Basic components in developing a curriculum


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Basic components in developing a curriculum

  2. 2. AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  Education is purposeful. It is concerned with outcomes that are expressed at several levels: AIMS – the most general level GOALS – reflect the purpose with some outcomes in mind OBJECTIVES – reflect the most specific level of educational outcomes2
  3. 3. AIMS Definition of AIMS  Wilson (2004) defines AIMS as ―general statements that provide directions or intent of educational action‖  Ornstein & Hunkins (2004) concluded that AIMS serve to: a) Be general statements that provide shape and directions to the more specific actions designed to achieve future product and behaviour. b) Be starting points for ideal/inspirational vision of the good/future. c) Reflect value judgements and value-laden3 statements, and they furnish educators with
  4. 4.  Doll (1979) proposes 3 main dimensions of Aims: a) Dealing with intellectual dimensions b) Social-Personal dimension – concerned with person-to society, person-to-person, and person-to-self interactions. c) Relating to the productive dimension of schooling – focus on aspects of education that allow individuals to function in the home, on the job, and as4 members of society/country’s citizen.
  5. 5.  Ornstein & Hunkins (2004) added 4 other dimensions: a) Physical aims – dealing with development and maintenance of strong, healthy bodies (and minds). b) Aesthetic aims – dealing with values and appreciation of the arts. c) Moral aims – dealing with values and behaviour that reflect appropriate moral values. d) Spiritual aims – dealing with recognition5 and belief in the divine and view of
  6. 6. Groups involved in formulating Aims  Basically, it involves 3 groups of people: i) Boards of education, administrators, and professional staff members. May also include views of selected members of society, parents, students etc. ii) Opinions of community’s members after a polling has been conducted. So, the aims will be based on consensus of public opinion. iii) Professional educational organizations in charge of preparing aims upon request6
  7. 7. Examples of Aims  Our KBSR English syllabus aims to ―equip learners with basic skills and knowledge of the English language so as to enable them to communicate, both orally and in writing, in and out of school‖.  Our KBSM English syllabus aims to ―extend learners’ English language proficiency in order to meet their needs to use English in certain situations in7 everyday life, for knowledge acquisition, and for future workplace
  8. 8. GOALS Definition of GOALS  Goals are statements of purpose with some outcome in mind.  According to Wilson (2005), goals are ―statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims‖  Oliva (2001) distinguishes between curriculum goals and instructional goals: i) Curriculum goals - a purpose or end stated in general terms without criteria of achievement‖.8 ii) Instructional goals - a statement of performance expected of each student in a
  9. 9.  Goals can be written broadly or specifically.  Example: a) To develop skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening. b) To be able to verbally and visually express a point of view.  There are various ways of writing down goals. In complete sentences, phrases or even single words.9
  10. 10. OBJECTIVES Definition of OBJECTIVES  usually specific statements of educational intention which delineate either general or specific outcomes.  stated more specifically than goals, are designed to communicate to involved parties-students, teachers and etc-the intents of particular actions.10
  11. 11.  TWO TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (Taba, 1962): i) General Objectives, i.e. those that describe school-wide outcomes (curricular goals). E.g. Improving students’ skills in information processing when dealing with science materials. i) Specific Objectives – more specific and describe behaviours to be attained in a particular unit, a subject/course, or a particular grade-level programme (curricular objectives).  Seek to show what students should achieve in relation to identifiable kinds of objectives, i.e. cognitive, the affective and the psychomotor11 domains.
  12. 12.  Also describe the conditions under which the behaviour must be demonstrated, and proficiency level at which the behaviour must be performed  E.g. Able to write in a neat and legible handwriting12
  13. 13.  Beane et al. (2004) point out that: …‖objectives are specific statements reflecting the purposes of a particular unit or level of the school programme‖.13
  14. 14.  Objectives can be written in a number of ways.  Currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms.  Behavioral objectives usually employ observable behaviour and can be divided into specific domains—cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.14
  15. 15. Examples  Cognitive: Students will identify and list 5 slang terms they have heard from their peers.  Affective: Students will choose 3 of the most offensive slang terms from a list developed by the entire class.  Psychomotor: Students will create expressive gestures to go with their favorite slang terms.15
  16. 16. Sources of objectives  Tyler (1949) identified 5 sources of objectives: i) the learners themselves ii) The needs of contemporary society iii) The nature of subject matter iv) The philosophy (set of values) v) Psychology (the way learners learn)  Tyler also included other factors such as financial resources available, the nature of teaching force etc.16
  17. 17.  Kerr (1972) regards these sources in his model: i) The pupils ii) Society iii) The disciplines  Consequently, the objectives are linked & interrelated to knowledge, the learning experiences (school) and evaluation.17
  18. 18.  Ornstein (2004) identifies objectives as the level for which they are written. Thus, there are 3 levels of objectives: i) Program Objectives – addressing subjects at particular grades ii) Course Objectives – relating to particular courses within a grade level iii) Classroom Objectives – further divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives.18
