Latin America Revolutionary Movements


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AP World History lecture

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Latin America Revolutionary Movements

  1. 1. Latin America Revolutionary Movements
  2. 2. Population of Latin America in 1800: About 30,000 peninsulares who control government (born in Spain) About 3.5 million creoles with significant wealth (New World whites)
  3. 3. About 10 million slaves, mixed race, and indigenous people Creoles wanted to displace the peninsulares, not share power with the majority From 1810 to 1825 Creole led movements gained independence from Spain and Portugal
  4. 4. By about 1850 most lands in Americas had gained independence from European powers Smaller Latin American states often under military dictatorship
  5. 5. Economic Themes
  6. 6. Economy came to be dominated by European capital and labor Resented by many Latin American natives Industrialization marginally successful Control of industry and exports remained in foreign hands
  7. 7. Revolution in Latin America
  8. 8. Events in Europe triggered Latin American Revolutions Napoleon conquered Spain in 1808 and made his brother, Joseph, king By 1810, creoles rebelled in several parts of Latin America
  9. 9. Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led armies against Spanish rule
  10. 10. By 1824, Bolivar establishes Gran Colombia
  11. 11. Gran Columbia later broke into three independent nations Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador This created political instability
  12. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Remainder of Spanish South America independent by 1825 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil declared independence from Portugal in 1822 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Portuguese king became </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedro I </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Central American regions established independence in 1824 and split into independent states in 1838 (from Mexico) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Regimes tended to be more autocratic than in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elites prevented mass participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the political process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous people outside political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>No constitutional methods available to express discontent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elites also divided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal vs. conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular vs. catholic </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Conflict with Indigenous Peoples
  17. 17. Land claimed for agriculture and ranching pushed indigenous people out During mid 1800's Europeans had taken productive land and forced indigenous people into marginal land or forced them to Europeanize
  18. 18. Caudillos (dictators) Heroes of wars of independence were military leaders Appealed to populist sentiment to maintain political power
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Mexico: War and Reform </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Mexican revolution against Spain in 1810 initially led by Miguel de Hidalgo </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Mexico wins independence in 1821 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1833 to 1855 Mexico had no fewer than thirty-six changes in presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudillo Antonio Lopez Santa Anna came to power in 1833 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Santa Anna himself directly ruled eleven times! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turmoil characteristic of Mexican politics </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>1850’s: Benito Juarez founded a liberal reform movement called La Reforma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1853: Santa Anna once again gains power, exiles liberals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1861: Juarez elected president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1862-67: French rule of Maximilian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1867: Juarez returns to power </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>La Reforma attempted to establish liberal society in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited power of military and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged land reform through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seizure of church land </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Reform opposed by conservative elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican revolution from 1911 to 1920 challenged conservative rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>led agrarian revolt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could control countryside, but not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>Government forces regained control when Zapata and Villa were killed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1917 addressed some lower class concerns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S.-Mexico War </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo settlers and many Tejanos opposed Santa Anna’s centralist rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texas independence declared from Mexico and won in 1836 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Republic of Texas was admitted as a state in 1845…the Mexican government protested. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico never accepted the treaties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>signed by Santa Anna permitting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texan independence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Manifest Destiny” (U.S. expansion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to war in 1845 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American army defeated Mexican </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forces in war from 1845 to 1848 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States received a large amount of territory in the southwest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texas was confirmed as part of the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico received fifteen million dollar payment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><ul><ul><li>A lasting resentment against the U.S. will tarnish relations for years to come </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Haitian Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><ul><ul><li>Only successful slave revolt in history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispaniola center for sugar production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave revolt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French, British and Spanish troops intervened in 1792 and 1793 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves attacked plantations for supplies and recruits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As planters lost slaves they imported more </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><ul><ul><li>Francis-Dominique Toussaint Louverture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><ul><ul><li>Built strong disciplined army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of victory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled most of Saint Domingue by 1799 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promulgated written constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon sent troops to restore French authority in 1802 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toussaint tried to negotiate a peaceful settlement, instead he was arrested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Republic of Haiti declared Jan 1, 1804 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second independent republic in the Americas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1780 some European Christians objected to slavery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain ended slavery in 1807 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With British pressure other states ended slave trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The end of slavery resisted due to supply of cheap labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><ul><ul><li>End of slave trade doomed the institution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery in Latin America ended with independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last western nation to end slavery was Brazil in 1886 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom did not result in equality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American Culture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>Multicultural society of Spanish and Portuguese at the top and freed slaves and native people at the bottom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant mixed race population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other groups: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants from Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indentured laborers from Asia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><ul><ul><li>Male domination even more common in Latin America than in the north </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social elites tended to retain even more political power than further north </li></ul></ul></ul>