The Rise ofModern Japan An E nd to Isolation C hapter 25
Preview Questions• What effect did the Meiji Restoration have on Japan?• What steps did Japan take to become an imperialist nation? Why?
Old Japan Background• For hundreds of years, Japan was an un-unified nation. Nobles controlled their own lands and were constantly fighting with their neighbors.• Samurai warriors were at the top of the Japanese social order and although only made up 10% of the population, they were the most elite and most powerful class.
Tokugawa Shogunate• In 1603 however Japan became ruled by a centralized authority in a gifted general, Tokugawa Ieyasu.• The Tokugawa rule brought a long period of peace known as “Great Peace.”• He became shogun (general) in 1603 and created and solidified the Tokugawa shogunate, which would rule Japan for the next 250 years.
Why was Japan a Country of Isolation?• Just as the Tokugawa shogunate were unifying Japan, the first Europeans began to arrive.• They were welcomed at first but after destroying religious shrines in attempt to convert the Japanese people to Christianity, all missionaries were expelled.• Not soon after, all foreign traders and merchants were banned as well.• Japan valued it’s culture and practices and to protect them, entered a period of isolation from the rest of the world.
Japan in Isolation• To Europe and the United States, the continued isolation of Japan was a challenge. Why do you think they cared if Japan was in isolation or not? Economic interests. All Western powers were convinced that global trade would benefit all nations.
An End to Isolation • The first country to succeed with Japan was the United States. • In the Summer of 1853, the US sent a fleet of 4 warships led by Commodore Matthew Perry. ThisNo, not Matthewthis one… Perry
Perry’s Visit to Japan• Perry brought a letter from the President asking for better treatment of shipwrecked sailors.• He also requested the opening of foreign trade between Japan and the U.S.
Perry’s Return• Perry returned 6 months later. This time with a fleet of 7 warships.• The shogunate officials had been discussing the issue. – Some, intimidated by the Western military recommended concession, or to make a political compromise. – Others felt that contact with the West would hurt Japan.• Under military pressure, Japan agreed to the Treaty of Kanagawa which provided the return of shipwrecked sailors and the opening of 2 ports to Western traders.
Resistance to the Treaty• The decision to open relations with Western powers was highly unpopular in parts of Japan. Especially with the old samurai warriors.• The alliance of the Satsuma and Choshu warrior clans (Sat-Cho) fired on some ships.• The Westerners fired back of course and destroyed the Sat-Cho fortifications.
End of the Tokugawa Shogunate• The incident caused the Sat-Cho leaders to be more determined not to give in to the West.• The also convinced the Sat-Cho leaders that they must strengthen their military.• In 1868, the Sat-Cho warriors attacked the shogun’s palace and defeated him• This was the end of the shogunate system.
The Meji Restoration• Although the Sat-Cho leaders disliked the West, they knew they had to change to survive.• They knew they needed to reform and transform Japan into a modern industrial nation.• To create a symbol of the new era, the Sat-Cho appointed the young Mutsuhio emperor.• He called his reign the Meiji, or “Enlightened Rule.”• This period became known as the Meji Restoration
Sat-Cho Power• The emperor reigned, but was nothing more than a figurehead.• The Sat-Cho leaders ruled. – One of their first acts of power was to strip the Daimyos of their titles and land.
Transformation of Japanese Politics• The Meiji government believed the rest of the world didn’t view them as a “real” power and they desperately wanted to change that. Why?• They carefully studied Western political systems and although some wanted a more democratic model like the U.S., most wanted more power to the executive branch.• The new Meiji constitution was modeled after that of Imperial Germany.
Building a Modern Social Structure• They knew they needed a modern military to be able to compete with the Powers of the West.• Their motto became “Strengthen the Military” and that is what they did.• All men were required to serve 3 years in the military and the new army was well equipped with modern weapons.
• Answer the following: – Why did Japan feel it needed to become an imperialistic nation and expand it’s territory? – Were they effective in their expansion? What were the results?
Modern Education Structure• The Meiji leaders realized they had to reform the education system that included modern technology.• They adopted the American model of elementary, secondary, and universities. – It brought foreign scholars in math, science, and engineering to teach in the new schools – Also sent their brightest students to prestigious universities in America and Europe
Education (cont.)• Although the new education system was Western in inspiration (modeled after American and W. European schools), a great deal of emphasis was still placed on the important Japanese values of loyalty to the family, one another and especially the emperor. – Both teachers and students were required to bow before a portrait of the emperor each day.
Joining the Imperialist Nations• Why did Japan feel it needed to become an imperialistic nation and expand it’s territory? – They saw other nations like Great Britain do so successfully to amass great wealth and power by expanding. – As an island, they had no more land to expand so they had to take it from someone else and create colonies.
Japan’s War with China• In 1874, Japan claimed control of Ryuku Islands which were previously under the control of the Chinese Empire. – This began a war with China that Japan would win. – Japan then claimed Korea and Taiwan.
Japan’s War with Russia• Russia was upset at Japan for taking Korea as they were competing for the land as well but didn’t see them as much of a threat. – “We will only have to throw our caps at them and they will run away.”• In 1904, Japan launched a surprise attack on the Russian naval base. – The Russians turned out to be no match for the brave and relentless Japanese troops and were forced to surrender.• The Japanese victory stunned the world and in half a century, Japan had become one of the great world powers.