○ to develop the attitude and practice of a sound mind in a sound body ○ to promote concern for protecting the environment ○ to develop a well-rounded individual ○ to develop skills sufficient for competing in a global economy ○ to develop a linguistically, technologically, and culturally literate personOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-8 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME • It is important to note that the needs of the student cannot be completely divorced from those of society, or vice versa. • To further understand the needs of the student and society let’s look at the following classification scheme: ○ needs of students by level ○ needs of students by type ○ needs of society by level ○ needs of society by typeOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-9 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. NEEDS OF STUDENTS: LEVELS • The six levels of student needs of concern to the curriculum planner may be identified as: 1. human 2. national 3. state or regional 4. community 5. school 6. individualOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-10 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. HUMAN • The curriculum should reflect the needs of students as members of the human race, needs that are common to all human beings on the globe, such as food, clothing, shelter, and good health.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-11 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. NATIONAL • To become aware of nationwide needs of students, the curriculum planners should be well-read, and it is helpful for them to be well-traveled. • The curriculum planner should recognize changing needs of our country’s youth. For example, contemporary young people must learn to live with the computer, to conserve dwindling natural resources, to protect the environment, and to change some basic attitudes to survive in twenty- first century America.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-12 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. STATE OR REGIONAL • Curriculum planners should determine whether students have needs particular to a state or region. • Some states or regions may require students to be equipped with specific knowledge and skills for their industrial and agricultural specializations.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-13 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. COMMUNITY • The curriculum developer studies the community served by the school or school system and asks what students’ needs are in this particular community. • Students who finish school and choose to remain in their communities will need knowledge and skills sufficient for them to earn a livelihood in those communities.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-14 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. SCHOOL • The curriculum planner typically probes and excels at analyzing the needs of students in a particular school. • These needs command the attention of curriculum workers to such an extent that sometimes the demands of the individual students are obscured. • Data and program analysis are keys to determining the needs of students in a school.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-15 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. INDIVIDUAL • The needs of individual students in a particular school must be examined. Does the school provide curriculum for students who are: ○ gifted ○ average ○ low performing ○ exceptional students ○ medically fragileOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-16 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. KEY CONSIDERATION • Each level of student needs builds on the preceding level and makes, in effect, a cumulative set. Thus, the individual student presents needs that emanate from his or her: ○ individuality ○ membership in the school ○ residence in the community ○ living in the state or region ○ residing in the United States ○ belonging to the human race.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-17 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. NEEDS OF STUDENTS: TYPES • Another dimension is added when the curriculum planner analyzes the needs of students by types.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-18 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. PHYSICAL/BIOLOGICAL •A sound curriculum aids students to understand and meet their physical needs not only during the years of schooling but into adulthood as well. • The curriculum planner should be aware that students need movement, exercise, rest, proper nutrition, and adequate medical care.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-19 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL • Curriculum workers must be able to identify socio- psychological needs of students and incorporate ways to meet these needs into the curriculum. • Among the common socio-psychological needs are affection, acceptance and approval, belonging, success, and security. Furthermore, each individual needs to be engaged in meaningful work.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-20 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. EDUCATIONAL • The curriculum worker should keep in mind that educational needs do not exist outside the context of students’ other needs and society’s needs. • The educational needs of students shift as society changes and as more is learned about the physical and socio-psychological aspects of child growth and developmentOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-21 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. NEEDS OF SOCIETY: LEVELS • The curriculum worker not only looks at the needs of students in relation to society, but also at the needs of society in relation to students. • These two levels of needs sometimes converge, diverge, or mirror each other.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-22 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. NEEDS OF SOCIETY: LEVELS • As we did in the case of assessing students’ needs, let’s construct two simple taxonomies of the needs of society: first, as to level, and second, as to type. • We can classify the levels of needs of society from the broadest to the narrowest: human, international, national, state, community, and neighborhood.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-23 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. HUMAN • Some of the needs—or demands, if you will—of society are common to the entire human race. • We might ask, what needs do human beings throughout the world have as a result of their membership in the human race?Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-24 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. INTERNATIONAL • Curriculum developers should consider needs that cut across national boundaries and exist not so much because they are basic needs of humanity but because they arise from our loose confederation of nations. • Curriculum workers need to be aware of former and current challenges faced by countries in our world.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-25 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. NATIONAL • The curriculum planner must be able to define the needs of the nation with some degree of lucidity. • The curriculum planner must be cognizant of careers that are subject to growth and decline. • The curriculum worker must be a student of history, sociology, political science, economics, and current events to perceive the needs of the nation.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-26 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. STATE • States also have special needs and have a responsibility to provide for their citizenry on a variety of levels. • They play a major role in influencing curriculum offerings at the local level. Job opportunities, needs for training of specialized workers, and types of schooling needed differ from state to state and pose areas of concern for curriculum workers. In order to attract industry to create jobs in a complex and evolving global marketplace, states have a stake in determining the curriculum.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-27 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. COMMUNITY • Curriculum workers are more frequently able to identify the needs of a community because they are usually aware of significant changes in its major businesses and industries. • Schools can make—and cannot avoid the obligation to make—an impact on the future citizens of the community whom they are educating by making them aware of the problems and equipping them with skills and knowledge that will help them resolve some of the problems.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-28 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  29. 