- Man is not only an animal; he is a person. No other corporeal substance is a person. Only man is. Man is a person because he has the gift of insight (intellect) and volition (will). - The self is the first and most fundamental of values.- Actions, for example, are values because they are the result of intellect and will , motivated towards something desirable.
3. Rational Values. Those are necessary to the functions and fulfillment of intellect and will: Understanding and Control of Nature Guide and Control of Oneself Solidarity with fellowmen Religion
Von Rintelenin his article “A Realistic Analysis of Value” defines moralvalue as “’A qualitatively determined value-in-itself which has anormative character and presupposes the liberty of possibledecision to effectuate real value in concrete acts of varyingdegree.”
CHARACTERISTICS OF MORAL VALUES 1. Moral Values are goods having intrinsic qualities of desirability. 2. Moral Values are universal, that is, they appeal to man as man and to man as a specific individual. 3. Moral Values are Obligatory. They come as a natural duty, because possession of them is expected as an integral quality to man as rational creature directed by natural powers towards truth , beauty and goodness.
Others values include what we functionally call religious, cultural, and social values: 1. Religious Values are those which pertain to man’s relationship with the deity, guiding his communion with Him. 2. Cultural Values are those man shares with others in a given community of persons, shaping their spiritual kinship, and directing their attention to definite ideals of behavior. 3. Social Values are those that are necessary for the promotion of human society as a whole, integrating the motivation and interest of members towards the common objective of goal.
The Hierarchy of Values • Refers to the order of values from the lowest to the highest in importance. Values do not have the same degree of desirability. • Neither is it possible to incorporate all values at the same time in our lives.
The Aristotrlian ranking of values appear justified The goods pertaining to the soul, that is, to the intellect and will, occupies the highest level of importance. The biological values occupy the lowest rank. That we should aim for the most essential values is common sense enough. Our choices should direct us to genuine growth character.
Choosing our values 1. Every man has to choose his values. He is wise indeed who chooses values according to their intrinsic worth. 2. Values favored by a greater number of people must be preferred over those that appeal only to a few, e.g., discipline over personal freedom. 3. Values that are essential must be preferred over those that are accidental ,e.g., health over beauty. 4. Values that greater satisfaction must be preferred over those that provide short-lived pleasure ,e.g., pursuing your artistic hobby over fanatical devotion to a movie star.
Ethical Theories 1.Plato, - believed that man is free. Thus, man deserves to be punished for the “sins” he freely commits . 2. Aristotle. - Man has threefold nature: vegetal, animal, and rational .Man must realize his nature by cultivating all his natural tendencies .The highest good correspond to the tendency of the soul. 3. St.. Thomas Aquinas. - The Highest Good, or, Summum Bonum consists in “beatific version of God. No earthly good can fully satisfy human desires Man, because of his rational appetites of intellect and free well, can only be completely happy in God Himself.
1. Islamism - is a philosophy of life, a complete system of living, based on the Word of God revealed to Mohammed. Islam teaches that the Greatest Value is one‟s surrender to God.This consists in the fulfillment of the Five Pillars: (1) Confession of Creed : “There is no God but Allah ,and Mohammed is his prophet “. (2) Prayer brings man in the right relationship with God. (3) Charity. (4) Observance of the Ramadan. (5) Pilgrimage to Mecca.
2. Buddhism. - The Greatest Value according to Buddha is the liberation of man from suffering though the abandonment of all egoistic desires.The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are: (1) Life is the root of all sufferings; (2) suffering are caused by desires; (3) Desires can be eliminated by negating life; (4) Elimination of desires can be achieved by accumulating karma or deeds that eventually free the individual.
3.Utiltarianism. - The Greatest Value ,according to Jeremy Bentham, one of its proponents , is pleasure. But man, being a sociable animal, must conduct his affairs in a ways that would benefit others. John Stuart - defines the greatest good: “By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure”.
4. Communism. - is based on the teachings of Karl Marx. The Greatest Good is absolute equality. The mission of communism is the production of material wealth by means of collective labor, so that the goods of this world might be enjoyed in a paradise where each would give according to his Karl Marx. needs.
5. Christianism. - Christianity is based on the teachings and life of Jesus Christ. Christ taught that the Greatest Value is Love . God is Love. ”And behold, a certain man came to Him and said, „Good Master, what good work shall I do to have eternal life ? One there is who is good, and he is God.” (Mattehew,19:16-17). - Christian morality is essentially based on love which embraces even the enemy..