  19. 19. CURRICULUM CONTENT ―Content must take account of the environment in which the course will be used, the needs of the learners, and principles of teaching and learning‖ Nation (1996)19
  20. 20.  Environment i) Learners ii) Teachers iii) Situation  Needs i) Lacks ii) Wants iii) Necessities20
  21. 21. CURRICULUM EXPERIENCES  Curriculum experience simply means the extension of the normal activities of daily life into directed instructional situations. (Johnson, 1938)  Curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not only experiences occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of21 adult members of society. (Bobbit, 1918)
  22. 22.  Quality and nature of the learning experience in developing attributes and capabilities and in achieving active engagement, motivation and depth of learning.  The totality of experiences which are planned for children and young people, including the ethos and life of the school and interdisciplinary studies as well as learning within curriculum areas and subjects. This means that they apply beyond timetabled classes and into, for example, enterprise and health activities and special events.22 (
  23. 23.  Curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not only experiences occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. (Bobbit, 1918)23
  24. 24. CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT  Tyler (1949) defines assessment as ―essentially the process of determining to what extent of educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction.‖  Tyler suggested 4 fundamental questions in connection with any curriculum: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to obtain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?24 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are
  25. 25.  These 4 principal questions can be translated into a simpler model: Objectives – content – organization – evaluation  Therefore, if evaluation shows that specified objectives have not been attained, it must mean that the content chosen or methods of teaching and organization used were not appropriate.25
  26. 26. Assessment:  sets to ascertain students’ achievement  sets to identify the quality and quantity of the curriculum/syllabus.  is concerned with deciding on the value or ―worthwhileness‖ of a learning process and the effectiveness with which it is being carried out.  is concerned with preparing adequate and efficient measuring devices for evaluating purposes.  ―Evaluation is the process in which we decide how well we have done whatever it is we were26 trying to do‖ (Beane, 2004)
  27. 27.  Implications i) Assessment cannot occur unless we know what we are trying to accomplish. ii) The goals of a program, or objectives of a specific lesson, must be clear and understood. iii) Then a decision is required, one which has to be made based on some criterion or normal27 judgment.
  28. 28.  Herrick (1962) identifies four roles that can be assumed by persons involved in curriculum assessment: 1. The ―doer‖ – the child, teacher, or person whose behavior is being evaluated. 2. The ―observer‖ – the person who is looking at what the learner is doing. 3. The ―judger‖ – the person who is taking the results of the observations and judging their value and adequacy. 4. The ―actor‖ – the individual who acts on the results of the evaluation.28
  29. 29. Measuring Devices in Assessment  Various measuring devices/instruments in assessment: i) Paper-and Pencil Tests ii) Observation iii) Self-Evaluation iv) Analysis of Projects v) Unobtrusive Measures29
  30. 30.  There are two types of assessment (Scrivens, 1967). They are: a) Formative Evaluation b) Summative Evaluation30
  31. 31. Formative Evaluation  Purpose – to provide the developer with useful information for on-going adjustments during the programme.  Characteristics: - conducted during the planning and implementation phases of a program. - Formal/informal – used during period of instruction. - Embedded tests – as part of instructional strategies.  Use of data: - diagnose and remedial actions31 - by teachers to monitor their instruction
  32. 32. Summative Evaluation  Purpose – making the summary or judgement on the quality or adequacy of a course (Nation, 1996)  Characteristics: - takes place at the end of a course. - Presented in a report  Use of data: - to determine if students have mastered the preceding instruction. - to reveal whether or not pre-specified learning outcomes have been achieved. - to revise program and methods for subsequent32 groups
  33. 33.  Alkin (1969) identified five types of program evaluations:  The three formative evaluation types are: 1.Systems assessment – during pre- planning phase of a programme’s development, or needs assessment. 2.Programme design – looking at internal ―fit‖ among various components of the program. 3.Programme implementation –33 concerned with process of carrying out
  34. 34.  The two summative evaluation types are: 1. Program improvement – focus of evaluation is on programme effects. 2. Programme certification – includes programme comparison, compliance review, and audit studies.34
  35. 35. References  Alkin, M. C. (1969). Evaluation theory development. Evaluation Comment, 2(1), 2-7.  Bean, R.M. (2004). Promoting effective literacy instruction: The challenge for literacy coaches. The California Reader, 37(3), 58-63  Doll, W. (1979). A Structural View of Curriculum. Theory into Practice, 18(5), Retrieved from  Kerr, C. (1972). Foreword, Higher Education 1, 1-2.  Nation, I.S.P. (1996). Language curriculum design. Wellington: English Language Institute Occasional Publication No.16  Oliva, P. (2001). Developing the curriculum. New York: Longman.  Ornstein, A.C. & Hunkins, F.P. (2004). Curriculum foundations: Principles and issues (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.  Robertson, F., Peterson, D., & Bean, J. C. (2004). Using federal reserve publications in institutions and markets courses: An approach to teaching critical thinking. Advances in Financial Education, 2(Fall), 15-25.  Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, & World.  Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press  Wilson, L. O. (2005). Wilson’s curriculum pages – writing aims, goals and objectives. Retrieved from35