29. NEIGHBORHOOD • Are there needs, the curriculum developer must ask, peculiar to the neighborhood served by the school? As a result, the curriculum worker must be perceptive of changes in neighborhoods. • Examples are: ○ The people of the inner city have needs which differ from those who live in the suburbs. ○ The needs of people in areas that house migrant workers are much different from those of people in areas where executives, physicians, and lawyers reside.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-29 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  30. 30. NEEDS OF SOCIETY: TYPES • The curriculum planner must additionally look at the needs of society from the standpoint of types. Some examples of societal needs that have implications for on the curriculum are: ○ political ○ social ○ economic ○ environmental ○ defenseOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-30 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  31. 31. SOCIAL PROCESSES • Numerous attempts have been made throughout the years to identify societal needs or demands under the rubrics of social processes, social functions, life activities, and social institutions. • Curriculum specialists who seek to delineate social processes or functions do so in order to identify individual needs that have social origins. • It might be argued, parenthetically, that all personal needs (except purely biological ones) are social in origin.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-31 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  32. 32. NEEDS DERIVED FROM THE SUBJECT MATTER • Each subject contains certain essential areas or topics (the bases for determining the scope of a course) that, if the learner is to achieve mastery of the field, must be taught at certain times and in a certain prescribed order (sequence). • The sequence could be determined by: ○ increasing complexity (as in mathematics, foreign languages, English grammar, science) ○ logic (as in social studies programs that begin with the child’s immediate environment—the home and school—and expand to the community, state, nation, and world) ○ psychological means (as in career education programs that start with immediate interests of learners and proceed to more remote ones)Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-32 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  33. 33. CHANGES IN THE DISCIPLINES • Changes in the major disciplines are not new. The scholarly ferment of the 1950s, precipitated by the National Defense Funds , changed what content should be taught in a course: ○ The “new math,” the “new science,” and the widespread development of the audio-lingual method of teaching foreign languages created new definitions and structures in those disciplines.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-33 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  34. 34. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES/STANDARDS • Currently, many state departments of education and/or local school districts have published syllabi, courses of study, and curriculum guides developed by teacher-specialists in particular fields. • Typically, these publications outline: ○ the structure of a subject and the appropriate grade level for each topic ○ the performance objectives, standards, and benchmarks (measureable learner expectations, i.e., what a student should know at a particular developmental level or grade) ○ skills, or competencies to be accomplished; and often the order of presentation (sequence) of topicsOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-34 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  35. 35. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES/STANDARDS • An attractive aspect of the standards-based movement to politicians and stakeholders is the ability for large-scale assessment tests to be incorporated by states in order to determine student performance. • Although specification of subject-matter standards has been subjected to criticisms such as a “narrowing of the curriculum” and “test- driven,” the movement continues strong.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-35 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  36. 36. CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT •A systematic procedure for studying needs and identifying those not met by the school’s curriculum is referred to in the literature as a needs assessment. • In its simplest definition, a curriculum needs assessment is a process for identifying programmatic needs that must be addressed by curriculum planners.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-36 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT • The objectives of a needs assessment are twofold: 1. to identify needs of the learners not being met by the existing curriculum. 2. to form a basis for revising the curriculum in such a way as to fulfill as many unmet needs as possible. • Conducting a needs assessment is not a single, one-time operation but a continuing and periodic activity.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-37 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  38. 38. CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT • Since the needs of students, society, and the subject matter change over the years and since no curriculum has reached a state of perfection in which it ministers to all the educational needs of young people, a thorough needs assessment should be conducted periodically—at least every five years—with at least minor updating annually.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-38 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  39. 39. PERCEIVED NEEDS APPROACH • Some schools limit the process of assessing needs to a survey of the needs of learners as perceived by: ○ teachers ○ students ○ parents • Instead of turning to objective data, curriculum planners in these schools pose questions that seek opinions from one or more of these groups.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-39 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  40. 40. PERCEIVED NEEDS APPROACH • The perceived needs approach is limited. By its very nature, it is concerned with perceptions rather than facts. • Although the curriculum planner must learn the perceptions of various groups, he or she must also know what the facts are.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-40 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  41. 41. Data Collection • Those charged with conducting a needs assessment should gather data about the school and its programs from whatever sources of data are available. • Data may be obtained from various sources, including student records; school district files; surveys of attitudes of students, teachers, and parents; classroom observations; and examination of instructional materials.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-41 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  42. 42. STEPS IN THE NEEDS ASSESSMENT PROCESS • The needs assessment process is designed to inform those affected by the process as to which curriculum features should be kept as is, kept with revision, removed, and/or added. • Those conducting a needs assessment must gather extensive data about the school and community and must make use of multiple means of assessment, including opinions, empirical observation, inventories, predictive instruments, and tests.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-42 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  43. 43. STEPS IN THE NEEDS ASSESSMENT PROCESS • They should follow constructive techniques for involving and managing individuals and groups throughout the process, and must apply effective methods for sharing information to keep participants and the community abreast of the process. They must seek out the help of persons trained and experienced in curriculum development, instruction, staff development, budgeting, data gathering, data processing, measurement, and evaluation.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-43 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  44. 44. A FINAL THOUGHT: • Curriculum planners must attend to the needs of students and society. These needs may be classified as to level and type. In addition to studying empirically the needs of students, society, and the disciplines, curriculum workers should conduct systematic needs assessments to identify gaps—discrepancies between desired and actual student performance. Identified unmet needs should play a major role in curriculum revision. A needs assessment plays a key role in the evaluation process. Needs differ from interests and wants.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 7-44 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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